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Cognitive immaturity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218848/shank1-is-differentially-expressed-during-development-in-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-and-astrocytes
#1
Sean M Collins, Amogh P Belagodu, Samantha L Reed, Roberto Galvez
Recent studies have strongly suggested a role for the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK1 in normal synaptic structure and signaling. Global SHANK1 knockout (SHANK1-/-) mice demonstrate reduced dendritic spine density, an immature dendritic spine phenotype and impairments in various cognitive tasks. SHANK1 overexpression is associated with increased dendritic spine size and impairments in fear conditioning. These studies suggest proper regulation of SHANK1 is crucial for appropriate synaptic structure and cognition...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#2
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170632/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-mechanisms-of-the-development-of-neocortical-lamination
#3
REVIEW
Tatiana Popovitchenko, Mladen-Roko Rasin
The neocortex is a laminated brain structure that is the seat of higher cognitive capacity and responses, long-term memory, sensory and emotional functions, and voluntary motor behavior. Proper lamination requires that progenitor cells give rise to a neuron, that the immature neuron can migrate away from its mother cell and past other cells, and finally that the immature neuron can take its place and adopt a mature identity characterized by connectivity and gene expression; thus lamination proceeds through three steps: genesis, migration, and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138442/uv-irradiation-to-mouse-skin-decreases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-protein-expression-via-hpa-axis-activation
#4
Mira Han, Jae-Jun Ban, Jung-Soo Bae, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122005/memories-of-paternal-relations-are-associated-with-coping-and-defense-mechanisms-in-breast-cancer-patients-an-observational-study
#5
Chiara Renzi, Giada Perinel, Paola Arnaboldi, Sara Gandini, Valeria Vadilonga, Nicole Rotmensz, Angela Tagini, Florence Didier, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood...
November 9, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114038/aberrant-rac1-cofilin-signaling-mediates-defects-in-dendritic-spines-synaptic-function-and-sensory-perception-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Alexander Pyronneau, Qionger He, Jee-Yeon Hwang, Morgan Porch, Anis Contractor, R Suzanne Zukin
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disabilities and a leading cause of autism. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the gene FMR1 on the X chromosome. The neuroanatomical hallmark of FXS is an overabundance of immature dendritic spines, a factor thought to underlie synaptic dysfunction and impaired cognition. We showed that aberrantly increased activity of the Rho GTPase Rac1 inhibited the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin, a major determinant of dendritic spine structure, and caused disease-associated spine abnormalities in the somatosensory cortex of FXS model mice...
November 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105015/children-s-use-of-morphological-cues-in-real-time-event-representation
#7
Peng Zhou, Weiyi Ma
The present study investigated whether and how fast young children can use information encoded in morphological markers during real-time event representation. Using the visual world paradigm, we tested 35 adults, 34 5-year-olds and 33 3-year-olds. The results showed that the adults, the 5-year-olds and the 3-year-olds all exhibited eye gaze patterns that reflected a rapid use of morphological cues during real-time event representation. There was no difference in the time course of the eye gaze patterns of the 5-year-olds and those of the adults, indicating that 5-year-old children already have adult-like processing abilities and they can use morphological cues as effectively as adults during real-time event representation...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098009/maternal-sevoflurane-exposure-causes-abnormal-development-of-fetal-prefrontal-cortex-and-induces-cognitive-dysfunction-in-offspring
#8
Ruixue Song, Xiaomin Ling, Mengyuan Peng, Zhanggang Xue, Jing Cang, Fang Fang
Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091753/high-plasticity-of-new-granule-cells-in-the-aging-hippocampus
#9
Mariela F Trinchero, Karina A Buttner, Jessica N Sulkes Cuevas, Silvio G Temprana, Paula A Fontanet, M Cristina Monzón-Salinas, Fernanda Ledda, Gustavo Paratcha, Alejandro F Schinder
During aging, the brain undergoes changes that impair cognitive capacity and circuit plasticity, including a marked decrease in production of adult-born hippocampal neurons. It is unclear whether development and integration of those new neurons are also affected by age. Here, we show that adult-born granule cells (GCs) in aging mice are scarce and exhibit slow development, but they display a remarkable potential for structural plasticity. Retrovirally labeled 3-week-old GCs in middle-aged mice were small, underdeveloped, and disconnected...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073110/m344-promotes-nonamyloidogenic-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-while-normalizing-alzheimer-s-disease-genes-and-improving-memory
#10
Claude-Henry Volmar, Hasib Salah-Uddin, Karolina J Janczura, Paul Halley, Guerline Lambert, Andrew Wodrich, Sivan Manoah, Nidhi H Patel, Gregory C Sartor, Neil Mehta, Nancy T H Miles, Sachi Desse, David Dorcius, Michael D Cameron, Shaun P Brothers, Claes Wahlestedt
Alzheimer's disease (AD) comprises multifactorial ailments for which current therapeutic strategies remain insufficient to broadly address the underlying pathophysiology. Epigenetic gene regulation relies upon multifactorial processes that regulate multiple gene and protein pathways, including those involved in AD. We therefore took an epigenetic approach where a single drug would simultaneously affect the expression of a number of defined AD-related targets. We show that the small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitor M344 reduces beta-amyloid (Aβ), reduces tau Ser396 phosphorylation, and decreases both β-secretase (BACE) and APOEε4 gene expression...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052614/narp-mediates-antidepressant-like-effects-of-electroconvulsive-seizures
#11
Andrew D Chang, Punit V Vaidya, Edward P Retzbach, Sunho J Chung, Urian Kim, Kathryn Baselice, Kristen Maynard, Alec Stepanian, Melissa Staley, Lan Xiao, Ashley Blouin, Sungho Han, JongAh Lee, Paul F Worley, Kellie L Tamashiro, Barbara L Hempstead, Keri Martinowich, Mary Ann Wilson, Jay M Baraban, Irving M Reti
Growing recognition of persistent cognitive defects associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective and commonly used antidepressant treatment, has spurred interest in identifying its mechanism of action to guide development of safer treatment options. However, as repeated seizure activity elicits a bewildering array of electrophysiological and biochemical effects, this goal has remained elusive. We have examined whether deletion of Narp, an immediate early gene induced by electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), blocks its antidepressant efficacy...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018380/college-binge-drinking-associated-with-decreased-frontal-activation-to-negative-emotional-distractors-during-inhibitory-control
#12
Julia E Cohen-Gilbert, Lisa D Nickerson, Jennifer T Sneider, Emily N Oot, Anna M Seraikas, Michael L Rohan, Marisa M Silveri
The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960172/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-surgical-planning-in-pediatric-patients-a-preliminary-experience
#13
Jarod L Roland, Natalie Griffin, Carl D Hacker, Ananth K Vellimana, S Hassan Akbari, Joshua S Shimony, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt, David D Limbrick
OBJECTIVE Cerebral mapping for surgical planning and operative guidance is a challenging task in neurosurgery. Pediatric patients are often poor candidates for many modern mapping techniques because of inability to cooperate due to their immature age, cognitive deficits, or other factors. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is uniquely suited to benefit pediatric patients because it is inherently noninvasive and does not require task performance or significant cooperation. Recent advances in the field have made mapping cerebral networks possible on an individual basis for use in clinical decision making...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913859/changes-in-frontal-and-posterior-cortical-activity-underlie-the-early-emergence-of-executive-function
#14
Aaron T Buss, John P Spencer
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive ability? Traditionally, frontal cortex growth is thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (Bunge & Zelazo, 2006; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2009). However, more recent data highlight the importance of long-range cortical interactions between frontal and posterior brain regions...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910378/neuroinflammation-myelin-and-behavior-temporal-patterns-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#15
Toufik Taib, Claire Leconte, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Angelo H Cho, Bruno Palmier, Egle Torsello, Rene Lai Kuen, Somfieme Onyeomah, Karine Ecomard, Chiara Benedetto, Bérard Coqueran, Anne-Catherine Novak, Edwige Deou, Michel Plotkine, Pierre Gressens, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Valérie C Besson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in white matter injury (WMI) that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i) neuroinflammation, (ii) WMI and (iii) behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888818/consequences-of-perinatal-hypoxia-in-developing-brain-changes-in-gaba-transporter-functioning-in-cortical-hippocampal-and-thalamic-rat-nerve-terminals
#16
Natalia Pozdnyakova
Perinatal hypoxia leads to behavioral abnormalities, cognitive disabilities, and epilepsy resulting from alterations in neurodevelopment, maturation and construction of the network. Considering a particular role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for an immature brain, we analysed transporter-mediated [(3)H]GABA uptake in the cortical, hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals isolated from rats of different age in the control and after perinatal hypoxia. The state of hypoxia was induced by exposure of rats at the age of 10 postnatal days (pd) (that corresponds approximately to the time of birth in humans) to a respiratory medium with low O2 content (4% O2 and 96%N2) for 12min (up to the initiation of clonico-tonic seizures)...
December 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886753/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compromising-hippocampal-inhibition
#17
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880891/altered-right-anterior-insular-connectivity-and-loss-of-associated-functions-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#18
Laura Anne Wortinger, Merete Glenne Øie, Tor Endestad, Vegard Bruun Wyller
Impairments in cognition, pain intolerance, and physical inactivity characterize adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet little is known about its neurobiology. The right dorsal anterior insular (dAI) connectivity of the salience network provides a motivational context to stimuli. In this study, we examined regional functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the right dAI in adolescent CFS patients and healthy participants. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged-matched healthy adolescent control participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872640/nectin-3-modulates-the-structural-plasticity-of-dentate-granule-cells-and-long-term-memory
#19
X-X Wang, J-T Li, X-M Xie, Y Gu, T-M Si, M V Schmidt, X-D Wang
Nectin-3, a cell adhesion molecule enriched in hippocampal neurons, has been implicated in stress-related cognitive disorders. Nectin-3 is expressed by granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), but it remains unclear whether nectin-3 in DG modulates the structural plasticity of dentate granule cells and hippocampus-dependent memory. In this study, we found that DG nectin-3 expression levels were developmentally regulated and reduced by early postnatal stress exposure in adult mice. Most importantly, knockdown of nectin-3 levels in all DG neuron populations by adeno-associated virus (AAV) mimicked the cognitive effects of early-life stress, and impaired long-term spatial memory and temporal order memory...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865754/prolonged-sleep-deprivation-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-immature-newborn-neurons-in-both-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#20
Yusuke Murata, Ayana Oka, Ayaka Iseki, Masayoshi Mori, Kenji Ohe, Kazunori Mine, Munechika Enjoji
Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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