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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294848/routine-activities-and-criminal-victimization-the-significance-of-gendered-spaces
#1
Dennis M Savard, Thomas M Kelley, David M Merolla
Gender is arguably the most prominent correlate of criminal victimization. Few studies, however, examine gender-specific dynamics that might help advance criminology's understanding of the persistent gender gap in criminal victimization. We attempt to help fill this research void by examining data from the 2012 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) through the lens of routine activity theory to investigate the relationship between "gendered spaces" and criminal victimization. We propose that gendered spaces constructed by people's routine activities may increase their exposure to motivated offenders, which in turn may increase their risk of victimization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294726/sexual-revictimization-a-routine-activity-theory-explanation
#2
Elizabeth Culatta, Jody Clay-Warner, Kaitlin M Boyle, Assaf Oshri
Research has shown that victims of sexual assault are at a significant risk of revictimization. We use routine activity theory to predict how sexual victimization in adolescence relates to depression, substance use, and ultimately revictimization as a young adult. We frame our research within routine activity theory and predict that sexual victimization increases substance use and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the likelihood of revictimization. We test the hypotheses with three waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232937/modular-bayesian-networks-with-low-power-wearable-sensors-for-recognizing-eating-activities
#3
Kee-Hoon Kim, Sung-Bae Cho
Recently, recognizing a user's daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user's obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful...
December 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195704/stakeholder-influence-in-public-sector-information-systems-strategy-implementation-the-case-of-public-hospitals-in-south-africa
#4
Boroto Hwabamungu, Irwin Brown, Quentin Williams
Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa...
January 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172157/new-particle-formation-and-growth-at-a-suburban-site-and-a-background-site-in-hong-kong
#5
X P Lyu, H Guo, H R Cheng, D W Wang
Atmospheric nanoparticles have great impacts on human health and global climate change. The number concentrations and size distributions of nanoparticles in the size range of 5.5-350.4 nm were detected at a background site and a suburban site in Hong Kong from summer to winter in 2011 and in autumn of 2013, respectively. Significantly higher particle number concentrations in all modes were observed at the suburban site (p < 0.05) during the sampling periods, possibly due to stronger primary emissions/regional transport and more intensive new particle formation (NPF)...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140919/collaboration-and-teamwork-in-the-health-professions-rethinking-the-role-of-conflict
#6
Quentin Eichbaum
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048944/risk-factors-for-social-networking-site-scam-victimization-among-malaysian-students
#7
Grainne H Kirwan, Chris Fullwood, Brendan Rooney
Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949033/translating-medical-school-social-missions-to-student-experiences
#8
Rachel H Ellaway, Kaatje Van Roy, Robyn Preston, Jennene Greenhill, Amy Clithero, Salwa Elsanousi, Janet Richards, Charlie Labarda, Lisa Graves, Marykutty Mammen, Abbas A Assayed, Sara Willems
CONTEXT: There is a growing focus on the social missions of medical schools as a way of expressing an institutional commitment to service, responsibility and accountability. However, there has been little exploration of how a social mission translates to student experiences. METHODS: This multicentre study explored how the social missions of eight medical schools (from Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Philippines, South Africa, Sudan and the USA) translated to their medical education programmes, and how their students perceived the mission...
September 26, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895928/collaborative-visual-analytics-a-health-analytics-approach-to-injury-prevention
#9
Samar Al-Hajj, Brian Fisher, Jennifer Smith, Ian Pike
Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA)...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895004/positive-cognitive-effects-of-bilingualism-and-multilingualism-on-cerebral-function-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Cibel Quinteros Baumgart, Stephen Bates Billick
A review of the current literature regarding bilingualism demonstrates that bilingualism is linked to higher levels of controlled attention and inhibition in executive control and can protect against the decline of executive control in aging by contributing to cognitive reserve. Bilinguals may also have smaller vocabulary size and slower lexical retrieval for each language. The joint activation theory is proposed to explain these results. Older trilingual adults experience more protection against cognitive decline and children and young adults showed similar cognitive advantages to bilinguals in inhibitory control...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866577/beyond-tasks-an-activity-typology-for-visual-analytics
#11
Darren Edge, Nathalie Henry Riche, Jonathan Larson, Christopher White
As Visual Analytics (VA) research grows and diversifies to encompass new systems, techniques, and use contexts, gaining a holistic view of analytic practices is becoming ever more challenging. However, such a view is essential for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop systems for broad audiences that span multiple domains. In this paper, we interpret VA research through the lens of Activity Theory (AT)-a framework for modelling human activities that has been influential in the field of Human- Computer Interaction...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829395/practice-of-environmentally-significant-behaviours-in-rural-china-from-being-motivated-by-economic-gains-to-being-motivated-by-environmental-considerations
#12
Yanyan Chen
A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours...
August 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758705/coping-with-changes-and-uncertainty-a-qualitative-study-of-young-adult-cancer-patients-challenges-and-coping-strategies-during-treatment
#13
Nataskja-Elena Kersting Lie, Torill Marie Bogsnes Larsen, May Aasebø Hauken
Young adult cancer patients (YACPs), aged 18-35 years when diagnosed with cancer, are in a vulnerable transitioning period from adolescence to adulthood, where cancer adds a tremendous burden. However, YACPs' challenges and coping strategies are under-researched. The objective of this study was to explore what challenges YACP experience during their treatment, and what coping strategies they applied to them. We conducted a qualitative study with a phenomenological-hermeneutic design, including retrospective, semi-structured interviews of 16 YACPs who had undergone cancer treatment...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736503/-do-you-see-what-i-mean-staff-collaboration-in-eating-disorder-units-during-mealtimes
#14
Trine Wiig Hage, Øyvind Rø, Anne Moen
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses with potentially life-threatening consequences. Inpatient treatment is typically required for the most severely ill patients, who are often emaciated or significantly malnourished. A core therapeutic objective is to normalize eating patterns and facilitate weight gain. These goals guide the efforts of milieu therapeutic staff working with this patient group, who support renourishment through the positive manipulation of a structured environment, as well via relational aspects...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713315/the-moderating-effect-of-psychological-contract-violation-on-the-relationship-between-narcissism-and-outcomes-an-application-of-trait-activation-theory
#15
Thomas J Zagenczyk, Jarvis Smallfield, Kristin L Scott, Bret Galloway, Russell L Purvis
We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704222/conceptualizing-and-defining-the-intention-construct-for-future-physical-activity-research
#16
Ryan E Rhodes, Amanda L Rebar
Intention has been an extremely important concept in physical activity theory and research but is complicated by a double-barreled definition of a decision to perform physical activity and the commitment to enact that decision. We put forth the hypothesis that these separate meanings have different measurement requirements, are situated in distinctly different intention-based models, and show discrete findings when explaining physical activity motives.
October 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663114/palatable-food-self-administration-and-reinstatement-are-not-affected-by-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonism
#17
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Kelly J Clemens, Gavan P McNally
The orexins are widely regarded potential therapeutic targets for a range of disorders of appetitive motivation, including obesity. The motivational activator theory, the first coherent account of the orexin system's role in appetitive motivation, predicts that orexin release motivates appetitive behaviour when the reinforcer is highly salient, available under a high unit-cost or when reward seeking is cue-driven. The present study tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the highly potent and commercially available dual orexin receptor antagonist, TCS 1102, on self-administration and reinstatement of palatable food seeking in hungry and sated rats...
June 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653767/if-you-re-happy-and-you-know-it-positive-moods-reduce-age-related-differences-in-false-memory
#18
Weiwei Zhang, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne
When tested in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, children typically exhibit fewer false memories than do adolescents or adults. Here, participants' moods and the valence of word lists were manipulated to explore the mechanism responsible for this developmental reversal in memory performance. Children (7- to 8-year-olds), adolescents (11- to 12-year-olds), and young adults (18- to 22-year-olds; N = 270) were assigned to one of three induced mood conditions and were presented with emotional word lists...
June 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639491/family-centred-services-for-young-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-their-families-theory-policy-and-practice
#19
Jóna G Ingólfsdóttir, Snæfrídur Thóra Egilson, Rannveig Traustadóttir
This paper outlines the reported discrepancies between the aims of the welfare services in Iceland and the experiences of parents raising young children with intellectual disabilities. Prevailing views on disability and service delivery were also considered. A multi case study design was employed to reflect the situation in different parts of the country. Families of eight children with intellectual disabilities and professionals in three different municipalities formed the cases. The findings reveal a high convergence between the three cases with variations based on individual experiences rather than geographical location...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621695/learning-challenges-and-sustainable-development-a-methodological-perspective
#20
Laura Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
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