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copd chronic respiratory disease

C S Bruells, G Marx
Diaphragm function is crucial for patient outcome in the ICU setting and during the treatment period. The occurrence of an insufficiency of the respiratory pump, which is predominantly formed by the diaphragm, may result in intubation after failure of noninvasive ventilation. Especially patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are in danger of hypercapnic respiratory failure. Changes in biomechanical properties and fiber texture of the diaphragm are further cofactors directly leading to a need for intubation and mechanical ventilation...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Francesca de Blasio, Francesco de Blasio, Giulia Miracco Berlingieri, Andrea Bianco, Marta La Greca, Frits M E Franssen, Luca Scalfi
BACKGROUND: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. OBJECTIVES: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Horng-Chyuan Lin, Sang-Heon Cho, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Shiva Sajjan, Camilla L Cahill, Kim K Hamrosi, De Yun Wang
Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Sang-Heon Cho, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Chaicharn Pothirat, Benjamas Chuaychoo, Songklot Aeumjaturapat, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Shiva Sajjan, Santwona Baidya, De Yun Wang
Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) was a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of respiratory disease in adults across 6 Asia-Pacific countries.This article reports symptoms, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), work impairment and cost burden associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis in Thailand.Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled at 4 hospitals in Thailand during October 2012 and October 2013...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuan Ma, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Nan Liu, Ai Ge, Hao Gu, Wang-Jian Zha, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Mao Huang
In the pathophysiology of asthma, structural cell dysfunction and concomitant microenvironment changes in airways are crucial to pathological progression, which involves oxidative stress. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active anti-oxidative component obtained from propolis, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on several respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the impact of CAPE on asthma is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the advantages of using CAPE to treat asthma and demonstrated the roles of CAPE in the regulation of airway microenvironments...
October 13, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
P Gouda, J Chua, D Langan, T Hannon, A Scott, A O'Regan
BACKGROUND: While domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was initially used in the treatment of respiratory failure resulting from chest wall deformity, the main indication is now chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with recurrent exacerbations associated with type 2 respiratory failure. A longitudinal study of domiciliary NIV provides insights into the evolution of this treatment in the west of Ireland. METHODS: The cohort of patients receiving new prescriptions for domiciliary NIV from Galway University Hospital from 2000 to 2012 was reviewed using study coordinator chart reviews and telephone follow-ups...
October 15, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Anne Maree Kelly, Gerben Keijzers, Sharon Klim, Colin A Graham, Simon Craig, Win Sen Kuan, Peter Jones, Anna Holdgate, Charles Lawoko, Said Laribi
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of dyspnoea presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the Asia-Pacific region, to understand how it is investigated and treated and its outcome. METHODS: Prospectiveinterrupted time series cohort study conducted at three time points in EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia of adult patients presenting to the ED with dyspnoea as a main symptom. Data were collected over three 72-hour periods and included demographics, co-morbidities, mode of arrival, usual medications, pre-hospital treatment, initial assessment, ED investigations, treatment in the ED, ED diagnosis, disposition from ED, in-hospital outcome and final hospital diagnosis...
October 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Erin Davis, Carlo Marra, John-Michael Gamble, Jamie Farrell, Joe Lockyer, J Mark FitzGerald, Waseem Abu-Ashour, Charlie Gillis, John Hawboldt
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often nonadherent with medications and have poor inhaler technique. Community pharmacists can help to improve health-related quality of life and overall outcomes in patients with COPD. We aim to measure the effectiveness of a systematic, pharmacist-driven intervention on patients with diagnosed COPD. METHODS/DESIGN: This pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the effectiveness of a multifactorial, pharmacist-led intervention on medication adherence, inhaler technique, health-related quality of life, health care resource utilization including COPD exacerbations, and use of medications...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Philippe Jolliet, Lamia Ouanes-Besbes, Fekri Abroug, Jalila Ben Khelil, Mohamed Besbes, Aude Garnero, Jean-Michel Arnal, Fabrice Daviaud, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Benoît Lortat-Jacob, Jean-Luc Diehl, Nicolas Lerolle, Alain Mercat, Keyvan Razazi, Christian Brun-Buisson, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Joëlle Texereau, Laurent Brochard
RATIONALE: During non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for COPD exacerbations, Helium/Oxygen (He/O2) reduces work of breathing and hypercapnia more than Air/O2 but impact on clinical outcome remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether continuous administration of He/O2 for 72 hours, during and in-between NIV sessions, is superior to Air/O2 in reducing NIV failure (25% to 15%) in severe hypercapnic COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, open-label trial (16 intensive care units, 6 countries)...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Hanna Knihtilä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anna S Pelkonen, Satu Kalliola, Mika J Mäkelä, L Pekka Malmberg
INTRODUCTION: Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been recognized. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is suitable for assessment of lung function also in preschool children, and some novel indices have been connected to assessment of small airway function. However, limited data exist on the sensitivity of these new indices to detect lung function deficits in young symptomatic children. METHODS: IOS measurements of 103 healthy preschool children were evaluated to establish reference equations for the difference between respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5-20), the relative difference of R5-20 (R5-20%), and area under the reactance curve (AX)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Hanneke Ac van Helvoort, Laura M Willems, Pn Richard Dekhuijzen, Hieronymus Wh van Hees, Yvonne F Heijdra
In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exercise capacity is reduced, resulting over time in physical inactivity and worsened health status. It is unknown whether ventilatory constraints occur during activities of daily life (ADL) in early stages of COPD. The aim of this study was to assess respiratory mechanics during ADL and to study its consequences on dyspnoea, physical activity and health status in early-stage COPD compared with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 39 early-stage COPD patients (mean FEV1 88±s...
October 13, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Eva Polverino, Graham H Bothamley, Delia Goletti, Jan Heyckendorf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti
The breadth and quality of scientific presentations on clinical and translational research into respiratory infections at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, establishes this area as one of the leadings fields in pulmonology. The host-pathogen relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the impact of comorbidities and chronic treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia were studied. Various communications were dedicated to bronchiectasis and, in particular, to different prognostic and clinical aspects of this disease, including chronic infection with Pseudomonas and inhaled antibiotic therapy...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Tara Rheault, Sanjeev Khindri, Mitra Vahdati-Bolouri, Alison Church, William A Fahy
This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily umeclidinium 62.5 µg with once-daily glycopyrronium 50 µg in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This was a 12-week, multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study ( NCT02236611). Patients were randomised 1:1 to umeclidinium 62.5 µg or glycopyrronium 50 µg administered via Ellipta or Breezhaler dry powder inhaler, respectively. The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at day 85 in the per-protocol population...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Joanna C Watts, Claude S Farah, Leigh M Seccombe, Blake M Handley, Robin E Schoeffel, Amy Bertolin, Jessica Dame Carroll, Gregory G King, Cindy Thamrin
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is gaining clinical acceptance, facilitated by more commercial devices and clinical data. However, the effects of variations in testing protocols used in FOT data acquisition are unknown. We describe the effect of duration of data acquisition on FOT results in subjects with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls. FOT data were acquired from 20 healthy, 22 asthmatic and 18 COPD subjects for 60 s in triplicate. The first 16, 30 and 60 s of each measurement were analysed to obtain total, inspiratory and expiratory resistance of respiratory system (Rrs) and respiratory system reactance (Xrs) at 5 and 19 Hz...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Giancarlo Pesce
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age-period-cohort models...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Sau Nga Fu, Wai Cho Yu, Carlos King-Ho Wong, Margaret Choi-Hing Lam
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of undiagnosed airflow obstruction (AO) among subjects with a history of smoking but no previous diagnosis of chronic lung disease. The finding of AO likely represents diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PATIENTS: People aged ≥30 years with a history of smoking who attended public outpatient clinics for primary care services were included in this study. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in five clinics in Hong Kong using the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the Lung Function Questionnaire, and office spirometry was conducted...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Georgia M Walton, James A Stockley, Diane Griffiths, Charandeep S Sadhra, Thomas Purvis, Elizabeth Sapey
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their use has been associated with improvements in some respiratory manifestations of disease and reduction in all-cause mortality, with greatest reductions seen in patients with the highest inflammatory burden. The mechanism for these effects is poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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