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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#1
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150298/spontaneous-osteoclastogenesis-hypothesis-for-gender-unrelated-osteoporosis-screening-and-diagnosis
#2
F Salamanna, R Giardino, M Fini
Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). However, in the past few years it has become more widely recognized that OP is a significant problem also in men although OP is frequently under-diagnosed and, consequently, under treated in men. Most guidelines, screening and fracture risk evaluation methods as well as pharmacologic agents have been developed for women and then adapted to men. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is reported as T score and the capability of DEXA to diagnose OP and predict fracture risk is still debated...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150149/pregnancy-and-heart-disease-pregnancy-associated-hypertension-and-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#3
Tobias Jonathan Pfeffer, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Cardiovascular diseases are major complications in pregnancy worldwide and the number of patients who develop cardiac problems during pregnancy is increasing. Pregnancy-associated hypertensive complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE) or peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are potentially life-threatening heart diseases emerging during pregnancy, under delivery or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Both disease entities display substantial morbidity and mortality in the acute phase. Long-term effects are just beginning to be evaluated...
October 31, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149890/physical-activity-and-calorie-intake-mediate-the-relationship-from-depression-to-body-fat-mass-among-female-mexican-health-workers
#4
Amado D Quezada, Nayeli Macías-Waldman, Jorge Salmerón, Tessa Swigart, Katia Gallegos-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. METHOD: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149805/observational-cohort-study-safety-outcomes-in-children-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-or-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists
#5
Eline Houben, Saga Johansson, Péter Nagy, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVE: Acid suppression with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended for children with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. In this retrospective, observational postauthorization study, we aimed to assess and compare safety outcomes in pediatric first-time users of esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs. METHODS: Data on children (aged 0-18 years) first dispensed esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs between September 2008 and August 2011 were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#6
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148896/prooxidant-antioxidant-balance-advanced-oxidation-protein-products-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-serbian-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Jadranka Miletić, Dunja Drakulić, Snežana Pejić, Marijana Petković, Tihomir V Ilić, Milica Miljković, Aleksandra Stefanović, Milica Prostran, Marina Stojanov
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and prooxidant-antioxidant balance, advanced oxidation protein products and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) are being extensively evaluated regarding their relationship with clinical presentation and disease severity. The aim of study was to evaluate the levels of above mentioned parameters in plasma of 39 men and 17 women with Parkinson's disease, originated from the Republic of Serbia and their relation to clinicopathological characteristics (gender, age at examination, duration of the disease, and Hoehn and Yahr score) and oxidative status...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148818/dissociation-constants-of-cytochrome-p450-2c9-cytochrome-p450-reductase-complexes-in-a-lipid-bilayer-membrane-depend-on-nadph-a-single-protein-tracking-study
#8
Carlo Barnaba, Evan Taylor, James A Brozik
Cytochrome P450-Reductase (CPR) is a versatile NADPH-dependent electron donor located in the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is an electron transferase that is able to deliver electrons to a variety of membrane-bound oxidative partners, including the drug-metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450s (P450). CPR is also stoichiometrically limited compared to its oxidative counterparts and hypotheses have arisen about possible models that can overcome the stochiometric imbalance, including quaternary organization of P450 and diffusion-limited models...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148029/an-unusual-case-of-bilateral-pigmented-maculopathy-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis
#9
Edward Bloch, Maria Pefkianaki, Jamil Hakim
PURPOSE: Pigmentary maculopathy can occur in the context of various inherited and acquired diseases. Anterior segment dysgenesis arises due to developmental anomalies and may be associated with systemic disease, as in Rieger syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old woman presented with longstanding reduction in vision, evidence of anterior segment dysgenesis, and multiple discrete pigmented lesions throughout the macula bilaterally. Electroretinographic findings were consistent with severe macular dysfunction...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147985/deciphering-the-growth-organic-acid-exudations-and-ionic-homeostasis-of-amaranthus-viridis-l-and-portulaca-oleracea-l-under-lead-chloride-stress
#10
Muhammad Tariq Javed, Muhammad Sohail Akram, Noman Habib, Kashif Tanwir, Qasim Ali, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Huma Gul, Naeem Iqbal
Lead (Pb) stress adversely affects in planta nutrient homeostasis and metabolism when present at elevated concentration in the surrounding media. The present study was aimed at investigation of organic acid exudations, elemental contents, growth, and lipid peroxidation in two wild plants (Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L.), exhibiting differential root to shoot Pb translocation, under Pb stress. Plants were placed in soil spiked with lead chloride (PbCl2) concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 mg Pb/kg soil, in rhizoboxes supplied with nylon nets around the roots...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147900/structural-biology-of-the-dj-1-superfamily
#11
Nathan Smith, Mark A Wilson
The DJ-1 (also called the DJ-1/PfpI, ThiJ/PfpI, or DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI) superfamily is a structural and functional diverse group of proteins that are present in most organisms. Many of these proteins remain poorly characterized at the biochemical level, but include some known chaperones, proteases, and various stress response proteins that remain mechanistically mysterious. This chapter outlines what is known from a structural perspective about the cellular and biochemical functions of many of these proteins from distinct clades of the superfamily in several organisms...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147785/qt-interval-and-dispersion-in-drug-free-anorexia-nervosa-adolescents-a-case-control-study
#12
Monica Bomba, Lucio Tremolizzo, Fabiola Corbetta, Franco Nicosia, Francesca Lanfranconi, Gianni Poggioli, Karine Goulene, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Elisa Conti, Francesca Neri, Renata Nacinovich
Long QT values have been reported in patients with anorexia nervosa of the restricting type (ANr) potentially increasing the risk of fatal arrhythmia, especially if psychotropic drug treatment is required. Nevertheless, the previous studies on this topic are biased by drug exposure, long disease durations, and small sample sizes. This study is aimed at assessing QTc and QTcd values in ANr adolescents with recent onset and drug free, as compared to subjects affected by psychiatric disorders other than ANr. We evaluated QTc and its dispersion (QTcd) in a population of 77 drug-free ANr female adolescents and compared to an equal number of healthy controls (H-CTRL) and pathological controls (P-CTRL, mixed psychiatric disorders)...
November 16, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146889/exhaled-markers-of-anti-oxidant-activity-and-oxidative-stress-in-stable-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-moderate-lung-disease
#13
Lucia Spicuzza, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Tardino, Nicola Ciancio, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla, Salvatore Leonardi
The sustained imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species contributes to lung damage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the antioxidant defense in the airways epithelial lining fluid and its transportation out of the cells may be altered in CF. The aim of this study was to assess the oxidants/anti-oxidants balance in the airways of patients with CF. We measured the concentrations of GSH, the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), a marker of oxidative stress, in the exhaled breath condensate of 17 non-smoking patients with CF, in stable phase, and in 17 age-matched healthy subjects...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#14
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145166/revisiting-interhemispheric-imbalance-in-chronic-stroke-a-tdcs-study
#15
Alana B McCambridge, James W Stinear, Winston D Byblow
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stroke patients with moderate-severe motor impairment may have an increased reliance on contralesional vs ipsilesional motor areas to control the paretic arm. We hypothesised that increasing contralesional excitability with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would benefit motor performance in patients with moderate-severe impairment. METHODS: Ten patients with motor impairment at the chronic stage after stroke received a-tDCS, cathodal (c-tDCS) and sham with the target electrode over contralesional motor cortex (M1)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145021/production-of-chemicals-using-dynamic-control-of-metabolic-fluxes
#16
REVIEW
Peng Xu
Engineered microbial cell factories are constantly experiencing metabolic imbalance due to nutrients depletion, metabolites buildup, evolutionary pressure or genetic instability. It is important to equip the engineered cell factory with sensor-regulator system to enable cell adjust metabolism and respond to the changing environment. Dynamically allocating cellular resources and optimally controlling pathway expression have proved as promising strategies to manage the tradeoff between cell growth and product formation as well as improve the cost-competitiveness of industrial fermentation...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143358/melatonin-improves-survival-and-respiratory-activity-of-yeast-cells-challenged-by-alpha-synuclein-and-menadione
#17
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability, or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates ROS production...
November 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143260/combining-stable-carbon-isotope-analysis-and-petroleum-fingerprinting-to-evaluate-petroleum-contamination-in-the-yanchang-oilfield-located-on-loess-plateau-in-china
#18
Yiping Wang, Jidong Liang, Jinxing Wang, Sha Gao
This study evaluated petroleum contamination in the Yanchang (Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd.) oilfield, located in the loess plateau region of northern Shaanxi, China. Surface soil and sediment samples were collected from the wasteland, farmland, and riverbed in this area to assess the following parameters: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C). The results showed that TPH and PAH levels in the study area were 907-3447 mg/kg and 103...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142771/a-peruvian-child-with-18p-18q-syndrome-and-persistent-microscopic-hematuria
#19
Julio A Poterico, Flor Vásquez, Miguel Chávez-Pastor, Milana Trubnykova, Félix Chavesta, Jenny Chirinos, Nancy Salcedo, Rosmery Mena, Sulema Cubas, Rocío González, Rossana Alvariño, Hugo Abarca-Barriga
Chromosome 18 pericentric inversion carriers could have offspring with recombinant chromosomes, leading to patients with clinical variable manifestations. Patients with 18p-/18q+ rearrangements share some clinical characteristics, while other characteristics differ. Factors for such divergence include the length of the inverted segment, among others. Here, we describe a Peruvian child with dysmorphic features, intellectual disability persistent microscopic hematuria, aortic pseudocoarctation, and descending aorta arteritis, among others...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142617/acute-strenuous-exercise-induces-an-imbalance-on-histone-h4-acetylation-histone-deacetylase-2-and-increases-the-proinflammatory-profile-of-pbmc-of-obese-individuals
#20
Gilson P Dorneles, Maria Carolina R Boeira, Lucas L Schipper, Ivy R V Silva, Viviane R Elsner, Pedro Dal Lago, Alessandra Peres, Pedro R T Romão
This study evaluated the response of global histone H4 acetylation (H4ac), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines and monocyte phenotypes of lean and obese males after exercise. Ten lean and ten obese sedentary men were submitted to one session of strenuous exercise, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Global H4ac levels, HDAC2 activity in PBMC, and IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α production were analyzed...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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