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Paolo Ghisletta, Emilie Joly-Burra, Stephen Aichele, Ulman Lindenberger, Florian Schmiedek
We examined adult age differences in day-to-day adjustments in speed-accuracy tradeoffs (SAT) on a figural comparison task. Data came from the COGITO study, with over 100 younger and 100 older adults, assessed for over 100 days. Participants were given explicit feedback about their completion time and accuracy each day after task completion. We applied a multivariate vector auto-regressive model of order 1 to the daily mean reaction time (RT) and daily accuracy scores together, within each age group. We expected that participants adjusted their SAT if the two cross-regressive parameters from RT (or accuracy) on day t-1 of accuracy (or RT) on day t were sizable and negative...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
E L Hamaker, T Asparouhov, A Brose, F Schmiedek, B Muthén
With the growing popularity of intensive longitudinal research, the modeling techniques and software options for such data are also expanding rapidly. Here we use dynamic multilevel modeling, as it is incorporated in the new dynamic structural equation modeling (DSEM) toolbox in Mplus, to analyze the affective data from the COGITO study. These data consist of two samples of over 100 individuals each who were measured for about 100 days. We use composite scores of positive and negative affect and apply a multilevel vector autoregressive model to allow for individual differences in means, autoregressions, and cross-lagged effects...
April 6, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Elizabeth Urban
In this paper the author considers Descartes' place in current thinking about the mind-body dilemma. The premise here is that in the history of ideas, the questions posed can be as significant as the answers acquired. Descartes' paramount question was 'How do we determine certainty?' and his pursuit of an answer led to cogito ergo sum. His discovery simultaneously raised the question whether mind is separate from or unified with the body. Some who currently hold that brain and subjectivity are unified contend that the philosopher 'split' mind from body and refer to 'Descartes' error'...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Steven M Boker, Mike Martin
The 10 year anniversary of the COGITO Study provides an opportunity to revisit the ideas behind the Cattell data box. Three dimensions of the persons × variables × time data box are discussed in the context of three categories of researchers each wanting to answer their own categorically different question. The example of the well-known speed-accuracy tradeoff is used to illustrate why these are three different categories of statistical question. The 200 persons by 100 variables by 100 occasions of measurement COGITO data cube presents a challenge to integrate theories and methods across the dimensions of the data box...
February 26, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Cristina Borgoni
Cogito -like judgments, a term coined by Burge (1988), comprise thoughts such as, I am now thinking , I [hereby] judge that Los Angeles is at the same latitude as North Africa, or I [hereby] intend to go to the opera tonight. It is widely accepted that we form cogito -like judgments in an authoritative and not merely empirical manner. We have privileged self-knowledge of the mental state that is self-ascribed in a cogito -like judgment. Thus, models of self-knowledge that aim to explain privileged self-knowledge should have the resources to explain the special self-knowledge involved in cogito judgments...
2018: Synthese
Rogier A Kievit, Andreas M Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M M de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian M Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J Dolan
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Seiichi Imoto
'Behavioral coordination' theory of language of Maturana (1928-) does not give a clear explanation for the questions of how naming takes place and where a word adequate for our experience comes from. This flaw may be alleviated by Sartre (1905-1980)s 'reflection' theory. According to Sartre's theory, we can make two types of sentences from the same data: for example, "I am conscious of this chair" and "There is consciousness of this chair." The difference between the two sentences is the existence of 'I' in the first or its lack in the second...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Louis A Sass, Greg Byrom
The notion of 'bizarre delusion' has come into question in contemporary anglophone psychopathology. In DSM-5, it no longer serves as a special criterion for diagnosing schizophrenia nor as an exclusion criterion for delusional disorder. Empirical studies influencing this development have, however, been relatively sparse and subject to methodological criticism. Major reviews have concluded that current conceptualizations of bizarre delusions may require rethinking and refinement. Defining bizarreness entails a return to Jaspers, whose influential views on the supposed incomprehensibility of bizarre delusions and schizophrenic experience are more nuanced than is generally recognized...
2015: Psychopathology
Surya Gayet, Jan W Brascamp, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Chris L E Paffen
Only part of the visual information that impinges on our retinae reaches visual awareness. In a series of three experiments, we investigated how the task relevance of incoming visual information affects its access to visual awareness. On each trial, participants were instructed to memorize one of two presented hues, drawn from different color categories (e.g., red and green), for later recall. During the retention interval, participants were presented with a differently colored grating in each eye such as to elicit binocular rivalry...
2015: Journal of Vision
Louis Sass, Greg Byrom
There is considerable overlap between phenomenological and neurocognitive perspectives on delusions. In this paper, we first review major phenomenological accounts of delusions, beginning with Jaspers' ideas regarding incomprehensibility, delusional mood, and disturbed "cogito" (basic, minimal, or core self-experience) in what he termed "delusion proper" in schizophrenia. Then we discuss later studies of decontextualization and delusional mood by Matussek, changes in self and world in delusion formation according to Conrad's notions of "apophany" and "anastrophe", and the implications of ontological transformations in the felt sense of reality in some delusions...
June 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Fred Cummins
Received approaches to a unified phenomenon called "language" are firmly committed to a Cartesian view of distinct unobservable minds. Questioning this commitment leads us to recognize that the boundaries conventionally separating the linguistic from the non-linguistic can appear arbitrary, omitting much that is regularly present during vocal communication. The thesis is put forward that uttering, or voicing, is a much older phenomenon than the formal structures studied by the linguist, and that the voice has found elaborations and codifications in other domains too, such as in systems of ritual and rite...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Florian Schmiedek, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger
In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these ability-based transfer effects are maintained over time. Two years after the end of the training, 80 participants returned for follow-up assessments of the comprehensive battery of transfer tasks...
September 2014: Developmental Psychology
Y L Bramma, D Alcorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2013: Anaesthesia
Ares Pasipoularides
William Harvey's writings betray amazing insights born out of countless hours of thoughtful experimentation. Throughout his life, Harvey worked as a tireless and thoughtful researcher and a transmitter and intermediary between the ancient Greek natural philosophers and physicians and the "moderns," for whom he founded two forward-looking, interlinked sciences: modern physiology and nascent cardiology. Harvey's methodology and demonstrations were of such fundamental and standardizing nature as to secure the sure progress of these two sciences...
October 9, 2013: International Journal of Cardiology
Hung-Yi Chen
This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition...
August 2013: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Annette Brose, Ulman Lindenberger, Florian Schmiedek
Asking people to provide global judgments, or trait reports, of their affective experience is a standard method for assessing trait affective well-being, with countless applications in the social sciences. Trait reports reflect numerous influences that generally go unnoticed. Although state affect is a highly plausible candidate for such influences, this source of unwanted variance does not receive much attention and is usually not controlled for in empirical studies. Using 100-day data from the COGITO study, we provide direct and strong evidence that trait reports of affect depend on how people feel at the time they provide the evaluations (i...
October 2013: Emotion
Hannes Noack, Martin Lövdén, Florian Schmiedek, Ulman Lindenberger
Normal aging impairs the representation and integration (binding) of spatial and temporal context in episodic memory. We directly compare age differences in episodic memory in relation to processing spatial and temporal context. As part of the COGITO study, 101 younger and 103 older participants trained an object-location serial recall task for 100 sessions. Training exacerbated the recall deficit of older relative to younger adults. Younger adults improved in recall performance on both spatial and temporal dimensions...
June 2013: Psychology and Aging
A C Catania
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1981: Behavior Analyst
A C Catania
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1981: Behavior Analyst
Yee Lee Shing, Florian Schmiedek, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger
We investigated working memory updating performance in younger and older adults before, during, and after 100-day practice. Performance to presentation time (PT) relation was fitted to a negatively accelerated logistic function. Relative to younger adults, older adults showed lower asymptotes at pretest and posttest, and shallower slopes at pretest. Older adults practicing the task with fast PT gained less than older adults practicing the task with slow PT, probably reflecting the persistent use of a selective strategy throughout the 100-day practice period in the fast PT group...
June 2012: Psychology and Aging
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