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Cognitive immaturity

A S Parent, A Pinson, N Woods, C Chatzi, C E Vaaga, A Bensen, A Gérard, J P Thome, J P Bourguignon, G L Westbrook
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus may provide a sensitive indicator of environmental stress. We examined the effects of Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on the development and function of newly-generated dentate granule cells. Early exposure to A1254 has been associated with learning impairment in children, suggesting potential impact on the development of hippocampus and/or cortical circuits...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Adellah Sariah, Joan Rugemalila, Magreat Somba, Anna Minja, Margareth Makuchilo, Edith Tarimo, David Urassa, Helen Siril
BACKGROUND: The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4-11 years after. METHOD: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsia
Karen Lidzba, Susanne Rodemann, Rangmar Goelz, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Andrea Bevot
BACKGROUND: The contribution of growth parameters to the cognitive outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW)/very preterm (VP) infants is difficult to disentangle from other preterm-birth related factors. AIMS: We hypothesized that long-term cognitive and motor outcome of VLBW/VP infants is most strongly associated with growth in head circumference after hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centre prospective longitudinal study: anthropometric measures at different time points (birth, discharge, school-age)...
October 4, 2016: Early Human Development
Ying Xu, Ye Tian, Yue Tian, Xingyue Li, Ping Zhao
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) in neonates can lead to lifelong cognitive and memory impairment, but protective strategies are lacking at present. It has been demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in HIBI, while the function of autophagy in cognitive and memory impairment induced by HIBI in neonates has not been tested. In this study, we tested the impact of autophagy on the impairment of cognitive function and memory in HIBI neonatal rats by using a Morris water maze and investigated its possible mechanisms, which were established as HIBI model by ligating the left common carotid artery in neonatal rats, followed by 2-h hypoxia...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Santiago Hem, Romina Albite, Monica Loresi, Jorge Rasmussen, Pablo Ajler, Claudio Yampolsky, Joseph D Chabot, Peter C Gerszten, Ezequiel Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a known complication after intracranial surgery. Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in animal models. METHODS: In order to assess hippocampal changes after brain surgery, a frontal lobe corticectomy was performed in ten adult Wistar rats (group 4). Three different control groups (n = 10 each) included no treatment (G1), general anesthesia alone (G2), and craniectomy without dural opening (G3)...
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Charleine Zussy, Fabien Loustalot, Felix Junyent, Fabrizio Gardoni, Cyril Bories, Jorge Valero, Michel G Desarménien, Florence Bernex, Daniel Henaff, Neus Bayo-Puxan, Jin-Wen Chen, Nicolas Lonjon, Yves de Koninck, João O Malva, Jeffrey M Bergelson, Monica di Luca, Giampietro Schiavo, Sara Salinas, Eric J Kremer
UNLABELLED: Although we are beginning to understand the late stage of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular defects associated with the initiation of impaired cognition are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that in the adult brain, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is located on neuron projections, at the presynapse in mature neurons, and on the soma of immature neurons in the hippocampus. In a proinflammatory or diseased environment, CAR is lost from immature neurons in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A Ribadier, I Varescon
INTRODUCTION: Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Carlos Manterola
INTRODUCTION: Perceived exertion scales quantify the sensation caused by metabolic changes during exercise. Children need tailored tools due to their cognitive immaturity such as the EPInfant scale recently developed in Chile.  OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reliability of the EPInfant scale in children during a graded exercise test.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study for which we selected healthy children younger than 18 years and grouped them according to Piaget's stages of cognitive maturity: Concrete operations (8-12 years) and formal intelligence (13-15 years)...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Raffaella Moretti, Vibol Chhor, Donatella Bettati, Elena Banino, Silvana De Lucia, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Julien Pansiot, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Vincent Degos, Luigi Titomanlio, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells (MCs) in the brain, releasing a range of immunomodulatory substances; inhibition of these cells is neuroprotective in other types of neonatal brain injury...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
M A Rahman, M M Zaman, M M Rahman, M Moniruzzaman, B Ahmed, F K Chhobi, N Rahman, M R Akter
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of all childhood disorders. There are tone, posture and movements difficulty due to non-progressive damage to the immature brain in CP. The hallmark of CP is a disability in the development of gross motor function (GMF). The influence of gross motor development on fine motor development is more important in early developmental period, specially under three years old and in children with CP. Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of GMF development...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Jun Yamada, Jun Hatabe, Kaori Tankyo, Shozo Jinno
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and emotion. Intriguingly, reduction in new cell production in the hippocampus in middle age may underlie some of the cognitive deficits. Among several factors that may affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, estrogens have been suggested to be critically involved in the cognitive impairment of postmenopausal women. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, are expected to work as estrogen substitutes. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of daidzein on adult hippocampal neurogenesis using middle-aged (12-month-old) female mice...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Yi Wei, Junhua Hu, Yubing Liang, Yuling Zhong, Dan He, Yi Qin, Li Li, Jing Chen, Qiang Xiao, Yubo Xie
Propofol is widely used for the induction and maintenance of pediatric anesthesia. Previous studies have indicated that propofol can induce apoptosis, and damage cognitive and memory functions. Dexmedetomidine is a potent α‑2 adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. Previous observations have shown that dexmedetomidine exhibits anti‑apoptotic qualities. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment against propofol‑induced neurotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
Over a decade ago, alarming findings were reported that exposure of the very young and very old animals to clinically used general anesthetics could be detrimental to their brains. The evidence presented suggested that the exposure to commonly used gaseous and intravenous general anesthetics induces the biochemical and morphologic changes in the immature and aging neurons ultimately resulting in their demise. More alarming was the demonstration of significant cognitive and behavioral impairments noted long after the initial anesthesia exposure...
September 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
Yu-Cheng Wang, Oi-Wa Chan, Ming-Chou Chiang, Peng-Hong Yang, Shih-Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often considered a life-saving measure in critically ill neonates. The smallest and least mature infants tend to receive the largest amount of transfusions. RBC transfusion itself has also been suggested as an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome in critical patients. Our aim is to study if there are associations between RBC transfusion and in-hospital mortality, short-term morbidities, and late neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants...
July 5, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Samantha Johnson, Neil Marlow
There is no question that birth at extremely low gestational ages presents a significant threat to an infant's survival, health and development. Growing evidence suggests that gestational age may be conceptualised as a continuum in which births before 28 weeks of gestation (extremely preterm: EP) represent the severe end of a spectrum of health and developmental adversity. Although comprising just 1%-2% of all births, EP deliveries pose the greatest challenge to neonatal medicine and to health, education and social services for the provision of ongoing support for survivors with additional needs...
August 10, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Carlos Hernández Blasi, David F Bjorklund, Marcos Ruiz Soler
In this study, we analysed the reaction times of 137 college students when making decisions on pairs of hypothetical children verbalizing different types of vignettes and/or exhibiting different physical appearance (photographs of faces). Vignettes depicted immature and mature versions of both supernatural (e.g., 'The sun's not out today because it's mad' vs. 'The sun's not out today because the clouds are blocking it') and natural ('I can remember all 20 cards!' vs. 'I can remember 6 or 7 cards') explanations to ordinary phenomena...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Anders Bergström, Sanne S Kaalund, Kerstin Skovgaard, Anders D Andersen, Bente Pakkenberg, Ann Rosenørn, Ruurd M van Elburg, Thomas Thymann, Gorm O Greisen, Per T Sanglid
Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
Chiara Squarza, Odoardo Picciolini, Laura Gardon, Maria L Giannì, Alessandra Murru, Silvana Gangi, Ivan Cortinovis, Silvano Milani, Fabio Mosca
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sofia Baptista, Joana Lourenço, Nuno Milhazes, Fernanda Borges, Ana Paula Silva, Alberto Bacci
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant, affecting hippocampal function with disparate cognitive effects, which depends on the dose and time of administration, ranging from improvement to impairment of memory. Importantly, in the United States, METH is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Modifications of long-term plasticity of synapses originating from the entorhinal cortex onto dentate granule cells (DGCs) have been proposed to underlie cognitive alterations similar to those seen in METH users...
May 2016: ENeuro
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