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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772692/insurance-coverage-policies-for-pharmacogenomic-and-multi-gene-testing-for-cancer
#1
Christine Y Lu, Stephanie Loomer, Rachel Ceccarelli, Kathleen M Mazor, James Sabin, Ellen Wright Clayton, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Ann Chen Wu
Insurance coverage policies are a major determinant of patient access to genomic tests. The objective of this study was to examine differences in coverage policies for guideline-recommended pharmacogenomic tests that inform cancer treatment. We analyzed coverage policies from eight Medicare contractors and 10 private payers for 23 biomarkers (e.g., HER2 and EGFR ) and multi-gene tests. We extracted policy coverage and criteria, prior authorization requirements, and an evidence basis for coverage. We reviewed professional society guidelines and their recommendations for use of pharmacogenomic tests...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769567/genomic-alterations-of-ground-glass-nodular-lung-adenocarcinoma
#2
Hyun Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Hyun-Tae Shin, Duk-Hwan Kim, Yujin Kim, Hojoong Kim, O Jung Kwon, Young Mog Shim, Ho Yun Lee, Kyung Soo Lee, Yoon-La Choi, Woong-Yang Park, D Neil Hayes, Sang-Won Um
In-depth molecular pathogenesis of ground-glass nodular lung adenocarcinoma has not been well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify genomic alterations in ground-glass nodular lung adenocarcinomas and to investigate whether viral transcripts were detected in these tumors. Nine patients with pure (n = 4) and part-solid (n = 5) ground-glass nodular adenocarcinomas were included. Six were females with a median age of 58 years. We performed targeted exon sequencing and RNA sequencing...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764505/xenograft-tumors-derived-from-malignant-pleural-effusion-of-the-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-as-models-to-explore-drug-resistance
#3
Yunhua Xu, Feifei Zhang, Xiaoqing Pan, Guan Wang, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Danyi Wen, Shun Lu
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions show dramatic responses to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, after 10-12 months, secondary mutations arise that confer resistance. We generated a murine xenograft model using patient-derived NSCLC cells isolated from the pleural fluid of two patients with NSCLC to investigate the mechanisms of resistance against the ALK- and EGFR-targeted TKIs crizotinib and osimertinib, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760834/a-case-series-of-two-patients-presenting-with-pericardial-effusion-as-first-manifestation-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-braf-mutation-and-expression-of-pd-l1
#4
Muhammad Mufti, Steven Ching, Sassan Farjami, Sharareh Shahangian, Serap Sobnosky
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Involvement of pericardium occurs once cancer has progressed to stage IV which can cause massive effusion in the pericardial sac. This can lead to cardiac tamponade which can be fatal very quickly if untreated. The following is a two patient case series in which both patients presented with large pericardial effusion. The first patient sought medical attention due to new onset palpitations and was found to have hemorrhagic pericardial effusion and pulmonary embolism (PE)...
April 2018: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755687/clinical-application-of-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-a-multicentric-belgian-experience
#5
Nicky D'Haene, Quitterie Fontanges, Nancy De Nève, Oriane Blanchard, Barbara Melendez, Monique Delos, Marie-Françoise Dehou, Calliope Maris, Nathalie Nagy, Emmanuel Rousseau, Josse Vandenhove, André Gilles, Carine De Prez, Laurine Verset, Marie-Paule Van Craynest, Pieter Demetter, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Isabelle Salmon, Marie Le Mercier
International guidelines made RAS (KRAS and NRAS) status a prerequisite for the use of anti-EGFR agents for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Daily, new data emerges on the theranostic and prognostic role of molecular biomarkers; this is a strong incentive for a validated, sensitive, and broadly available molecular screening test. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has begun to supplant other technologies for genomic profiling. We report here our 2 years of clinical practice using NGS results to guide therapeutic decisions...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752549/promising-new-agents-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Satya Das, Kristen K Ciombor, Sigurdis Haraldsdottir, Richard M Goldberg
Choosing the optimal treatment approach for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) demands that oncologists assess both clinical and genomic variables and individualize care based upon the findings. Clinically, choices depend on assessing the side of the colon in which the primary tumor originates, the sites and burden of metastatic disease, the patient's performance status, and their individual comorbidities. Genomic assessment of the tumor to discern the mutational status of genes such as RAS/RAF, HER2, and TRK, as well as assessing whether tumors have defective mismatch repair (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), all factor in to potential treatment options and can determine clinical trial eligibility...
May 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748372/traf1-is-critical-for-regulating-the-braf-mek-erk-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinogenesis
#7
Qiushi Wang, Ge Gao, Tianshun Zhang, Ke Yao, Hanyong Chen, Mi Hee Park, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Keke Wang, Weiya Ma, Margarita Malakhova, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is a unique TRAF protein that can interact directly or indirectly with multiple TNFR family members, regulatory proteins, kinases, and adaptors that contribute to its diverse functions in specific tissues. However, the role of TRAF1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. In this study, we report that TRAF1 is overexpressed in human lung cancer cells and tissues. TRAF1 expression level inversely correlated with patient survival probability...
May 10, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736852/thoracic-involvement-in-erdheim-chester-disease-computed-tomography-imaging-findings-and-their-association-with-the-braf-v600e-mutation
#8
S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Arlene Sirajuddin, Moozhan Nikpanah, Rolf Symons, Anna K Paschall, Ioannis Papageorgiou, William A Gahl, Kevin O'Brien, Juvianee I Estrada-Veras, Ashkan A Malayeri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the computed tomography (CT) thoracic findings in Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) and evaluate the association of these findings with the BRAFV600E mutation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of patients with ECD (n=61, men=46) who underwent thoracic CT imaging. CT examinations were independently interpreted by two experienced radiologists. Association of imaging findings with BRAFV600E was achieved via the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as appropriate...
May 7, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729495/braf-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-pickaxing-another-brick-in-the-wall
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Leonetti, Francesco Facchinetti, Giulio Rossi, Roberta Minari, Antonia Conti, Luc Friboulet, Marcello Tiseo, David Planchard
Molecular characterization of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) marked an historical turning point for the treatment of lung tumors harboring kinase alterations suitable for specific targeted drugs inhibition, translating into major clinical improvements. Besides EGFR, ALK and ROS1, BRAF represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. BRAF mutations, found in 1.5-3.5% of NSCLC, are responsible of the constitutive activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725471/downregulation-of-braf-activated-non-protein-coding-rna-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Na-Na Zhao, Cheng Wang, Cheng-Cai Lai, Si-Jie Cheng, Jin Yan, Zhi-Xian Hong, Lin-Xiang Yu, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Pei-Rui Zhang, Zhao-Hai Wang, Xi-Liang Wang, Shao-Geng Zhang, Peng-Hui Yang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been investigated as a novel class of regulators of cellular processes, including cell growth, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. lncRNA BRAF-activated non-protein coding RNA (BANCR) has recently been revealed to be involved in tumorigenesis of numerous types of cancer, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. However, the expression profiles and biological relevance of lncRNA BANCR in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been reported...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725370/upregulation-of-c-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-expression-and-ras-mutations-are-associated-with-late-lung-metastasis-and-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#11
Jianhua Liu, Weiqiang Zeng, Chengzhi Huang, Junjiang Wang, Lishu Xu, Dong Ma
The present study aimed to investigate whether c-mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (C-MET) overexpression combined with RAS (including KRAS, NRAS and HRAS ) or BRAF mutations were associated with late distant metastases and the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 374 patients with stage III CRC were classified into 4 groups based on RAS/BRAF and C-MET status for comprehensive analysis. Mutations in RAS / BRAF were determined using Sanger sequencing and C-MET expression was examined using immunohistochemistry...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723688/braf-mutant-lung-cancer-pd-l1-expression-tumor-mutational-burden-microsatellite-instability-status-and-response-to-immune-check-point-inhibitors
#12
Elizabeth Dudnik, Nir Peled, Hovav Nechushtan, Mira Wollner, Amir Onn, Abed Agbarya, Mor Moskovitz, Shoshana Keren, Noa Popovits-Hadari, Damien Urban, Moshe Mishaeli, Alona Zer, Aaron M Allen, Natalie Maimon Rabinovich, Ofer Rotem, Teodor Kuznetsov, Tzippy Shochat, Laila C Roisman, Jair Bar
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of immune check-point inhibitors (ICPi) in BRAF mutant NSCLC is unknown. METHODS: Multi-institutional retrospective chart review identified 39 patients with BRAF mutant NSCLC. The patients were divided into two groups: V600E (Group A, n=21) and non-V600E (Group B, n=18). PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden (TMB) and microsatellite instability status (MSI) were assessed in 29 (74%), 11 (28%) and 12 (31%) patients, respectively. ORR, PFS with ICPi and OS were analyzed...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720878/-egfr-kras-braf-pten-and-pik3ca-mutation-in-plasma-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Hong-Yang Lu, Jing Qin, Na Han, Lei Lei, Fajun Xie, Chenghui Li
Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive and deadly neuroendocrine tumor derived from bronchial epithelial cells. Although it results in a 95% mortality rate, the development of targeted therapies for SCLCs has lagged behind. The aim of this study is to better research mutation characteristics of SCLC and identify potential biomarkers for target therapy. Methods: We utilized high-resolution melting analysis to identify the mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene ( KRAS ), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 ( BRAF ), phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic ( PIK3CA ) from the blood...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696743/coexistence-of-glandular-papilloma-and-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-in-the-bronchiole
#14
Yuko Kitawaki, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Shinji Taniuchi, Ryoko Saito, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Ryoko Sato, Yayoi Aoyama, Yoshiaki Onodera, Naoko Inoshita, Yasuchi Matsuda, Mika Watanabe, Hironobu Sasano
Both glandular papilloma (GP) and sclerosing pneumocytoma (SP) are rare tumors in the lung. We herein report an extremely rare case of coexistence of these two uncommon tumors. The patient was a 40-year-old Japanese woman with no chief complaint. A solitary nodule of the lung was detected using chest computed tomography. The transbronchial biopsy revealed that the tumor histologically corresponded to GP. The patient subsequently underwent partial resection of the right upper lobe. Histological examination of the resected specimens further revealed that the mass contained two different and independent elements and displayed typically histological features of GP and SP...
April 25, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690599/clinicopathological-characteristics-and-mutations-driving-development-of-early-lung-adenocarcinoma-tumor-initiation-and-progression
#15
REVIEW
Kentaro Inamura
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma representing the most common lung cancer subtype. Among all lung adenocarcinomas, the most prevalent subset develops via tumorigenesis and progression from atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) to adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), to minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), to overt invasive adenocarcinoma with a lepidic pattern. This stepwise development is supported by the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of these tumors...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683890/characteristics-and-predictive-value-of-pd-l1-status-in-real-world-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#16
Jeng-Sen Tseng, Tsung-Ying Yang, Chih-Ying Wu, Wen-Hui Ku, Kun-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hsuan Hsu, Yen-Hsiang Huang, Kang-Yi Su, Sung-Liang Yu, Gee-Chen Chang
Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has emerged as an effective treatment for lung cancer patients. It is important to evaluate the practicality of PD-L1 testing in real-world practice. A total of 211 non-small cell lung cancer patients were enrolled to detect 5 driver mutations and PD-L1 status (22C3 and SP263 assays) and to evaluate the characteristics of PD-L1 expression and its predictive value of immunotherapy. The PD-L1 positive (≥1%) and strong positive (≥50%) rate by SP263 assay was 27...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666465/molecular-epidemiology-of-lung-cancer-in-iran-implications-for-drug-development-and-cancer-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Zahra Fathi, Nicholas L Syn, Jian-Guo Zhou, Raheleh Roudi
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662630/type-ii-raf-inhibitor-causes-superior-erk-pathway-suppression-compared-to-type-i-raf-inhibitor-in-cells-expressing-different-braf-mutant-types-recurrently-found-in-lung-cancer
#18
Amir Noeparast, Philippe Giron, Sylvia De Brakeleer, Carolien Eggermont, Ulrike De Ridder, Erik Teugels, Jacques De Grève
A large fraction of somatic driver BRAF mutations in lung cancer are non-V600 and impaired-kinase. Non-V600 BRAF mutations predict sensitivity to combination of a type I RAF inhibitor, Dabrafenib, and a MEK inhibitor, Trametinib. Singly, Dabrafenib only weakly suppresses mutant BRAF-induced ERK signaling and can induce ERK paradoxical activation in CRAF-overexpressing cells. The present study compared the effects of Dabrafenib and a type II RAF inhibitor, AZ628, on ERK activity in HEK293T cells expressing several tumor-derived BRAF mutants, and in a non-V600 and impaired-kinase BRAF-mutant lung cancer cell line (H1666)...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662327/spotlight-on-dabrafenib-trametinib-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-place-in-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Thomas C Weart, Kenneth D Miller, Charles B Simone
Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a challenging disease. The limited utility of chemotherapy indicates the need for additional therapeutic options. Targeted therapy continues to be an important tool in the treatment of NSCLC. Mutations within the RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK pathway, specifically the BRAF V600E mutation, have become an important target for the subset of NSCLC patients with this mutation. This paper summarizes the clinical evidence that lead to the recent approval of the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib to treat patients with advanced NSCLC who harbor a BRAF V600E mutation...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650281/recent-developments-and-obstacles-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma-with-braf-and-mek-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Mohd Wahid, Arshad Jawed, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Naseem Akhter, Pallavi Somvanshi, Farah Khan, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Y Areeshi, Shafiul Haque
Metastatic melanoma is a least common form of cancer as it accounts only for 1% of all cancer cases. But, it is most deadly in nature and is haunting mankind for long emotionally as well as economically. The sites for the onset of the disease are pigment-producing cells of the skin, mucosa, eye etc. It has the potential to spread other sites like subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bone and brain. The United States Food & Drug Administration has approved various drug molecules from time to time...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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