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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232366/estimating-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-treatment-on-adult-mortality-trends-in-south-africa-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#1
Leigh F Johnson, Margaret T May, Rob E Dorrington, Morna Cornell, Andrew Boulle, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232170/correlates-of-never-testing-for-hiv-among-sexually-active-internet-recruited-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#2
Kimberly M Nelson, David W Pantalone, Kristi E Gamarel, Michael P Carey, Jane M Simoni
In the United States, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite great strides in HIV prevention, including biobehavioral HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention, there has been relatively low uptake of these strategies. The success of biobehavioral prevention strategies requires HIV testing but a subset of GBMSM have never been tested. To optimize prevention efforts, we sought to understand the characteristics of GBMSM who report never testing for HIV...
December 12, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232052/the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-tentative-approval-process-and-the-global-fight-against-hiv
#3
Harinder Singh Chahal, Jeffrey S Murray, Martin Shimer, Peter Capella, Ryan Presto, Mary Lou Valdez, Peter G Lurie
INTRODUCTION: In 2004, the US government began to utilize the Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) tentative approval process (tFDA) as a basis to determine which HIV drugs are appropriate to be purchased and used in resource-constrained settings. This process permits products that are not approved for marketing in the US, including medicines with active patents or marketing restrictions in the US, to be purchased and distributed in resource-constrained settings. Although the tFDA was originally intended to support the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the USFDA list has become a cornerstone of international HIV programmes that support procurement of ARVs, such as the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231255/the-structural-and-functional-reliability-of-circulins-of-chassalia-parvifolia-for-peptide-therapeutic-scaffolding
#4
B Senthilkumar, R Rajasekaran
Computational methods have refined the mode of peptide drug designing to a new plateau recently. Circulin, a 30 residue natural plant polypeptide acts as a plant defensive peptide. Additional to its antimicrobial activity it also possesses an inhibitory cytopathic effect on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Stable Circulin can be a functionally able template for scaffolding peptide based drugs. Hence, structural stability of Chassalia parvifolia, Circulin A (1BH4) and Circulin B (2ERI) was computationally investigated...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230953/predictors-of-cd4-cell-recovery-following-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-1-positive-patients-with-well-estimated-dates-of-seroconversion
#5
O T Stirrup, A J Copas, A N Phillips, M J Gill, R B Geskus, G Touloumi, J Young, H C Bucher, A G Babiker
OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors that predict speed of recovery and long-term CD4 cell count in HIV-1 seroconverters initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and to quantify the influence of very early treatment initiation. We make use of all pre-treatment CD4 counts, because analyses using only a single observation at initiation may be subject to biases. METHODS: We used data from the CASCADE (Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe) multinational cohort collaboration of HIV-1 seroconverters...
December 1, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230839/prevalence-estimation-when-disease-status-is-verified-only-among-test-positives-applications-in-hiv-screening-programs
#6
Emma G Thomas, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The first goal of the United Nations' 90-90-90 HIV/AIDS elimination strategy is to ensure that, by 2020, 90% of HIV-positive people know their HIV status. Estimating the prevalence of HIV among people eligible for screening allows assessment of the number of additional cases that might be diagnosed through continued screening efforts in this group. Here, we present methods for estimating prevalence when HIV status is verified by a gold standard only among those who test positive on an initial, imperfect screening test with known sensitivity and specificity...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230590/author-correction-research-priorities-for-the-intersection-of-alcohol-and-hiv-aids-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-priority-setting-exercise
#7
Sarah Gordon, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Sarah Skeen, Charles Parry, Kendall Bryant, Mark Tomlinson
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in the co-authors name. The co-author names should be Sarah Gordon and Charles Parry instead of Sara Gordon and Charles Perry.
December 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230423/immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-a-possible-role-for-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-staging
#8
Iorhen Ephraim Akase, Bolanle O P Musa, Reginald Onyedumarakwe Obiako, Abdurrahman Ahmad Elfulatiy, Abdullahi Asara Mohammed
HIV infection is a chronic infection that almost inevitably progresses to AIDS. The infection is characterized by the deterioration in the immune function leading to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Additionally, there is an associated immune dysfunction characterized by a persistent inflammatory state and unhealthy elaboration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The CD4+ T cell count has been used as a surrogate for the level of immune dysfunction that exists in patients with HIV infection...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230203/ibalizumab-targeting-cd4-receptors-an-emerging-molecule-in-hiv-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob
The HIV infection is responsible for the most devastating global pandemic of the last century. More than 39 million people have died of HIV/AIDS since 1981. The development of the antiretroviral (ARV) treatment begins with the discovery of zidovudine a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This breakthrough was followed by other ARV drug classes and representatives. Presently, HIV treatment employs 27 ARV representatives belonging to five different classes. Despite the proven benefits of ARV treatment and its long-term control of the HIV infection, there is an increasing concern about the numerous adverse effects and resistance to current ARV drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228918/nevirapine-versus-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-antiretroviral-naive-patients-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infections-in-india-a-multi-centre-study
#11
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Srikanth Tripathy, Sahajal Dhooria, Sanjay Ranjan, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which have also been adopted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Efavirenz-based Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is better in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV)-infected patients who are also being treated with Rifampicin-based Anti-Tuberculous Therapy (ATT). However, Efavirenz is much more expensive. We hypothesize that Nevirapine is a cheaper alternative that possesses equal efficacy as Efavirenz in HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients...
December 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228820/associations-between-depressive-symptomatology-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-aids
#12
Sarah Tymchuk, Daniela Gomez, Noshin Koenig, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara, Christopher Power
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders and neurocognitive impairments are debilitating conditions among patients with HIV/AIDS. How these comorbidities interact and their relationships to systemic factors remain uncertain. Herein, we investigated factors contributing to depressive symptomatology (DS) in a prospective cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS in active care that included neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Among patients with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and ongoing clinical assessments including measures of sleep, health-related quality of life (HQoL), neuropsychological testing, and mood evaluation (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]) were performed...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#13
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227887/-there-is-not-a-safe-space-where-they-can-find-themselves-to-be-free-un-safe-spaces-and-the-promotion-of-queer-visibilities-among-township-males-who-have-sex-with-males-msm-in-cape-town-south-africa
#14
N R Hassan, L Swartz, A Kagee, A De Wet, A Lesch, Z Kafaar, P A Newman
Males who have sex with males (MSM) are prioritised in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, as a key affected population to receive HIV prevention, treatment, and HIV-related care and support (WHO, 2016). There is, however, limited empirical research conducted on how to engage communities of South African MSM in clinical HIV prevention research programs. The development of LGBTIQ safe spaces may potentially be a viable option to promote community-based engagement by bridging the divides between HIV-prevention researchers, marginalised queer populations, and other HIV-prevention stakeholders located in heteronormative spaces (Molyneux et al...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227881/experiences-with-compulsory-drug-detention-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#15
Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. METHODS: Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227443/associations-between-medicare-part-d-and-out-of-pocket-spending-hiv-viral-load-adherence-and-adap-use-in-dual-eligibles-with-hiv
#16
Nadya Belenky, Brian W Pence, Stephen R Cole, Stacie B Dusetzina, Andrew Edmonds, Jonathan Oberlander, Michael W Plankey, Adebola Adedimeji, Tracey E Wilson, Jennifer Cohen, Mardge H Cohen, Joel E Milam, Elizabeth T Golub, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL)...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226706/natural-products-and-hiv-aids
#17
Daniele C Cary, B Matija Peterlin
The study of natural products in biomedical research is not a modern conceit. Many of the most successful medical therapeutics are derived from natural products, including those studied in the field of HIV/AIDS. Biomedical research has a rich history of discovery based on screens of medicinal herbs and traditional medicine practices. Compounds derived from natural products which repress HIV and those that activate latent HIV have been reported. It is important to remember the tradition in medical research to derive therapies based on these natural products and to overcome the negative perception of natural products as as an "alternative medicine"...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226632/novel-bovine-associated-pvapn-plasmid-type-in-rhodococcus-equi-identified-from-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle-and-lungs-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#18
M G Ribeiro, G H B Lara, P da Silva, M M J Franco, A L de Mattos-Guaraldi, A P C de Vargas, R I Sakate, F R Pavan, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, R G Motta, T Kakuda, S Takai
Rhodococcus equi is a well-recognized Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, which causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals. The pathogenicity of the microorganism has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine strains, although these three types are found in human isolates...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226015/conserved-hiv-epitopes-for-an-effective-hiv-vaccine
#19
Bikash Sahay, Cuong Q Nguyen, Janet K Yamamoto
Despite major advances in antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1, an effective HIV vaccine is urgently required to reduce the number of new cases of HIV infections in the world. Vaccines are the ultimate tool in the medical arsenal to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Several failed phase-IIb to -III clinical vaccine trials against HIV-1 in the past generated a plethora of information that could be used for better designing of an effective HIV vaccine in the future. Most of the tested vaccine candidates produced strong humoral responses against the HIV proteins; however, failed to protect due to: 1) the low levels and the narrow breadth of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies and the HIV-specific antibody-dependent Fc-mediated effector activities, 2) the low levels and the poor quality of the anti-HIV T-cell responses, and 3) the excessive responses to immunodominant non-protective HIV epitopes, which in some cases blocked the protective immunity and/or enhanced HIV infection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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