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Xiao-Tong Dong, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Zhan-Feng Ye, Qi Yan, Shuang-Lin Dong
Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport sex pheromones onto the olfactory receptors on dendrite membrane of olfactory neurons, and thus play a vital role in sex pheromone perception. However, the function of PBPs has rarely been demonstrated in vivo. In this study, two PBPs (PBP1 and PBP3) of Chilo suppressalis, one of the most notorious pyralid pests, were in vivo functionally characterized using insects with PBP gene knocked out by CRISPR/Cas9 system. Firstly, through direct injection of PBP-sgRNA/Cas9 mRNA into new eggs, high rate of target-gene editing (checked with polled eggs) was induced at 24 h after injection, 21...
October 23, 2017: Insect Science
Peter C T Hawkins, Tobias C Wood, Anthony C Vernon, Alessandro Bertolino, Fabio Sambataro, Juergen Dukart, Emilio Merlo-Pich, Celine Risterucci, Hanna Silber-Baumann, Eamonn Walsh, Ndabezinhle Mazibuko, Fernando O Zelaya, Mitul A Mehta
Chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs has been linked to structural brain changes observed in patients with schizophrenia. Recent MRI studies have shown rapid changes in regional brain volume following just a single dose of these drugs. However, it is not clear if these changes represent real volume changes or are artefacts ("apparent" volume changes) due to drug-induced physiological changes, such as increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this, we examined the effects of a single, clinical dose of three commonly prescribed antipsychotics on quantitative measures of T1 and regional blood flow of the healthy human brain...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Katherine C Cunningham, Joanne L Davis, Sarah M Wilson, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVES: Veterans and military service members have increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and consequent problems with health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. In this population and others, shame and guilt have emerged as contributors to PTSD, but there is a considerable need for research that precisely demonstrates how shame and guilt are associated with PTSD. This study examined whether a) trauma-related shame predicts PTSD severity beyond the effects of trauma-related guilt and b) shame accounts for a greater proportion of variance in PTSD symptoms than guilt...
October 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Anke Schlüter, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Svenja Plöhn, Kerstin Stähr, Stefan Mattheis, Michael Oeverhaus, Stephan Lang, Ulrich Flögel, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of Graves' hyperthyroid disease accompanied by Graves' orbitopathy (GO) can be efficiently induced in susceptible inbred strains of mice by immunization by electroporation of heterologous human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit plasmid. In this study, we report on the development of a bona fide murine model of autoimmune Graves' disease induced with homologous mouse TSHR A-subunit plasmid. Autoimmune thyroid disease in the self-antigen model was accompanied by GO and characterized by histopathology of hyperplastic glands with large thyroid follicular cells...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Qing Guo, Xian-Tao Shen, Yuan-Yuan Li, Shun-Qing Xu
Current treatments for cancer and the central nervous system diseases are limited, partly due to the difficulties posed by the insolubility, poor distribution of drugs among cells and lack of selectivity of drugs, the inability of drugs to cross cellular barriers and blood brain barrier (BBB). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess many distinct properties including good electronic properties, remarkably penetrating capability on the cell membrane, high drug-loading and pH-dependent therapeutic unloading capacities, thermal properties, large surface area and easy modification with molecules, which render them as a suitable candidate to deliver drugs to cancer and brain...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
Rita Ábrahám, Angéla Meszes, Zita Gyurkovits, Judit Bakki, Hajnalka Orvos, Zsanett Renáta Csoma
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous lesions are very common in neonates. Although a number of studies have reported on their incidence, very little is known about the factors that influence them. We set out to investigate a large population of neonates with the aims of achieving an overall picture of neonatal skin manifestations, and examining their relationships with various maternal, neonatal and perinatal factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on neonates born at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Szeged between June 2013 and July 2015...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Yasuhiro Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi, Maria Suzanne Sabundayo, Hirohiko Kakizaki
PURPOSE: The inferior oblique muscle branch of the oculomotor nerve is susceptible to injury during orbital fat removal from the inferolateral quadrant of the orbit. Understanding the amount of removable orbital fat volume in this quadrant may be helpful in achieving maximum fat decompression without causing nerve injury. The aim of this study was to calculate the orbital fat volume in the inferolateral quadrant using computed tomographic (CT) images. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, contiguous 1-mm coronal CT images were obtained from 53 sides (30 patients)...
October 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Roberto de Cleva, Victor Arrais Araujo, Carla Cristina Ornelas Buchalla, Fabio de Oliveira Costa, Acácio Fernandes Cardoso, Denis Pajecki, Marco Aurelio Santo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to correlate the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) patterns according to severe obesity and arterial hypertension (AHT) grades. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in 379 patients with severe obesity. Obesity was classified according to the BMI in the following: morbidly obese (MO; 40 < BMI < 50 kg/m(2)) and super obese (SO; BMI > 50 kg/m(2)). The AHT was classified into classes 1 and 2 according to American Heart Association...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Ashish Kumar Jha, Mahesh Kumar Goenka, Arya Suchismita
Diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura infestations is usually based on identification of barrel-shaped ova in stool, but is frequently missed on stool microscopy. We describe the clinical profile of patients in whom Trichuris infection was incidentally diagnosed at colonoscopy. In a cross-sectional study, patients with colonoscopic diagnosis of trichuriasis were enrolled from the endoscopy unit in a tertiary care center. Blood and stool samples were collected from all those who were willing to participate and provide samples...
October 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Caterina Vacchi-Suzzi, Laura Viens, James M Harrington, Keith Levine, Roxanne Karimi, Jaymie R Meliker
Exposure to lead (Pb) is implicated in a plethora of health threats in both adults and children. Increased exposure levels are associated with oxidative stress in the blood of workers exposed at occupational levels. However, it is not known whether lower Pb exposure levels are related to a shift toward a more oxidized state. To assess the association between blood lead level (BLL) and glutathione (GSH) redox biomarkers in a population of healthy adults, BLL and four GSH markers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio and redox potential E h ) were measured in the blood of a cross-sectional cohort of 282 avid seafood-eating healthy adults living on Long Island (NY)...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Audrey Deyawe, Marina A Kasimova, Lucie Delemotte, Gildas Loussouarn, Mounir Tarek
In recent years, molecular modeling techniques, combined with MD simulations, provided significant insights on voltage-gated (Kv) potassium channels intrinsic properties. Among the success stories are the highlight of molecular level details of the effects of mutations, the unraveling of several metastable intermediate states, and the influence of a particular lipid, PIP2, in the stability and the modulation of Kv channel function. These computational studies offered a detailed view that could not have been reached through experimental studies alone...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuki Toyama, Yoko Mase, Hanaho Kano, Mariko Yokogawa, Masanori Osawa, Ichio Shimada
The gating of potassium ion (K(+)) channels is regulated by various kinds of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Structural investigations of these PPIs provide useful information not only for understanding the gating mechanisms of K(+) channels, but also for developing the pharmaceutical compounds targeting K(+) channels. Here, we describe a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic method, termed the cross saturation (CS) method, to accurately determine the binding surfaces of protein complexes, and its application to the investigation of the interaction between a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channel and a G protein α subunit...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Prasanna Devaraneni, Emily A Rex, Show-Ling Shyng
Potassium channels are multimeric protein complexes regulated by diverse physiological and pharmacological ligands. The key to understanding mechanisms of channel regulation is the ability to detect structural changes associated with ligand binding. While high-resolution structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy offer direct visualization of channel structures, these methods do have limitations and may not be suitable for the question of interest. In this chapter, we describe the use of a photo-cross-linker unnatural amino acid, p-azido-L-phenylalanine, to probe interactions between two proteins, the sulfonylurea receptor 1 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir6...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maria Augustyniak, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka, Bogumiła Adamek, Anna Płachetka-Bożek
Long lasting exposure of animals to stressing factor may lead to the selection of population able to cope with the stressor at lower cost than unexposed individuals. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection of a beet armyworm to cadmium in food might have induced tolerance also to other stressors. The potential tolerance was assessed by means of unspecific stress markers: HSP70 concentration, DNA damage level, and energy budget indices in L5 larval instars of beet armyworm. The animals originated from Cd-exposed and control strains exposed additionally in a short-term experiment to high/low temperature or pesticide-spinosad...
October 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Thomas J Stone, Angus Keeley, Alex Virasami, William Harkness, Martin Tisdall, Elisa Izquierdo Delgado, Alice Gutteridge, Tony Brooks, Mark Kristiansen, Jane Chalker, Lisa Wilkhu, William Mifsud, John Apps, Maria Thom, Mike Hubank, Tim Forshew, J Helen Cross, Darren Hargrave, Jonathan Ham, Thomas S Jacques
Glioneuronal tumours are an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Subtypes of tumour are often poorly discriminated by histological features and may be difficult to diagnose due to a lack of robust diagnostic tools. This is illustrated by marked variability in the reported frequencies across different epilepsy surgical series. To address this, we used DNA methylation arrays and RNA sequencing to assay the methylation and expression profiles within a large cohort of glioneuronal tumours. By adopting a class discovery approach, we were able to identify two distinct groups of glioneuronal tumour, which only partially corresponded to the existing histological classification...
October 20, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
Anna Klinge, Karin Becktor, Christina Lindh, Jonas P Becktor
BACKGROUND: In order to gain a better understanding of how growth of the alveolar bone is linked to the vertical development of the face, the purpose of this study was to investigate if there is an association between the cross-sectional morphology of the maxillary and mandibular bodies with the craniofacial height, using images from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: From 450 pre-treatment CBCT scans, 180 were selected to be included in the study. Lateral head images were generated from the CBCT scans and were used to categorise subjects into three groups based on their vertical craniofacial height...
October 23, 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
Stuart J Fergusson, David M Sedgwick, Georges Ntakiyiruta, Faustin Ntirenganya
BACKGROUND: The Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course is a common component of postgraduate surgical training programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, but was originally designed in a UK context, and its efficacy and relevance have not been formally assessed in Africa. METHODS: An observational study was carried out during a BSS course delivered to early-stage surgical trainees from Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Technical skill in a basic wound closure task was assessed in a formal Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSAT) before and after course completion...
October 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Gregory J Grosicki, Roger A Fielding, Michael S Lustgarten
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that plays a central role in human health and disease. Aging is associated with a decrease in muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) that is associated with a loss of independence and reduced quality of life. Gut microbiota, the bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes residing in the gastrointestinal tract are emerging as a potential contributor to age-associated muscle decline. Specifically, advancing age is characterized by a dysbiosis of gut microbiota that is associated with increased intestinal permeability, facilitating the passage of endotoxin and other microbial products (e...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Sharon S Brouha, Phirum Nguyen, Ricki Bettencourt, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis quantitatively assessed in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM)-2 correlate with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk using non-invasive markers. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study in 100 consecutive diabetic individuals without known CHD recruited between March 2013 and September 2014. History, physical examination, serum markers, cardiac computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and MR elastography (MRE) were obtained for 95 participants...
October 20, 2017: European Radiology
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