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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627578/selective-alteration-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-impaired-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-in-the-rsk2-deficient-mouse-model-of-coffin-lowry-syndrome
#1
Charlotte Castillon, Steeve Lunion, Nathalie Desvignes, André Hanauer, Serge Laroche, Roseline Poirier
Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo...
April 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627273/neural-functional-correlates-of-the-impact-of-socio-emotional-stimuli-on-performances-on-a-flanker-task-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#2
Morgane Réveillon, François Lazeyras, Laurens Van Calster, Yann Cojan, David Sander, Petra S Hüppi, Koviljka Barrisnikov
Immature cognition is susceptible to interference from competing information, and particularly in affectively charged situations. Several studies have reported activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and amygdala associated with emotional conflict processing in adults but literature is lacking regarding children. Moreover, studies in children and adolescents still disagree regarding the functional activation of amygdala related to facial stimuli. In the purpose of investigating both the effect of socio-emotional stimuli and its interaction with interference control, we designed a flanker task associated with an event-related fMRI paradigm in 30 healthy children ages 9-11...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626499/effects-of-advanced-maternal-age-on-cognitive-and-emotional-development-in-offspring-rats
#3
Wei Han, Xiangjun Dong, Xiaojie Song, Li Cheng, Lingling Xie, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
Due to socio-economic development, an increasing number of women delay childbirth to their late 30 s and older. However, this delay brings a series of health problems to pregnant women and their offspring. The few studies on the effects of advanced maternal age (AMA) on offspring development, especially regarding neurocognitive and emotional development, reported mixed results. We examined the relationship between AMA and the performance of immature offspring of 3- versus 12-month-old Sprague-Dawley rat females on neurocognitive development tests and the possible mechanism of this relationship; the rats were individually housed with a randomly selected 3-month-old male, and the cognitive development of the offspring was evaluated by behavior tests including the Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, forced swimming and 3-chambered social behavior tests...
April 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625071/human-hippocampal-neurogenesis-persists-throughout-aging
#4
Maura Boldrini, Camille A Fulmore, Alexandria N Tartt, Laika R Simeon, Ina Pavlova, Verica Poposka, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Aleksandar Stankov, Victoria Arango, Andrew J Dwork, René Hen, J John Mann
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines in aging rodents and primates. Aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decrease in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, although concurrent changes in these parameters are not well studied. Here we assessed whole autopsy hippocampi from healthy human individuals ranging from 14 to 79 years of age. We found similar numbers of intermediate neural progenitors and thousands of immature neurons in the DG, comparable numbers of glia and mature granule neurons, and equivalent DG volume across ages...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615936/event-related-potential-measures-of-attention-capture-in-adolescent-inpatients-with-acute-suicidal-behavior
#5
Paniz Tavakoli, Addo Boafo, Allyson Dale, Rebecca Robillard, Stephanie L Greenham, Kenneth Campbell
Impaired executive functions, modulated by the frontal lobes, have been suggested to be associated with suicidal behavior. The present study examines one of these executive functions, attentional control, maintaining attention to the task-at-hand. A group of inpatient adolescents with acute suicidal behavior and healthy controls were studied using a passively presented auditory optimal paradigm. This "optimal" paradigm consisted of a series of frequently presented homogenous pure tone "standards" and different "deviants," constructed by changing one or more features of the standard...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614674/optical-depolarization-of-dcx-expressing-cells-promoted-cognitive-recovery-and-maturation-of-newborn-neurons-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#6
Ming-Liang Zhao, Shi-Jin Chen, Xiao-Hong Li, Li-Na Wang, Feng Chen, Shi-Jiang Zhong, Cheng Yang, Sheng-Kai Sun, Jian-Jun Li, Hua-Jiang Dong, Yue-Qing Dong, Yi Wang, Chong Chen
Electrical excitability by membrane depolarization is crucial for survival and maturation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. However, traditional technology for membrane depolarization lacks temporal and spatial precision. Optogenetics can be used to activate channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), allowing cationic current to depolarize genetically targeted cells. In this study, we used ChR2-EGFP driven by doublecortin (DCX) to promote survival and maturation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540721/dopamine-d1-receptor-density-in-the-mpfc-responds-to-cognitive-demands-and-receptor-turnover-contributes-to-general-cognitive-ability-in-mice
#7
Christopher Wass, Bruno Sauce, Alessandro Pizzo, Louis D Matzel
In both humans and mice, performance on tests of intelligence or general cognitive ability (GCA) is related to dopamine D1 receptor-mediated activity in the prelimbic cortex, and levels of DRD1 mRNA predict the GCA of mice. Here we assessed the turnover rate of D1 receptors as well as the expression level of the D1 chaperone protein (DRiP78) in the medial PPC (mPFC) of mice to determine whether rate of receptor turnover was associated with variations in the GCA of genetically heterogeneous mice. Following assessment of GCA (aggregate performance on four diverse learning tests) mice were administered an irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist (EEDQ), after which the density of new D1 receptors were quantified...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531536/implantation-of-neuronal-stem-cells-enhances-object-recognition-without-increasing-neurogenesis-after-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-mice
#8
Laura B Ngwenya, Sarmistha Mazumder, Zachary R Porter, Amy Minnema, Duane J Oswald, H Francis Farhadi
Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520224/young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-show-early-atypical-neural-activity-during-emotional-face-processing
#9
Rachel C Leung, Elizabeth W Pang, Evdokia Anagnostou, Margot J Taylor
Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476662/new-clinicopathological-associations-and-histoprognostic-markers-in-ilae-types-of-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Bertrand Mathon, Pierre Lévy, Anne Bertrand, Karima Mokhtari, Véronique Samson, Valérie Thuriès, Virginie Lambrecq, Vi-Huong Michel Nguyen, Sophie Dupont, Claude Adam, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Clémenceau, Charles Duyckaerts, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery...
February 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471869/type-2-diabetes-impairs-odour-detection-olfactory-memory-and-olfactory-neuroplasticity-effects-partly-reversed-by-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-linagliptin
#11
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455576/central-infusion-of-igf-1-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-improves-neurobehavioral-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces neuronal dysfunction and cellular loss that can culminate in lasting impairments in cognitive and motor abilities. Therapeutic agents that promote repair and replenish neurons after TBI hold promise in improving recovery of function. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor capable of mediating neuroprotective and neuroplasticity mechanisms. Targeted overexpression of IGF-1 enhances the generation of hippocampal newborn neurons in brain-injured mice; however, the translational neurogenic potential of exogenously administered IGF-1 after TBI remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449820/headache-and-alexithymia-in-children-and-adolescents-what-is-the-connection
#13
REVIEW
Giulia Natalucci, Noemi Faedda, Dario Calderoni, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Vincenzo Guidetti
Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints in children and adolescents and comorbidity rates are very high and the major associated diseases are depression, anxiety, atopic disorders, sleep, and behavioral disorders. In recent years, it has been highlighted that difficulties regulating emotions such as alexithymia have also been associated with diagnosis of somatization. Methods: We carried out a mini review analyzing the relation between alexithymia and primary headache (e.g., migraine and tension type headache) in children and adolescents by synthesizing the relevant studies in the literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401076/smarttots-update-regarding-anesthetic-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain
#14
Beverley A Orser, Santhanam Suresh, Alex S Evers
SmartTots (http://smarttots.org/) represents a public-private partnership between the International Anesthesia Research Society and the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the past 7 years, SmartTots has worked in collaboration with various stakeholders to determine whether anesthetic drugs have detrimental effects on the developing brain. SmartTots has funded clinical and preclinical studies, organized meetings, served as a repository of peer-reviewed information, and facilitated the development of consensus-based statements...
February 2, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372349/cognitive-impairment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-role-of-lymphocyte-subsets-cytokines-and-neurotrophic-factors
#15
Laura E Petersen, Talita S A Baptista, Júlia K Molina, Julia G Motta, Aline do Prado, Deise M Piovesan, Tatiana de Nardi, Thiago W Viola, Érica L M Vieira, Antonio L Teixeira, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Moisés Evandro Bauer
To what extent the cognitive impairment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is modulated by autoimmune and/or inflammatory activity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripheral inflammation on cognitive functions of patients with active (Ac-), controlled (Co-) RA and healthy controls. In a cross-sectional study, 102 RA patients and 30 matched healthy controls were recruited. B and T cell subsets were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. Plasma cytokines and neurotrophins were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357019/disruption-to-the-5-ht-7-receptor-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-immature-rodent-brain
#16
Julie A Wixey, Hanna E Reinebrant, Kirat K Chand, Kathryn M Buller
It has become increasingly evident the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is an important central neuronal network disrupted following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insults. Serotonin acts via a variety of receptor subtypes that are differentially associated with behavioural and cognitive mechanisms. The 5-HT7 receptor is purported to play a key role in epilepsy, anxiety, learning and memory and neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the 5-HT7 receptor is highly localized in brain regions damaged following neonatal HI insults...
March 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353373/disturbance-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-long-term-depression-mglu-ltd-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-after-prenatal-immune-challenge
#17
Mélanie Cavalier, Azza Ben Sedrine, Lea Thevenet, Nadine Crouzin, Janique Guiramand, Marie-Céleste de Jésus Ferreira, Catherine Cohen-Solal, Gérard Barbanel, Michel Vignes
Maternal immune challenge has proved to induce moderate to severe behavioral disabilities in the offspring. Cognitive/behavioral deficits are supported by changes in synaptic plasticity in different brain areas. We have reported previously that prenatal exposure to bacterial LPS could induce inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the juvenile/adult male offspring associated with spatial learning inabilities. Nevertheless, deficits in plasticity could be observed at earlier stages as shown by the early loss of long-term depression (LTD) in immature animals...
January 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315514/cytotoxic-edema-at-onset-in-west-syndrome-of-unknown-etiology-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#18
Chikako Ogawa, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tatsuya Fukasawa, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Naoko Ishihara, Yuji Ito, Yoko Sakaguchi, Yu Okai, Atsuko Ohno, Tomohiko Nakata, Yoshiteru Azuma, Ayako Hattori, Tetsuo Kubota, Takeshi Tsuji, Akihiro Hirakawa, Hisashi Kawai, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: To clarify longitudinal changes in white matter microstructures from the onset of disease in patients with West syndrome (WS) of unknown etiology. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was prospectively performed at onset and at 12 and 24 months old in 17 children with WS of unknown etiology. DTI was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tract-specific analysis (TSA) of 13 fiber tracts, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared with those of 42 age-matched controls...
February 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295510/pollution-from-fossil-fuel-combustion-is-the-leading-environmental-threat-to-global-pediatric-health-and-equity-solutions-exist
#19
Frederica Perera
Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world's most significant threat to children's health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases-all of which may be "seeded" in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288061/the-effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-on-radiation-induced-neuron-architecture-impairment-is-associated-with-the-nfatc4-3-pathway
#20
Qixian Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Ru He, Quanhong Ma, Rui Sun, Shengjun Ji, Bei Wang, Ye Tian
Irradiation to developing brains results in progressive cognitive dysfunction. Changes in the morphology of mature neurons are thought to be related to impairments of cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on neurite outgrowth of immature neurons. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the structural alterations of immature neurons following X-ray irradiation and determine potential strategies to reverse it. Our data revealed damage to the neurite outgrowths of cultured neurons after 2 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation at 1 d and 3 d, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research
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