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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222807/long-non-coding-rna-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
The advent of novel high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated identification of non-coding RNAs with fundamental roles in cellular biological and pathological conditions. A group of these consisting of at least 200 nucleotides are called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Their participation in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted in recent years. Bladder cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, exhibits altered expression levels of several lncRNAs. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have assessed the effects of silencing RNAs on cancer cell phenotypes and in vivo tumor growth...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219616/next-generation-sequencing-approach-to-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-yields-more-actionable-alterations
#2
Mitra Mehrad, Somak Roy, Humberto Trejo Bittar, Sanja Dacic
CONTEXT: - Different testing algorithms and platforms for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements in advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma exist. The multistep approach with single-gene assays has been challenged by more efficient next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a large number of gene alterations. The main criticism of the NGS approach is the detection of genomic alterations of uncertain significance. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the best testing algorithm for patients with lung cancer in our clinical practice...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217530/the-impact-of-smoking-and-tp53-mutations-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients-with-targetable-mutations-the-lung-cancer-mutation-consortium-lcmc2
#3
Dara L Aisner, Lynette M Sholl, Lynne Berry, Michael Rossi, Heidi Chen, Junya Fujimoto, Andre L Moreira, Suresh Ramalingam, Liza C Villaruz, Gregory A Otterson, Eric B Haura, Katerina Politi, Bonnie S Glisson, Jeremy Cetnar, Edward Garon, Joan Schiller, Saiama Waqar, Lecia V Sequist, Julie R Brahmer, Yu Shyr, Kelly Kugler, Ignacio Ivan Wistuba, Bruce E Johnson, John D Minna, Mark G Kris, Paul A Bunn, David J Kwiatkowski
PURPOSE Multiplex genomic profiling is standard of care for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) is a multi-institutional effort to identify and treat oncogenic driver events in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixteen U.S. institutions enrolled 1367 lung cancer patients in LCMC2; 904 were deemed eligible and had at least one of 14 cancer-related genes profiled using validated methods including genotyping, massively parallel sequencing, and immunohistochemistry...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216787/mek-inhibitors-under-development-for-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Chul Kim, Giuseppe Giaccone
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is intimately implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aberrant MAPK signaling resulting from the upstream activating mutations converges on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), making MEK inhibition an attractive strategy for the treatment of NSCLC. Several MEK inhibitors have demonstrated anticancer activity in patients with NSCLC. Areas covered: In this article, we discuss the biological rationale for the use of MEK inhibitors and summarize the clinical experience with MEK1/2 inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC, from initial phase I studies to phase II/III studies, both as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents...
December 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214089/systemic-treatment-of-metastatic-conjunctival-melanoma
#5
Simão Pinto Torres, Teresa André, Emanuel Gouveia, Lívio Costa, Maria José Passos
Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is an exceptionally rare tumor, with a propensity for local and distant recurrence, with the lungs, skin, liver, and brain being the most common sites of metastasis. Recent progress in systemic treatments, with checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies blocking BRAF and MEK, has redefined the standard of care of advanced unresectable and metastatic melanoma. Although most trials did not include patients with conjunctival melanoma, its close molecular and genetic relationship to cutaneous melanoma might suggest a similar response to these novel agents...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192649/the-histopathology-of-erdheim-chester-disease-a-comprehensive-review-of-a-molecularly-characterized-cohort
#6
Neval Ozkaya, Marc K Rosenblum, Benjamin H Durham, Janine D Pichardo, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Meera R Hameed, Klaus J Busam, William D Travis, Eli L Diamond, Ahmet Dogan
Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis histologically characterized by multi-systemic proliferation of mature histiocytes in a background of inflammatory stroma. The disease can involve virtually any organ system; most commonly the bones, skin, retroperitoneum, heart, orbit, lung, and brain are affected. Although a histiocytic proliferation is the histological hallmark of the disease, a wide range of morphological appearances have been described as part of case studies or small series...
December 1, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184677/cell-free-dna-analysis-by-sire%C3%A2-next-generation-sequencing-panel-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-focus-on-basal-setting
#7
Pasquale Pisapia, Francesco Pepe, Riccardo Smeraglio, Maria Russo, Danilo Rocco, Roberta Sgariglia, Mariantonia Nacchio, Caterina De Luca, Elena Vigliar, Claudio Bellevicine, Giancarlo Troncone, Umberto Malapelle
Background: Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in most cases on small tissue samples, such as cytological preparations and histological biopsies; these limited tissue specimens may be not always sufficient for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and other relevant predictive biomarkers. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be used as a surrogate for EGFR mutational testing, whenever tissue is unavailable. However, the detection of gene mutations on cfDNA is challenging; in fact, the extremely low concentration of circulating tumor DNA requires the implementation of highly sensitive and validated next generation techniques...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175303/egfr-kras-braf-and-her2-testing-in-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma-value-of-testing-on-samples-with-poor-specimen-adequacy-and-analysis-of-discrepancies
#8
Fabien Forest, Marie-Laure Stachowicz, François Casteillo, Georgia Karpathiou, Fabienne Gouzy-Grosjean, Colette Guilaubey, Michèle Cottier, Julie Beal, Alix Clemenson, Michel Péoc'h
Molecular testing on metastatic lung adenocarcinoma or on non-small cell non-squamous lung carcinoma often relies on small specimen. In this group of patient with poor specimen adequacy, we analyzed the rate of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and HER2 mutations compared to their rate in optimal specimen. We analyzed discrepancies in molecular testing results in patients with iterative analysis on several samples. We performed a retrospective study of 1538 samples consecutively analyzed. 263/665 (39,5%) biopsies and 37/708 (5,2%) surgical specimens were considered as samples with poor specimen adequacy (p<0,0001)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167001/-association-between-the-alk-gene-status-and-the-efficacy-of-first-line-%C3%A2-pemetrexed-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma
#9
Mengge Chen, Hui Cao, Yingying Ji, Yuhuan Mao, Shujing Shen, Xingya Li
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is one of the major driver genes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies have shown that the efficacy of pemetrexed in ALK-positive lung cancer is controversial. The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with ALK-positive and negative lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: The clinical data of 98 cases of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS), V-rafmurine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-negative patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients who diagnosed by histopathology from January 2015 to April 2016 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were collected...
November 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164615/arhgef19-interacts-with-braf-to-activate-mapk-signaling-during-the-tumorigenesis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Yingchang Li, Zhihua Ye, Shuai Chen, Zhiwen Pan, Qianghua Zhou, Yi-Zhuo Li, Wen-di Shuai, Chun-Mei Kuang, Qi-Hua Peng, Wei Shi, Xueli Mao, Ran-Yi Liu, Wenlin Huang
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) are proteins that activate Rho GTPases in response to extracellular stimuli and regulate various biologic processes. ARHGEF19, one of RhoGEFs, was reported to activate RhoA in the Wnt-PCP pathway controlling convergent extension in Xenopus gastrulation. The goal of this study was to identify the role and molecular mechanisms of ARHGEF19 in the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ARHGEF19 expression was significantly elevated in NSCLC tissues, and ARHGEF19 levels were significantly associated with lymph node status, distant metastasis and TNM stage; Patients with high ARHGEF19 levels had poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151304/egfr-kras-and-braf-mutational-profiles-of-female-patients-with-micropapillary-predominant-invasive-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
(no author information available yet)
Background/aim: This study aimed to analyze EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in females with micropapillary predominant invasive lung adenocarcinoma and their relationships with immunohistochemical and clinicopathological patterns.Materials and methods: A total of 15 females with micropapillary lung adenocarcinoma were selected. Mutational analysis of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF genes was carried out. Information regarding the demographic data, tumor size, treatment, and survival time for each patient was collated, and the predominant cell type, secondary architectural growth patterns, psammoma bodies, necrosis, and visceral pleural and angiolymphatic invasions were evaluated...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142786/extraordinary-clinical-benefit-to-sequential-treatment-with-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-of-a-braf-v600e-and-pd-l1-positive-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Shuyu D Li, Annia Martial, Alexa B Schrock, Jane J Liu
Background: The treatment algorithm for metastatic non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) has been evolving rapidly due to the development of new therapeutic agents. Although guidelines are provided by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for treatment options according to biomarker testing results, sequentially applying the three main modalities (chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy) remains an ad hoc practice in clinic. In light of recent FDA approval of dabrafenib and trametinib combination for metastatic NSCLCs with BRAF V600E mutation, one question arises due to insufficient clinical data is if the targeted therapy should be used before immunotherapy in patients with both BRAF V600E and PD-L1 expression...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137260/pathologic-subtype-defined-prognosis-is-dependent-on-both-tumor-stage-and-status-of-oncogenic-driver-mutations-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#13
Yu Dong, Ying Li, Bo Jin, Jie Zhang, Jinchen Shao, Hong Peng, Shichun Tu, Baohui Han
Previous studies have shown that the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma is associated with pathological characterization. In this study, we investigated whether pathology-based prognosis was further influenced by both tumor stage and oncogenic driver mutations. To this end, we recruited a cohort of 465 lung adenocarcinoma patients in China. These patients were classified into 6 pathology-defined subtypes i.e., lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA), acinar-predominant adenocarcinoma (APA), papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (PPA), micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (MPA), solid-predominant adenocarcinoma (SPA), and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134959/targeting-ret-driven-cancers-lessons-from-evolving-preclinical-and-clinical-landscapes
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Drilon, Zishuo I Hu, Gillianne G Y Lai, Daniel S W Tan
The gene encoding the receptor-tyrosine kinase RET was first discovered more than three decades ago, and activating RET rearrangements and mutations have since been identified as actionable drivers of oncogenesis. Several multikinase inhibitors with activity against RET have been explored in the clinic, and confirmed responses to targeted therapy with these agents have been observed in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers or RET-mutant thyroid cancers. Nevertheless, response rates to RET-directed therapy are modest compared with those achieved using targeted therapies matched to other oncogenic drivers of solid tumours, such as sensitizing EGFR or BRAF(V600E) mutations, or ALK or ROS1 rearrangements...
November 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130105/tumor-molecular-profiling-of-nsclc-patients-using-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Nikolaos Tsoulos, Eirini Papadopoulou, Vasiliki Metaxa-Mariatou, Georgios Tsaousis, Chrisoula Efstathiadou, Georgia Tounta, Aikaterini Scapeti, Eugenia Bourkoula, Pavlos Zarogoulidis, George Pentheroudakis, Stylianos Kakolyris, Ioannis Boukovinas, Pavlos Papakotoulas, Elias Athanasiadis, Theofanis Floros, Anna Koumarianou, Vasileios Barbounis, Anca Dinischiotu, George Nasioulas
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and a tumor with a broad spectrum of targeted therapies already available or in clinical trials. Thus, molecular characterization of the tumor using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, has become a key tool for facilitating treatment decisions and the clinical management of NSCLC patients. The performance of a custom 23 gene multiplex amplification hot spot panel, based on Ion AmpliSeq™ technology, was evaluated for the analysis of tumor DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
December 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129434/mutational-landscape-of-ddr2-gene-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Charles Ricordel, Alexandra Lespagnol, Francisco Llamas-Gutierrez, Marie de Tayrac, Mallorie Kerjouan, Alice Fievet, Houda Hamdi-Rozé, Amyrat Aliouat, Benoit Desrues, Jean Mosser, Hervé Léna
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite great advances in lung cancer management with the recent emergence of molecular targeted therapies for non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, no dramatic improvements have been achieved in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Mutations in discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene were recently identified as promising molecular targets in this histology. The aim of this study is to describe the DDR2 mutational landscape of lung SCC and investigate the associated clinical factors...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125548/liquid-biopsy-and-therapeutic-targets-present-and-future-issues-in-thoracic-oncology
#17
REVIEW
Paul Hofman
The practice of liquid biopsy (LB) has revolutionized the care of patients with metastatic lung cancer. Many oncologists now use this approach in daily practice, applying precise procedures for the detection of activating or resistance mutations in EGFR. These tests are performed with plasma DNA and have been approved as companion diagnostic test for patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ALK is another important target in lung cancer since it leads to treatment of patients who are positive for a rearrangement in ALK identified with tumor tissue...
November 10, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119016/pulmonary-metastasectomy-for-colorectal-cancer-analysis-of-prognostic-factors-affecting-survival
#18
Luca Ampollini, Letizia Gnetti, Matteo Goldoni, Lorenzo Viani, Elisabetta Faedda, Nicoletta Campanini, Pietro Caruana, Pellegrino Crafa, Francesca Negri, Francesca Pucci, Francesco Leonardi, Luigi Ventura, Valeria Balestra, Cesare Braggio, Giovanni Bocchialini, Paolo Del Rio, Enrico Maria Silini, Paolo Carbognani, Michele Rusca
Background: Pulmonary metastasectomy is considered a standard procedure in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Different prognostic factors including multiple metastatic nodules, the presence of extra-pulmonary metastases and BRAF mutation status have been associated with poor survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors influenced survival in CRC patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy by studying primary tumors and pulmonary metastases. Methods: All patients treated for primary CRC who presented pulmonary metastases in a 10-year period were considered (group A)...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114472/molecular-diagnostics-of-lung-cancer-in-the-clinic
#19
REVIEW
Lynette Sholl
According to current practice guidelines, all patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should undergo predictive biomarker testing. For squamous cell carcinoma patients, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry is indicated to select patients for immunotherapy in the first line. For lung adenocarcinoma, all patients with advanced disease should undergo testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, and PD-L1 expression to predict response to EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 targeted inhibitors or immunotherapy, respectively...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114471/beyond-alk-and-ros1-ret-ntrk-egfr-and-braf-gene-rearrangements-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Anna F Farago, Christopher G Azzoli
The discovery of gene rearrangements involving the receptor tyrosine kinase genes ALK and ROS1 has revolutionized management of the subset of non-small cell lung cancers characterized by these alterations. The oncogenic fusion proteins expressed in these tumors drive cancer cell growth and survival, and targeted inhibition of this signaling can lead to dramatic and durable responses in patients. While the best characterized gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involve ALK and ROS1, fusions involving other kinases including RET, NTRK, EGFR and BRAF are now established as additional targetable drivers...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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