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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453332/step-wise-evolution-of-complex-chemical-defenses-in-millipedes-a-phylogenomic-approach
#1
Juanita Rodriguez, Tappey H Jones, Petra Sierwald, Paul E Marek, William A Shear, Michael S Brewer, Kevin M Kocot, Jason E Bond
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth's biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing through intermediate "stepping stone" states...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453253/assembly-of-synthetic-functional-cellulosomal-structures-onto-the-lactobacillus-plantarum-cell-surface-a-potent-member-of-the-gut-microbiome
#2
Johanna Stern, Sarah Moraïs, Yonit Ben-David, Rachel Salama, Melina Shamshoum, Raphael Lamed, Yuval Shoham, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452705/the-changing-incidence-and-presentation-of-urinary-stones-over-3-decades
#3
Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Lisa E Vaughan, Felicity T Enders, Tsering Dhondup, Ramila A Mehta, Amy E Krambeck, Cynthia H McCollough, Terri J Vrtiska, John C Lieske, Andrew D Rule
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the incidence of kidney stones and characteristics associated with changes in the incidence rate over 3 decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult stone formers in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2012, were validated and characterized by age, sex, stone composition, and imaging modality. The incidence of kidney stones per 100,000 person-years was estimated. Characteristics associated with changes in the incidence rate over time were assessed using Poisson regression models...
February 6, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452436/cholangioscopy-guided-electrohydraulic-lithotripsy-of-large-bile-duct-stones-through-a-percutaneous-access-device
#4
Kilian Weigand, Arne Kandulski, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Martina Mueller, Holger Goessmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452328/louis-victor-leborgne-tan
#5
REVIEW
Nasser Mohammed, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
Louis Victor Leborgne was a patient of Paul Broca. "Monsieur Leborgne" as Paul Broca would call him was also known around in the hospital by the nickname, "Tan," His neurological condition left him with a difficulty in speaking and he could only speak the word "Tan". Leborgne spent nearly half of his entire life in the hospital. He was initially admitted into the psychiatry division of the hospital and was later transferred under the care of Broca towards the end of his life. The story of the Leborgne sits in the crossroads of human thoughts that led to the discovery of cerebral localization...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451892/assessing-site-formation-and-assemblage-integrity-through-stone-tool-refitting-at-gruta-da-oliveira-almonda-karst-system-torres-novas-portugal-a-middle-paleolithic-case-study
#6
Marianne Deschamps, João Zilhão
We use stone tool refitting to assess palimpsest formation and stratigraphic integrity in the basal units of the Gruta da Oliveira archeo-stratigraphic sequence, layers 15-27, which TL and U-series dating places in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 or early MIS 4. As in most karst contexts, the formation of this succession involved multiple and complex phenomena, including subsidence, bioturbation, carnivore activity and runoff as agents of potential post-depositional disturbance. During phases of stabilization, such as represented by layers 15, 21 and 22, the excavated area was inhabited and refits corroborate that post-depositional displacement is negligible...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451571/sea-spray-aerosol-chemical-composition-elemental-and-molecular-mimics-for-laboratory-studies-of-heterogeneous-and-multiphase-reactions
#7
REVIEW
Timothy H Bertram, Richard E Cochran, Vicki H Grassian, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies...
February 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450733/miniaturised-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-versus-flexible-ureteropyeloscopy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-comparing-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-profile
#8
REVIEW
N F Davis, M R Quinlan, C Poyet, N Lawrentschuk, D M Bolton, D Webb, G S Jack
PURPOSE: This study aims to comparatively evaluate clinical outcomes of mini-PCNL and FURS for treating urinary tract calculi in a single session. METHODS: A systematic search using electronic databases was performed for studies comparing mini-PCNL and FURS for the treatment of urinary tract calculi. The primary outcome measurements were stone-free rates (SFRs) and complication rates for both techniques. Secondary outcome measurements were to compare patient demographics, operative duration, and inpatient stay...
February 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450731/is-mini-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-a-safe-alternative-to-extracorporeal-shockwave-lithotripsy-in-pediatric-age-group-in-borderline-stones-a-randomized-prospective-study
#9
Ahmed Farouk, Ahmed Tawfick, Mohamed Shoeb, Mahmoud A Mahmoud, Diaa Eldin Mostafa, Mohamed Hasan, Hany M Abdalla
PURPOSE: The extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains the most common first line of treatment for renal stones in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of the ESWL and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients younger than 12 years of age with 1-2 cm single renal stone (pelvic or calyceal) were randomized into two groups, each containing 54 patients...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449591/familial-risks-between-urolithiasis-and-cancer
#10
Kari Hemminki, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Xinjun Li
Urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) has been reported to increase subsequent cancers in the urinary tract. Recently, we showed data that surveillance bias may be an important confounder in the reported associations. In the present approach we want to address the question of possible cancer risk posed by UL mechanistically. Both UL and cancer have strong genetic components and we hypothesize that familial association between UL and cancer may be plausible. We thus assess familial risks between UL and cancer, hoping to find an explanation why UL may pose a risk of cancer...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449452/evolution-and-kidney-development-a-rosetta-stone-for-nephrology
#11
EDITORIAL
Robert L Chevalier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448656/tuneable-physicochemical-properties-of-thermally-annealed-graphene-oxide-powder-and-thin-films
#12
Manjri Singh, Pooja Saini, Bhanu P Singh, Priti Singh, Ram P Tandon, Ajit K Mahapatro, Surinder P Singh
The tuneability of oxygen containing groups in graphene oxide (GO) that controls physicochemical properties is highly desirable for device applications. In this context, the thermally reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) powders and spin coated thin films with varying sp2/sp3 carbon network have been prepared using highly exfoliated GO (synthesized using modified Hummer's method with an innovative conjunction of lyophilisation). The additional step of lyophilisation results in the formation of highly exfoliated and monodispersed GO nanosheets as evidenced from FESEM, TEM, XRD, and Raman, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448610/evaluation-of-the-fitness-of-glass-infiltrated-zirconia-core-in-maxillary-central-incisor
#13
Ji-Won Kim, Gye-Jeong Oh, Hyun-Pil Lim, Kwi-Dug Yun, Chan Park, Kyung-Ku Lee, Jae-Sam Ban, Sang-Won Park, Eun-Kyung Yim
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fitness of zirconia cores according to the amount and treated surface of glass infiltration. A maxillary right central incisor customized abutment was milled to have a 6° slope and a 1 mm deep chamfer margin and was manufactured in an intaglio mold using silicone impression material. Fifty-six stone dies were produced by injecting high strength dental stone into a mold and then zirconia cores were milled with CAD/CAM systems. The control group (Control) used non glass-infiltrated zirconia, and the experiment group was divided by one with the glass and distilled water ratio of 1:300 and the other with the ratio of 1:100...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447949/protective-effects-of-alpinae-oxyphyllae-fructus-extracts-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Yunlong Wang, Mengshi Wang, Kaiyue Fan, Tongde Li, Tingxu Yan, Bo Wu, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) with warming and tonifying the kidney and spleen, anti-salivation, anti-polyuria and anti-diarrhea functions is the dried ripe fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae). As a traditional Chinese medicine, its application history is very long. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of different solvent extracts from AOF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to elucidate the traditional medical theories with modern pharmacological methods and provide a reference for further clarifying its active components and mechanisms...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447774/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-of-lesions-with-in-stent-restenosis-a-report-from-the-adapt-des-study
#15
Björn Redfors, Philippe Généreux, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Akiko Maehara, Giora Weisz, Thomas McAndrew, Roxana Mehran, Ajay J Kirtane, Gregg W Stone
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data from large contemporary cohorts of patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) treated with drug-eluting stents (DESs), and no studies have examined the impact of high platelet reactivity (HPR) on the occurrence of ischemic events after ISR percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DESs. We sought to report outcomes after PCI of ISR lesions and its association with HPR. METHODS: Patients in the prospective, multicenter ADAPT-DES study were stratified according to whether they had ISR versus non-ISR PCI...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447770/efficacy-and-safety-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-coronary-stenting-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Doyeon Hwang, Kyung Woo Park, Joo Myung Lee, Tae-Min Rhee, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang, Marco Valgimigli, Antonio Colombo, Martine Gilard, Tullio Palmerini, Gregg W Stone, Hyo-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: We compared efficacy and safety of short- (3 or 6 months) versus long-term (≥12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, according to the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patient-level pooled analysis was performed with 7242 patients (87.2% with 2nd generation DES) from 5 randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: In both CKD (1273 patients) and non-CKD (5969 patients) population, the rates of patient-oriented composite outcomes at 1-year (POCO, all-cause death, any myocardial infarction [MI], stroke and TIMI major bleeding) were not different between the short- and long-term DAPT (hazard ratio [HR] 1...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447760/climatic-controls-on-later-stone-age-human-adaptation-in-africa-s-southern-cape
#17
Brian M Chase, J Tyler Faith, Alex Mackay, Manuel Chevalier, Andrew S Carr, Arnoud Boom, Sophak Lim, Paula J Reimer
Africa's southern Cape is a key region for the evolution of our species, with early symbolic systems, marine faunal exploitation, and episodic production of microlithic stone tools taken as evidence for the appearance of distinctively complex human behavior. However, the temporally discontinuous nature of this evidence precludes ready assumptions of intrinsic adaptive benefit, and has encouraged diverse explanations for the occurrence of these behaviors, in terms of regional demographic, social and ecological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447742/a-comparative-analysis-of-current-lipid-treatment-guidelines-nothing-stands-still
#18
REVIEW
Anjan Tibrewala, Arif Jivan, William J Oetgen, Neil J Stone
Lipid treatment guidelines have continued to evolve as new evidence emerges. We sought to review similarities and differences of 5 lipid treatment guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, European Society for Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, and U.S. Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense. All guidelines utilize rigorous evidentiary review, highlight statin therapy for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and emphasize a clinician-patient risk discussion...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447735/new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-after-pci-or-cabg-for-left-main-disease-the-excel-trial
#19
Ioanna Kosmidou, Shmuel Chen, A Pieter Kappetein, Patrick W Serruys, Bernard J Gersh, John D Puskas, David E Kandzari, David P Taggart, Marie-Claude Morice, Paweł E Buszman, Andrzej Bochenek, Erick Schampaert, Pierre Pagé, Joseph F Sabik, Thomas McAndrew, Björn Redfors, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Gregg W Stone
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the incidence and prognostic impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence of NOAF following PCI and CABG for LMCAD and its effect on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447010/role-of-breast-density-measurement-in-screening-for-breast-cancer
#20
K E McLean, J Stone
Mammographic breast density is an established risk factor for breast cancer and significantly reduces the sensitivity of mammography, yet its use within breast cancer screening programs in Australia is limited. We provide a contemporary snapshot of the role of breast density measurement in screening for breast cancer and review the recent evidence for an increasing role of breast density measurement as: a predictor of breast cancer risk, a predictor of 'masking', and a biomarker to monitor effectiveness of intervention strategies for primary prevention or improved breast cancer outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
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