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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913859/changes-in-frontal-and-posterior-cortical-activity-underlie-the-early-emergence-of-executive-function
#1
Aaron T Buss, John P Spencer
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive ability? Traditionally, frontal cortex growth is thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (Bunge & Zelazo, 2006; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2009). However, more recent data highlight the importance of long-range cortical interactions between frontal and posterior brain regions...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910378/neuroinflammation-myelin-and-behavior-temporal-patterns-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#2
Toufik Taib, Claire Leconte, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Angelo H Cho, Bruno Palmier, Egle Torsello, Rene Lai Kuen, Somfieme Onyeomah, Karine Ecomard, Chiara Benedetto, Bérard Coqueran, Anne-Catherine Novak, Edwige Deou, Michel Plotkine, Pierre Gressens, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Valérie C Besson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in white matter injury (WMI) that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i) neuroinflammation, (ii) WMI and (iii) behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888818/consequences-of-perinatal-hypoxia-in-developing-brain-changes-in-gaba-transporter-functioning-in-cortical-hippocampal-and-thalamic-rat-nerve-terminals
#3
Natalia Pozdnyakova
Perinatal hypoxia leads to behavioral abnormalities, cognitive disabilities, and epilepsy resulting from alterations in neurodevelopment, maturation and construction of the network. Considering a particular role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for an immature brain, we analysed transporter-mediated [(3)H]GABA uptake in the cortical, hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals isolated from rats of different age in the control and after perinatal hypoxia. The state of hypoxia was induced by exposure of rats at the age of 10 postnatal days (pd) (that corresponds approximately to the time of birth in humans) to a respiratory medium with low O2 content (4% O2 and 96%N2) for 12min (up to the initiation of clonico-tonic seizures)...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886753/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compromising-hippocampal-inhibition
#4
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880891/altered-right-anterior-insular-connectivity-and-loss-of-associated-functions-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#5
Laura Anne Wortinger, Merete Glenne Øie, Tor Endestad, Vegard Bruun Wyller
Impairments in cognition, pain intolerance, and physical inactivity characterize adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet little is known about its neurobiology. The right dorsal anterior insular (dAI) connectivity of the salience network provides a motivational context to stimuli. In this study, we examined regional functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the right dAI in adolescent CFS patients and healthy participants. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged-matched healthy adolescent control participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872640/nectin-3-modulates-the-structural-plasticity-of-dentate-granule-cells-and-long-term-memory
#6
X-X Wang, J-T Li, X-M Xie, Y Gu, T-M Si, M V Schmidt, X-D Wang
Nectin-3, a cell adhesion molecule enriched in hippocampal neurons, has been implicated in stress-related cognitive disorders. Nectin-3 is expressed by granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), but it remains unclear whether nectin-3 in DG modulates the structural plasticity of dentate granule cells and hippocampus-dependent memory. In this study, we found that DG nectin-3 expression levels were developmentally regulated and reduced by early postnatal stress exposure in adult mice. Most importantly, knockdown of nectin-3 levels in all DG neuron populations by adeno-associated virus (AAV) mimicked the cognitive effects of early-life stress, and impaired long-term spatial memory and temporal order memory...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865754/prolonged-sleep-deprivation-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-immature-newborn-neurons-in-both-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#7
Yusuke Murata, Ayana Oka, Ayaka Iseki, Masayoshi Mori, Kenji Ohe, Kazunori Mine, Munechika Enjoji
Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837861/klotho-regulates-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-protects-against-age-related-spatial-memory-loss
#8
Ann M Laszczyk, Stephanie Fox-Quick, Hai T Vo, Dailey Nettles, Phyllis C Pugh, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche, Gwendalyn D King
Although the absence of the age-regulating klotho protein causes klotho-deficient mice to rapidly develop cognitive impairment and increasing klotho enhances hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular effects of klotho that mediate hippocampal-dependent memory function are unknown. Here, we show premature aging of the klotho-deficient hippocampal neurogenic niche as evidenced by reduced numbers of neural stem cells, decreased proliferation, and impaired maturation of immature neurons. Klotho-deficient neurospheres show reduced proliferation and size that is rescued by supplementation with shed klotho protein...
July 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801114/effects-of-curcumin-on-short-term-spatial-and-recognition-memory-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#9
Taysa B Bassani, Joelle M Turnes, Eric L R Moura, Jéssica M Bonato, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with evidence of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Recent evidence also suggests that curcumin increases cognitive performance in animal models of dementia, and this effect would be related to its capacity to enhance adult neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that curcumin treatment would be able to preserve cognition by increasing neurogenesis and decreasing neuroinflammation in the model of dementia of Alzheimer's type induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in Wistar rats...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782255/pou3f2-participates-in-cognitive-function-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-mammalian-characteristic-amino-acid-repeats
#10
Koichi Hashizume, Masashi Yamanaka, Shintaroh Ueda
POU3F2/BRN-2 is a transcription factor that is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and plays an important role in brain development. The transactivation domain of POU3F2 includes multiple mammalian-characteristic tandem amino acid repeats (homopolymeric amino acid repeats). We previously generated knock-in mice (Pou3f2(Δ)(/Δ) mice) in which all three homopolymeric amino acid repeats were deleted from the Pou3f2 transactivation domain and identified phenotypic impairments in maternal behavior and pup recognition...
August 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780369/new-method-to-induce-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodents-produces-differential-outcomes-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Peter Wirth, Waylin Yu, Amanda L Kimball, Jennifer Liao, Paul Berkner, Melissa J Glenn
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are an increasing health concern due to persistent behavioral and neurological effects. To better understand these effects, researchers frequently rely on animal injury models. Existing models, however, may not adequately reproduce the mechanism of injury as it occurs in humans. NEW METHOD: Our new model for inducing mTBI in rodents entails acceleration of the animal toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#12
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766905/evidence-for-reduced-neurogenesis-in-the-aging-human-hippocampus-despite-stable-stem-cell-markers
#13
Kathryn J Mathews, Katherine M Allen, Danny Boerrigter, Helen Ball, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Kay L Double
Reduced neurogenesis in the aging mammalian hippocampus has been linked to cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia. We utilized postmortem human hippocampal tissue from 26 subjects aged 18-88 years to investigate changes in expression of six genes representing different stages of neurogenesis across the healthy adult lifespan. Progressive and significant decreases in mRNA levels of the proliferation marker Ki67 (MKI67) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) were found in the healthy human hippocampus over the lifespan...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735381/characterization-of-the-sensorimotor-rhythm-in-4-month-old-infants-born-at-term-and-premature
#14
Milene Roca-Stappung, Minerva Moguel-González, Thalía Fernández, Thalía Harmony, Omar Mendoza-Montoya, José Luis Marroquín, Salvador Ruiz-Correa, Lourdes Díaz-Comas, Gloria Otero-Ojeda
The sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is an electroencephalographic rhythm associated with motor and cognitive development observed in the central brain regions during wakefulness in the absence of movement, and it reacts contralaterally to generalized and hemibody movements. The purpose of this work was to characterize the SMR of 4-month-old infants, born either healthy at term or prematurely with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Two groups of infants were formed: healthy and premature with PVL. Their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded in four conditions: rest, free movement, right-hand grasping and left-hand grasping, in order to explore general reactivity to free movement and contralateral reactivity in hand-grasping conditions...
July 22, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724747/interleukin-1-receptor-in-seizure-susceptibility-after-traumatic-injury-to-the-pediatric-brain
#15
Bridgette D Semple, Terence J O'Brien, Kayleen Gimlin, David K Wright, Shi Eun Kim, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kyria M Webster, Steven Petrou, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717598/development-rate-rather-than-social-environment-influences-cognitive-performance-in-australian-black-field-crickets-teleogryllus-commodus
#16
Caitlin L Anderson, Michael M Kasumovic
Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713243/synaptic-interactome-mining-reveals-p140cap-as-a-new-hub-for-psd-proteins-involved-in-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#17
Annalisa Alfieri, Oksana Sorokina, Annie Adrait, Costanza Angelini, Isabella Russo, Alessandro Morellato, Michela Matteoli, Elisabetta Menna, Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Colin McLean, J Douglas Armstrong, Ugo Ala, Joseph D Buxbaum, Alfredo Brusco, Yohann Couté, Silvia De Rubeis, Emilia Turco, Paola Defilippi
Altered synaptic function has been associated with neurological and psychiatric conditions including intellectual disability, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Amongst the recently discovered synaptic proteins is p140Cap, an adaptor that localizes at dendritic spines and regulates their maturation and physiology. We recently showed that p140Cap knockout mice have cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), and immature, filopodia-like dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699826/contralateral-associated-movements-correlate-with-inhibitory-control-and-selective-and-visual-attention-in-preschool-children
#18
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Andrea H Meyer, Annina E Zysset, Kerstin Stülb, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Amar Arhab, Jardena J Puder, Susi Kriemler, Simone Munsch, Oskar G Jenni
Contralateral associated movements (CAMs) frequently occur in complex motor tasks. We investigated whether and to what extent CAMs are associated with inhibitory control among preschool children in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study. Participants included 476 healthy, typically developing children (mean age = 3.88 years; 251 boys) and were evaluated on two consecutive afternoons. The children performed the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment, the statue subtest of the Neuropsychological Assessment for Children (NEPSY), and cognitive tests of the Intelligence and Development Scales-Preschool (IDS-P)...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686045/challenges-of-diabetes-management-in-toddlers
#19
Asma Deeb
Toddlers with type 1 diabetes have distinctive combination of challenges to their families and healthcare providers. A major factor is the difficulty in achieving metabolic control without risking hypoglycemia. The rising incidence of type 1 diabetes in toddlers increases the magnitude of the problem and creates a greater need for providing specialized service to cater for this age group's unique need. Type 1 has a specific disease nature in younger children and its clinical presentation mimics common childhood diseases...
July 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656372/increased-gyrification-and-aberrant-adult-neurogenesis-of-the-dentate-gyrus-in-adult-rats
#20
Alejandra Magagna-Poveda, Jillian N Moretto, Helen E Scharfman
A remarkable example of maladaptive plasticity is the development of epilepsy after a brain insult or injury to a normal animal or human. A structure that is considered central to the development of this type of epilepsy is the dentate gyrus (DG), because it is normally a relatively inhibited structure and its quiescence is thought to reduce hippocampal seizure activity. This characteristic of the DG is also considered to be important for normal hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. It has been suggested that the brain insults which cause epilepsy do so because they cause the DG to be more easily activated...
June 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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