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Spinal fractures in Childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622758/lumbar-spine-bone-mineral-density-z-score-discrepancies-by-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-do-not-predict-vertebral-fractures-in-children
#1
Tasma Harindhanavudhi, Anna Petryk, Richard Jones, Amanda R Wallin, James S Hodges, Sara Van Nortwick, Bradley S Miller, Tara L Holm, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the most common mode of bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation. In adults, presence of a lumbar spine (LS) BMD T-score discrepancy (>1 SD difference between adjacent vertebrae) can indicate a vertebral fracture. In children, however, the clinical significance of such discrepancies is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the association between LS DXA and LS morphology to elucidate the clinical significance of an LS BMD Z-score discrepancy. We identified 360 DXA scans performed between September 2014 and May 2016 in patients 5-18 years of age...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593901/frequent-benign-nontraumatic-noninflammatory-causes-of-low-back-pain-in-adolescents-mri-findings
#2
Aikaterini Solomou, Pantelis Kraniotis, Aspasia Rigopoulou, Theodore Petsas
Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is common in children and adolescents. There are many factors that cause LBP, including structural disorders, degenerative changes, Scheuermann's disease, fractures, inflammation, and tumors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the gold standard for diagnosing spinal abnormalities and is mandatory when neurological symptoms exist. The study focuses on common MRI findings in adolescents with persistent LBP, without history of acute trauma or evidence of either inflammatory or rheumatic disease...
2018: Radiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535875/posttraumatic-spinal-cord-injury-without-radiographic-abnormality
#3
REVIEW
Kivanc Atesok, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Andrew O'Brien, Yohan Robinson, Dachling Pang, Donald Deinlein, Sakthivel Rajaram Manoharan, Jason Pittman, Steven Theiss
"Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality" (SCIWORA) is a term that denotes objective clinical signs of posttraumatic spinal cord injury without evidence of fracture or malalignment on plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the spine. SCIWORA is most commonly seen in children with a predilection for the cervical spinal cord due to the increased mobility of the cervical spine, the inherent ligamentous laxity, and the large head-to-body ratio during childhood. However, SCIWORA can also be seen in adults and, in rare cases, the thoracolumbar spinal cord can be affected too...
2018: Advances in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534386/-surgical-treatment-of-intractable-odontoid-fracture-with-atlantoaxial-dislocation-in-children-with-spinal-cord-injury
#4
W D Liang, Z L Ren, J Sheng, J Wang, Abulizi Yakefu, W B Sheng
Objective: To discuss the surgical treatment and its effectiveness of odontoid fracture complicated with atlantoaxial dislocation in children with spinal cord injury. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2014, 10 cases of children under 14 years old, with intractable odontoid fracture with atlantoaxial dislocation were enrolled. The mean duration between injury and admission was 8.5 d (range 1-30 d). The surgery was performed using posterior reduction and internal fixation or anterior release combined with posterior fixation...
February 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510446/neurological-injuries-from-skateboards-in-paediatric-and-adolescent-populations-injury-types-and-severity
#5
Norman Ma, Sarah Mills, Craig McBride, Roy Kimble, Michael Redmond
BACKGROUND: Skateboarding is a popular recreation among children and adolescents. Injuries that result in presentation to emergency departments are varied including head injuries. The study aims to assess the type and severity of neurological damage to the brain and spine in children from injuries incurred while using a skateboard. METHODS: After obtaining Ethics approval, a retrospective case review was performed of all admissions to all Brisbane, Australia public hospital neurosurgery departments of children 18 years and less who experienced injuries to the brain and spine for the years 2010-2014...
March 6, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479660/evaluation-of-high-resolution-thermal-imaging-to-determine-the-effect-of-vertebral-fractures-on-associated-skin-surface-temperature-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#6
Alexandra Fane De Salis, Reza Saatchi, Paul Dimitri
Vertebral fractures are common in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Current imaging methods for fracture detection (X-ray and DXA) use ionising radiation. This pilot study explored whether the alteration in blood flow in vertebral fractures results in skin temperature changes that may be detected using high resolution thermal imaging (HRTI) and thus assist diagnosis and monitoring of fractures in OI patients. Eleven participants aged 5-18 years with OI and known vertebral fractures were enrolled...
February 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442403/increasing-injuries-as-trampoline-parks-expand-within-australia-a-call-for-mandatory-standards
#7
Lisa N Sharwood, Susan Adams, Tracy Blaszkow, David Eager
OBJECTIVE: To quantify an apparent increase in indoor trampoline park related injuries in children and young people across Australia, and to understand the implications for current regulatory standards. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of three state-based Injury Surveillance databases, identifying children and adolescents presenting to emergency departments between the years 2005 and 2017, who had sustained injuries during trampolining activity at an indoor trampoline park...
February 14, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409070/orthopaedic-fixation-devices-used-in-children-a-radiologist-s-guide
#8
Hailey Allen, Kirkland W Davis, Kenneth Noonan, Yoshimi Endo, Jie C Nguyen
Fractures are common in children with some requiring surgical reduction and fixation to maintain anatomical alignment. Although various surgical techniques and principles are shared between children and adults, certain unique considerations in children can influence the surgical approach and device selection. In particular, for skeletally immature children, it is of utmost importance to protect certain critical open growth plates because permanent injury can produce severe growth disturbances. The often robust healing response and potential limited patient compliance can also influence the treatment algorithm and decision making...
February 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372269/traumatic-fractures-as-a-result-of-motor-vehicle-collisions-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Hongwei Wang, Yue Zhou, Jun Liu, Lan Ou, Yiwen Zhao, Jianda Han, Liangbi Xiang
PURPOSE: We investigated the incidence and pattern of traumatic fractures resulting from motor vehicle collisions in a population of children and adolescents (≤18 years old) and to determine the risk factors for nerve injury. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 734 patients admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. RESULTS: This study enrolled 498 male (67.8%) and 236 female (32.2%) patients aged 10.9 ± 5...
January 25, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286962/fractures-of-the-bilateral-c2-neurocentral-and-lateral-dental-synchondroses-with-kyphotic-c1-c2-subluxation-in-a-3-year-old-girl-a-description-of-a-rare-fracture-pattern-and-its-treatment-a-case-report
#10
Lucienne Gautier, Christoph Aufdenblatten, Stefan Dierauer, Leonhard Ramseier, Luca Mazzone, Hanspeter Huber, Mazda Farshad
CASE: Spinal fractures are rare in young children. Because spinal anatomy and biomechanics differ in children and adults, knowledge of the deviations of the juvenile spine is necessary for adequate treatment. We present the case of a young girl with an unusual C2 fracture that included rupture of both of the neurocentral and lateral dental synchondroses, with an opening of the synchondroses and a caudal dislocation of both vertebral arches following a head-on motor vehicle collision. The whole body and apex of the dens was displaced anteriorly and cranially with a kyphotic angulation of 34°...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228533/denosumab-treatment-of-severe-disuse-osteoporosis-in-a-boy-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Stepan Kutilek
Denosumab is a fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Denosumab is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. There are only very scarce data on denosumab treatment in children. 14-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and severe disuse osteoporosis (spinal bone mineral density L1-L4 BMD-6.2SD Z-score) and two prevalent fragility fractures was treated with denosumab. He received 60 mg  subcutaneous injection at the baseline and seven months later...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224906/horse-related-injuries-in-children-unmounted-injuries-are-more-severe-a-retrospective-review
#12
Grace E L Wolyncewicz, Cameron S Palmer, Helen E Jowett, John M Hutson, Sebastian K King, Warwick J Teague
INTRODUCTION: Horse-related injuries account for one quarter of all paediatric sports fatalities. It is not known whether the pattern of injury spectrum and severity differ between children injured whilst mounted, compared with those injured unmounted around horses. We aimed to identify any distinctions between the demographic features, spectrum and severity of injuries for mounted versus unmounted patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trauma registry data were reviewed for 505 consecutive paediatric patients (aged<16years) admitted to a large paediatric trauma centre with horse-related injuries over a 16-year period...
December 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204193/management-and-outcome-analysis-of-pediatric-unstable-thoracolumbar-spine-injury-large-surgical-series-with-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, M Sangani, Sumit Sinha, Deepak Agrawal
Pediatric thoracolumbar spine fractures are considered rare injuries with paucity of publication across the globe. Further, spine injuries in children are comparatively rarer, and pediatric spine differs from adults, both biomechanically and anatomically; so, adult spine management strategy cannot be applied to pediatric cases, and exact guidelines for management of pediatric spinal injury is lacking. The current study is undertaken to study epidemiology, surgical management, and outcome of pediatric dorsolumbar unstable spine injury...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189531/characterization-of-american-football-injuries-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
Patrick J Smith, Anthony M Hollins, Jeffrey R Sawyer, David D Spence, Shane Outlaw, Derek M Kelly
BACKGROUND: As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148922/feasibility-and-safety-of-using-thoracic-and-lumbar-cortical-bone-trajectory-pedicle-screws-in-spinal-constructs-in-children-technical-note
#15
Jonathan N Sellin, Jeffrey S Raskin, Kristen A Staggers, Alison Brayton, Valentina Briceño, Amee J Moreno, Andrew Jea
Thoracic and lumbar cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws have been described in adult spine surgery. They have likewise been described in pediatric CT-based morphometric studies; however, clinical experience in the pediatric age group is limited. The authors here describe the use of cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws in posterior instrumented spinal fusions from the upper thoracic to the lumbar spine in 12 children. This dedicated study represents the initial use of cortical screws in pediatric spine surgery...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146435/epidemiology-and-management-of-spinal-trauma-in-children-and-adolescents-18-years-old
#16
Asdrubal Falavigna, Orlando Righesso, Pedro Guarise da Silva, Felix Adolfo Sanchez Chavez, Ericson Sfreddo, Leandro Pelegrini de Almeida, Manuel Jose Valencia Carrasco, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study reports the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and management of spinal trauma in children and adolescents. METHODS: Multicenter study of 215 cases of spinal trauma in individuals <18 years of age. All patients were submitted to preoperative and postoperative radiologic and clinical evaluation. The fractures were classified according to the AOSpine fracture classification. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Frankel scale at admission to hospital and at the last follow-up...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098965/orthopedic-injuries-in-pediatric-trauma
#17
Eman Loubani, Rodrick Lim, Debra Bartley
Trauma remains the leading cause of death in children, of which the majority of patients have orthopedic injuries. The range of injured bones is various, each requiring knowledge and expertise to appropriately manage in a timely fashion. The importance of a systematic approach to the pediatric polytrauma patient is paramount. This chapter will highlight orthopedic issues important to the pediatric polytrauma patient including the unique anatomy and properties of pediatric bone. A systematic approach to the pediatric polytrauma patient will also be discussed...
September 11, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977334/clinical-features-and-pattern-of-fractures-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta-in-children
#18
Evelise Brizola, Marina Bauer Zambrano, Bruna de Souza Pinheiro, Ana Paula Vanz, Têmis Maria Félix
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the fracture pattern and the clinical history at the time of diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, of both genders, aged 0-18 years, who were treated between 2002 and 2014 were included. Medical records were assessed to collect clinical data, including the presence of blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, positive familial history of osteogenesis imperfecta, and the site of the fractures...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951274/spinal-metastasis-of-unknown-primary-accompanied-by-neurologic-deficit-or-vertebral-instability
#19
Abdurrahman Aycan, Sebahattin Celik, Fetullah Kuyumcu, Mehmet Edip Akyol, Mehmet Arslan, Erkan Dogan, Harun Arslan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal bone metastases are common. They are mostly localized to the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine. The most common primaries to result in spinal metastases include lung, breast, and prostate carcinomas in adults as opposed to leukemia, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma in children. In patients diagnosed with cancer, bone metastases are found in 40% and spinal metastases in 10%. In this study, we reviewed 25 patients diagnosed with a spinal metastasis of unknown primary who presented with low back pain or acute-onset neurologic deficits and underwent operative treatment...
January 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906368/traumatic-fractures-as-a-result-of-falls-in-children-and-adolescents-a-retrospective-observational-study
#20
Hongwei Wang, Hailong Yu, Yue Zhou, Changqing Li, Jun Liu, Lan Ou, Yiwen Zhao, Guoli Song, Jianda Han, Yu Chen, Liangbi Xiang
The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and pattern of traumatic fractures (TFs) as a result of falls in a population of children and adolescents (≤18 years old) in China.This was a cross-sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed 1412 patients who were children and adolescents with TFs as a result of falls admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals in China from 2001 to 2010. Etiologies included high fall (height ≥2) and low fall (height <2 m). The incidence and pattern were summarized with respect to different age groups, year of admission, etiologies, genders, and the neurological function...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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