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Qing Li, Li Han, Bin Zhang, Jinpei Zhou, Huibin Zhang
A series of triazole based uracil derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel DPP-4 inhibitors. Compound A01 was identified as a lead compound for SAR studies focused on the structural modification at the S2' subsite of DPP-4. The novel analogues A02-A25 were obtained by modifying the substituents at the phenyl group, and B01-B09, by introducing the carbonyl group. On screening in DPP-4, compounds B03, B04 and B08 showed a significant improvement in DPP-4 inhibitory activities compared to compound A01 and showed comparable activities to the marketed DPP-4 inhibitor, alogliptin...
October 12, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Thomas Vanhove, Quinten Remijsen, Dirk Kuypers, Pieter Gillard
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors...
September 14, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Ivan Tkáč, Itamar Raz
OBJECTIVE: Data on the possible relationship of gliptin treatment to the incidence of acute pancreatitis have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to combine data on the incidence of acute pancreatitis from three large randomized controlled trials. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three trials designed to test cardiovascular safety and efficacy of add-on treatment with a gliptin were included in the analysis, as follows: SAVOR-TIMI 53 (saxagliptin), EXAMINE (alogliptin), and TECOS (sitagliptin)...
September 22, 2016: Diabetes Care
Daisuke Yabe, Yutaka Seino
Incretin-based dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are newer choices of antidiabetic medications that are now most widely used worldwide. Preclinical study results suggest that the two drugs potentially exert benefits to prevent onsets and/or progressions of diabetes-related complications, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes. Outcomes of five clinical trials to evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist have been recently reported...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Shailesh Shah, Bhavin Marolia, Pintu Prajapati, Kunjan Bharatkumar Bodiwala, Jeenal Thakor
A rapid, sensitive, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed and validated to study degradation kinetics of Alogliptin benzoate (ALG) in an alkaline medium. ALG was degraded under acidic, alkaline, oxidative, and thermal stress conditions. The degraded samples were chromatographed on silica gel 60F254-TLC plates, developed using a quaternary-solvent system (chloroform-methanol-ethyl acetate-triethyl amine, 9+1+1+0.5, v/v/v/v), and scanned at 278 nm. The developed method was validated per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines using validation parameters such as specificity, linearity and range, precision, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ...
September 7, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Shingo Kato, Kazuki Fukui, Hidekuni Kirigaya, Daiki Gyotoku, Naoki Iinuma, Yuka Kusakawa, Kohei Iguchi, Tatsuya Nakachi, Tae Iwasawa, Kazuo Kimura
BACKGROUND: The present study determined whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition by alogliptin improves coronary flow reserve (CFR) and left ventricular election fraction (LVEF) in patients with type 2 DM and CAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with type 2 DM and known or suspected CAD were randomly allocated to receive diet therapy plus alogliptin (n=10; mean age, 73.3±6.6y) or a control group given diet therapy and glimepiride (n=10; mean age, 76...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
He Tai, Ming-Yue Wang, Yue-Ping Zhao, Ling-Bing Li, Qian-Yan Dong, Xin-Guang Liu, Jin-Song Kuang
BACKGROUND: To observe the effect of alogliptin combined with metformin on pulmonary function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy (500 mg, bid po, for at least 3 months), and evaluate its efficacy and safety. METHODS: After a 2-week screening period, adult patients (aged 36-72 years) entered a 4-week run-in/stabilization period. Then, patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 50) for 26 weeks...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maimaiti Yisireyili, Kyosuke Takeshita, Motoharu Hayashi, Hongxian Wu, Yasuhiro Uchida, Koji Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Chang-Ning Hao, Takayuki Nakayama, Xian Wu Cheng, Tadashi Matsushita, Shigeo Nakamura, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: Stress evokes lipolytic release of free fatty acid (FFA) and low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissue, mediated by increased adipokine secretion, and contributes to glucose metabolism disorder and prothrombotic state. We tested the hypothesis that alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, can ameliorate the biological effects of chronic stress in mice. METHOD AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle or alogliptin (dose: 15 or 45mg/kg/day)...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Abigail Tebboth, Sally Lee, Anna Scowcroft, Paula Bingham-Gardiner, Will Spencer, John Bolodeoku, Syed Wasi Hassan
PURPOSE: The majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) will develop chronic kidney disease in their lifetime. Because most dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors require dose adjustment in patients with T2DM and renal impairment, we aimed to understand how these treatments are prescribed in UK clinical practice, and to determine whether recommended dose adjustments are being made at initial prescription. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive cohort study analyzed data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
August 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
R C Bonadonna, C Borghi, A Consoli, M Volpe
AIMS: Diabetes treatments aim at preventing undesirable metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and at preventing/reducing tissue damage, including cardiovascular (CV) events. For approval, novel diabetes drugs undergo early systematic investigation to assess CV safety. This review provides an updated analysis of the results of recent studies examining novel diabetes medications and CV outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: The new regulatory guidelines enforce adjudication of all CV events when testing novel diabetes drugs...
September 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Xueying Tan
Omarigliptin is a new once-weekly dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is indicated to have favorable effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postmeal plasma glucose. It potently but reversibly inhibits DPP-4 enzyme, which prolongs the circulating half-life of glucagon-like peptide-1 that increases insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Benefiting from glucose-dependent insulin secretion, omarigliptin is associated with low risk of hypoglycemia...
July 2, 2016: Endocrine
Saumya Reddy Kankanala, Rafay Syed, Quan Gong, Boxu Ren, Xiaoquan Rao, Jixin Zhong
The cardiovascular safety of DPP4 inhibitors as a class, especially in regards to heart failure, has been questioned after the publication of first trials (SAVOR-TIMI 53 and EXAMINE) assessing the cardiovascular risks of DPP4 inhibitors alogliptin and sitagliptin in 2013. Although there were no increased risks in composite cardiovascular outcomes, the SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial reported a 27% increase in hospitalization for heart failure in diabetic patients who received the DPP4 inhibitor saxagliptin. There has been substantial increase in knowledge on the heart failure effect of DPP4 inhibition since 2013...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Charles E Grimshaw, Andy Jennings, Ruhi Kamran, Hikaru Ueno, Nobuhiro Nishigaki, Takuo Kosaka, Akiyoshi Tani, Hiroki Sano, Yoshinobu Kinugawa, Emiko Koumura, Lihong Shi, Koji Takeuchi
Trelagliptin (SYR-472), a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, shows sustained efficacy by once-weekly dosing in type 2 diabetes patients. In this study, we characterized in vitro properties of trelagliptin, which exhibited approximately 4- and 12-fold more potent inhibition against human dipeptidyl peptidase-4 than alogliptin and sitagliptin, respectively, and >10,000-fold selectivity over related proteases including dipeptidyl peptidase-8 and dipeptidyl peptidase-9. Kinetic analysis revealed reversible, competitive and slow-binding inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 by trelagliptin (t1/2 for dissociation ≈ 30 minutes)...
2016: PloS One
Yuting Lu, Danyi Yang, Zhiyu Li, Taijun Hang, Min Song
A highly specific and efficient LC-QTOF mass spectrometric method was developed for the separation and characterization of process related substances and the major degradation products in alogliptin benzoate and its tablets. The separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) using 0.2% formic acid-0.2% ammonium acetate in water as mobile phase A, acetonitrile and methanol (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase B in linear gradient elution mode. Forced degradation studies were also conducted under ICH prescribed stress conditions...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Tsuyoshi Nozue, Kazuki Fukui, Takeshi Takamura, Takashi Sozu, Kiyoshi Hibi, Satoru Kishi, Ichiro Michishita
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Noninvasive anatomic assessment by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is being increasingly used for detecting or excluding CAD. Recently, fractional flow reserve (FFR) using routinely acquired CCTA datasets (FFRCT) has been developed. Although intensive glycemic control can reduce the risk of microvascular complications, intensive glucose control does not seem to be beneficial in preventing major cardiovascular events when compared with standard therapy...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Guntram Schernthaner, Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner
During the last decade, the armamentarium for glucose-lowering drugs has increased enormously by the development of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, allowing individualization of antidiabetic therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some combinations can now be used without an increased risk for severe hypoglycemia and weight gain. Following a request of the US Food and Drug Administration, many large cardiovascular (CV) outcome studies have been performed in patients with longstanding disease and established CV disease...
June 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
M García, M A Aranburu, I Palacios-Zabalza, U Lertxundi, C Aguirre
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Bullous pemphigoid has been reported in association with gliptins. We describe a case, review the literature and analyse all cases of bullous pemphigoid recorded in the European pharmacovigilance database, EudraVigilance. CASE SUMMARY: A 74-year-old woman, treated with vildagliptin/metformin for 12 months, developed bullous pemphigoid, confirmed by skin biopsy. The symptoms resolved within 7 months after vildagliptin/metformin withdrawal...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Wen-Lian Wu, Jinsong Hao, Martin Domalski, Duane A Burnett, Dmitri Pissarnitski, Zhiqiang Zhao, Andrew Stamford, Giovanna Scapin, Ying-Duo Gao, Aileen Soriano, Terri M Kelly, Zuliang Yao, Mary Ann Powles, Shiying Chen, Hong Mei, Joyce Hwa
In our efforts to develop second generation DPP-4 inhibitors, we endeavored to identify distinct structures with long-acting (once weekly) potential. Taking advantage of X-ray cocrystal structures of sitagliptin and other DPP-4 inhibitors, such as alogliptin and linagliptin bound to DPP-4, and aided by molecular modeling, we designed several series of heterocyclic compounds as initial targets. During their synthesis, an unexpected chemical transformation provided a novel tricyclic scaffold that was beyond our original design...
May 12, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yuichi J Shimada, Christopher P Cannon, Yuyin Liu, Craig Wilson, Stuart Kupfer, Venu Menon, William C Cushman, Cyrus R Mehta, George L Bakris, Faeiz Zannad, William B White
BACKGROUND: Concerns raised regarding adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes with new therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have led to several large-scale CV outcome trials. The EXAMINE trial confirmed noninferiority of the dipeptidyl dipeptidase 4 inhibitor alogliptin to placebo on major adverse cardiac event rates in a post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) T2DM population. We present data on additional ischemic cardiac events and CV hospitalizations in EXAMINE. METHODS: Patients with T2DM and an ACS event in the previous 15 to 90 days were randomly assigned to alogliptin or placebo on a background of standard treatment for diabetes...
May 2016: American Heart Journal
Changyu Pan, Ping Han, Qiuhe Ji, Chengjiang Li, Juming Lu, Jinkui Yang, Wenhui Li, Jiaoe Zeng, An-Tsz Hsieh, Juliana Chan
AIMS: Determine the efficacy and safety of once-daily oral alogliptin in patients from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). METHODS: In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week trial, 506 patients were randomized to receive once-daily alogliptin 25 mg or placebo: 185 in the monotherapy group, 197 in the add-on to metformin group, and 124 in the add-on to pioglitazone group. RESULTS: As monotherapy, alogliptin provided a significantly greater decrease HbA1c from baseline to week 16 compared with placebo (-0...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
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