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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#1
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818218/role-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Vibol Chhor, Raffaella Moretti, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Stephanie Sigaut, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Marie-Virginie Oré, Chiara Zuiani, Valentina Milan, Julien Josserand, Regina Vontell, Julien Pansiot, Vincent Degos, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Luigi Titomanlio, Henrik Hagberg, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain that mediate neuroinflammation, are activated following TBI in the immature brain. However, the type and temporal profile of this activation and the consequences of altering it are still largely unknown...
November 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807606/bdnf-concentrations-and-daily-fluctuations-differ-among-adhd-children-and-respond-differently-to-methylphenidate-with-no-relationship-with-depressive-symptomatology
#3
Isabel Cubero-Millán, María-José Ruiz-Ramos, Antonio Molina-Carballo, Sylvia Martínez-Serrano, Luisa Fernández-López, Irene Machado-Casas, Pilar Tortosa-Pinto, Aida Ruiz-López, Juan-de-Dios Luna-Del-Castillo, José Uberos, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
RATIONALE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the growth and maintenance of several monoamine neuronal systems, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator and participates in the mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. Therefore, BDNF is a good candidate for interventions in the pathogenesis and/or treatment response of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: We quantified the basal concentration and daily fluctuation of serum BDNF, as well as changes after methylphenidate treatment...
November 3, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807176/hiv-tat-impairs-neurogenesis-through-functioning-as-a-notch-ligand-and-activation-of-notch-signaling-pathway
#4
Yan Fan, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
: Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793768/cognitive-changes-across-the-menopause-transition-a-longitudinal-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-age-and-ovarian-status-on-spatial-memory
#5
Stephanie V Koebele, Sarah E Mennenga, Ryoko Hiroi, Alicia M Quihuis, Lauren T Hewitt, Mallori L Poisson, Christina George, Loretta P Mayer, Cheryl A Dyer, Leona S Aiken, Laurence M Demers, Catherine Carson, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Cognitive changes that occur during mid-life and beyond are linked to both aging and the menopause transition. Studies in women suggest that the age at menopause onset can impact cognitive status later in life; yet, little is known about memory changes that occur during the transitional period to the postmenopausal state. The 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) model simulates transitional menopause in rodents by depleting the immature ovarian follicle reserve and allowing animals to retain their follicle-deplete ovarian tissue, resulting in a profile similar to the majority of perimenopausal women...
October 26, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793659/do-anesthetics-harm-the-developing-human-brain-an-integrative-analysis-of-animal-and-human-studies
#6
Erica P Lin, Jeong-Rim Lee, Christopher S Lee, Meng Deng, Andreas W Loepke
Anesthetics permit surgical procedures and stressful interventions have been found to cause structural brain abnormalities and functional impairment in immature animals, generating extensive concerns among clinicians, parents, and government regulators regarding the safe use of these drugs in young children. Critically important questions remain, such as the exact age at which the developing brain is most vulnerable to the effects of anesthetic exposure, whether a particular age exists beyond which anesthetics are devoid of long-term effects on the brain, and whether any specific exposure duration exists that does not lead to deleterious effects...
October 26, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785461/immature-neurons-and-radial-glia-but-not-astrocytes-or-microglia-are-altered-in-adult-cntnap2-and-shank3-mice-models-of-autism
#7
Elise C Cope, Brandy A Briones, Adam T Brockett, Susana Martinez, Pierre-Antoine Vigneron, Maya Opendak, Samuel S-H Wang, Elizabeth Gould
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with cognitive deficits and excessive anxiety. Neuroimaging studies have shown atypical structure and neural connectivity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and striatum, regions associated with cognitive function and anxiety regulation. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in many behaviors that are disrupted in ASD, including cognition, anxiety, and social behaviors. Additionally, glial cells, such as astrocytes and microglia, are important for modulating neural connectivity during development, and glial dysfunction has been hypothesized to be a key contributor to the development of ASD...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740705/early-exposure-to-aroclor-1254-in-vivo-disrupts-the-functional-synaptic-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-granule-cells
#8
A S Parent, A Pinson, N Woods, C Chatzi, C E Vaaga, A Bensen, A Gérard, J P Thome, J P Bourguignon, G L Westbrook
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus may provide a sensitive indicator of environmental stress. We examined the effects of Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on the development and function of newly-generated dentate granule cells. Early exposure to A1254 has been associated with learning impairment in children, suggesting potential impact on the development of hippocampus and/or cortical circuits...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737669/-experiences-with-disclosure-of-hiv-positive-status-to-the-infected-child-perspectives-of-healthcare-providers-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
Adellah Sariah, Joan Rugemalila, Magreat Somba, Anna Minja, Margareth Makuchilo, Edith Tarimo, David Urassa, Helen Siril
BACKGROUND: The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731507/remembrance-and-time-passed-memory-outcomes-4-11-years-after-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#10
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4-11 years after. METHOD: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716567/growth-in-very-preterm-children-head-growth-after-discharge-is-the-best-independent-predictor-for-cognitive-outcome
#11
Karen Lidzba, Susanne Rodemann, Rangmar Goelz, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Andrea Bevot
BACKGROUND: The contribution of growth parameters to the cognitive outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW)/very preterm (VP) infants is difficult to disentangle from other preterm-birth related factors. AIMS: We hypothesized that long-term cognitive and motor outcome of VLBW/VP infants is most strongly associated with growth in head circumference after hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centre prospective longitudinal study: anthropometric measures at different time points (birth, discharge, school-age)...
October 5, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659442/autophagy-activation-involved-in-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-induces-cognitive-and-memory-impairment-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Ying Xu, Ye Tian, Yue Tian, Xingyue Li, Ping Zhao
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) in neonates can lead to lifelong cognitive and memory impairment, but protective strategies are lacking at present. It has been demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in HIBI, while the function of autophagy in cognitive and memory impairment induced by HIBI in neonates has not been tested. In this study, we tested the impact of autophagy on the impairment of cognitive function and memory in HIBI neonatal rats by using a Morris water maze and investigated its possible mechanisms, which were established as HIBI model by ligating the left common carotid artery in neonatal rats, followed by 2-h hypoxia...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631973/pathological-changes-of-the-hippocampus-and-cognitive-dysfunction-following-frontal-lobe-surgery-in-a-rat-model
#13
Santiago Hem, Romina Albite, Monica Loresi, Jorge Rasmussen, Pablo Ajler, Claudio Yampolsky, Joseph D Chabot, Peter C Gerszten, Ezequiel Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a known complication after intracranial surgery. Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in animal models. METHODS: In order to assess hippocampal changes after brain surgery, a frontal lobe corticectomy was performed in ten adult Wistar rats (group 4). Three different control groups (n = 10 each) included no treatment (G1), general anesthesia alone (G2), and craniectomy without dural opening (G3)...
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629708/coxsackievirus-adenovirus-receptor-loss-impairs-adult-neurogenesis-synapse-content-and-hippocampus-plasticity
#14
Charleine Zussy, Fabien Loustalot, Felix Junyent, Fabrizio Gardoni, Cyril Bories, Jorge Valero, Michel G Desarménien, Florence Bernex, Daniel Henaff, Neus Bayo-Puxan, Jin-Wen Chen, Nicolas Lonjon, Yves de Koninck, João O Malva, Jeffrey M Bergelson, Monica di Luca, Giampietro Schiavo, Sara Salinas, Eric J Kremer
UNLABELLED: Although we are beginning to understand the late stage of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular defects associated with the initiation of impaired cognition are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that in the adult brain, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is located on neuron projections, at the presynapse in mature neurons, and on the soma of immature neurons in the hippocampus. In a proinflammatory or diseased environment, CAR is lost from immature neurons in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623116/-study-of-defense-styles-defenses-and-coping-strategies-in-alcohol-dependent-population
#15
A Ribadier, I Varescon
INTRODUCTION: Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622436/initial-validation-of-the-scale-of-perceived-exertion-epinfant-in-chilean-children
#16
Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Carlos Manterola
INTRODUCTION: Perceived exertion scales quantify the sensation caused by metabolic changes during exercise. Children need tailored tools due to their cognitive immaturity such as the EPInfant scale recently developed in Chile.  OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reliability of the EPInfant scale in children during a graded exercise test.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study for which we selected healthy children younger than 18 years and grouped them according to Piaget's stages of cognitive maturity: Concrete operations (8-12 years) and formal intelligence (13-15 years)...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614029/contribution-of-mast-cells-to-injury-mechanisms-in-a-mouse-model-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Raffaella Moretti, Vibol Chhor, Donatella Bettati, Elena Banino, Silvana De Lucia, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Julien Pansiot, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Vincent Degos, Luigi Titomanlio, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells (MCs) in the brain, releasing a range of immunomodulatory substances; inhibition of these cells is neuroprotective in other types of neonatal brain injury...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612885/effects-of-intensive-versus-non-intensive-physical-therapy-on-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#18
M A Rahman, M M Zaman, M M Rahman, M Moniruzzaman, B Ahmed, F K Chhobi, N Rahman, M R Akter
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of all childhood disorders. There are tone, posture and movements difficulty due to non-progressive damage to the immature brain in CP. The hallmark of CP is a disability in the development of gross motor function (GMF). The influence of gross motor development on fine motor development is more important in early developmental period, specially under three years old and in children with CP. Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of GMF development...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580847/cell-type-and-region-specific-enhancement-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-daidzein-in-middle-aged-female-mice
#19
Jun Yamada, Jun Hatabe, Kaori Tankyo, Shozo Jinno
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and emotion. Intriguingly, reduction in new cell production in the hippocampus in middle age may underlie some of the cognitive deficits. Among several factors that may affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, estrogens have been suggested to be critically involved in the cognitive impairment of postmenopausal women. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, are expected to work as estrogen substitutes. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of daidzein on adult hippocampal neurogenesis using middle-aged (12-month-old) female mice...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571870/dexmedetomidine-pretreatment-attenuates-propofol%C3%A2-induced-neurotoxicity-in-neuronal-cultures-from-the-rat-hippocampus
#20
Yi Wei, Junhua Hu, Yubing Liang, Yuling Zhong, Dan He, Yi Qin, Li Li, Jing Chen, Qiang Xiao, Yubo Xie
Propofol is widely used for the induction and maintenance of pediatric anesthesia. Previous studies have indicated that propofol can induce apoptosis, and damage cognitive and memory functions. Dexmedetomidine is a potent α‑2 adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. Previous observations have shown that dexmedetomidine exhibits anti‑apoptotic qualities. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment against propofol‑induced neurotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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