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Cameron J Fackler, Elliott H Berger, William J Murphy, Michael E Stergar
OBJECTIVE: To characterise the performance of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in impulsive-noise conditions and to compare various protection metrics between impulsive and steady-state noise sources with different characteristics. DESIGN: HPDs were measured per the impulsive test methods of ANSI/ASA S12.42- 2010 . Protectors were measured with impulses generated by both an acoustic shock tube and an AR-15 rifle. The measured data were analysed for impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) and impulsive spectral insertion loss (ISIL)...
2017: International Journal of Audiology
William J Murphy, Cameron J Fackler, Elliott H Berger, Peter B Shaw, Mike Stergar
Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF). Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB), 150 dB, and 168 dB...
September 2015: Noise & Health
William J Murphy, Gregory A Flamme, Deanna K Meinke, Jacob Sondergaard, Donald S Finan, James E Lankford, Amir Khan, Julia Vernon, Michael Stewart
OBJECTIVE: In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. DESIGN: The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130-134, 148-152, and 166-170 dB peak SPL...
February 2012: International Journal of Audiology
Tetsuya Nakamura, Takeshi Oinuma, Akira Terano
Capsule endoscopy is a swallowable pill sized endoscope to visualize the inside of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, it is a non-invasive and comfortable examination tool for the patients suffering from disorders of GI tract. New capsule endoscopy for not only small bowel but also esophagus and colon has been in practical use, and several kinds of new capsule shaped equipments are developed recently. In this paper, we introduced a second generation of capsule endoscopy, especially PillCam COLON2 manufactured by Given Imaging Ltd...
July 2010: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Afshar Zomorrodi, Abulfazel Buhluli, Samad Fathi
At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects)...
July 2010: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
S Amer, W Badawy
The advances in the microelectronics fabrication allow the strong appearance of micro-electro-mechanical systems known as MEMS. MEMS enable the fabrication of smaller devices that are manufactured using standard micro-fabrication techniques similar to the ones that are used to create computer silicon chips. Several MEMS devices including micro-reservoirs, micro-pumps, cantilevers, rotors, channels, valves, sensors, and other structures have been designed, fabricated and tested from using materials that have been demonstrated to be biocompatible...
February 2005: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Y Wen, R P Remmel, C L Zimmerman
Several in vitro and in situ approaches were used to determine the dominant presystemic activation site for (-)-6-aminocarbovir, (-)-carbocyclic 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxy-6-deoxy-6-aminoguanosine (6AC) conversion in rats. The in vitro disappearance half-lives (mean +/- S.D.) in the cytosolic fractions obtained from homogenates of the intestine, liver, and intestinal contents were 0.4 +/- 0.1 (n = 3), 12.2 +/- 1.1 (n = 3), and 15.5 (n = 1) min, respectively. An in situ vascularly perfused intestine-liver (IPIL) study was then carried out (n = 6) to determine the relative contribution of each presystemic organ to the overall first-pass extraction of 6AC...
January 1999: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
V Ravindran
1. A layer diet, the formulation of which was based on several non-conventional feedingstuffs, was evaluated at the research station and under small farm conditions in Sri Lanka. The new feedingstuffs included finger millet, rice polishings, rubber seed meal, cassava leaf meal, ipil ipil leaf meal and dried poultry manure. A commercial mash, that is normally used on the farm, served as the control. 2. The performance and egg quality characteristics were similar between the test and control diets, the only exception being the egg yolk colour which was improved (P < 0...
March 1995: British Poultry Science
M Abreu Peñate, A Bencomo Hernández, E Sampere Díaz, I Farrás Fernández, M Hernández Triana, C Porrata Maury, I Ponce de León Boloy
Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively...
December 1988: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
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