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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621695/learning-challenges-and-sustainable-development-a-methodological-perspective
#1
Laura Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland...
June 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567568/toward-a-taxonomic-model-of-attention-in-effortful-listening
#2
Daniel J Strauss, Alexander L Francis
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying listening effort. Research on listening effort intersects with the development of active theories of speech perception and contributes to the broader endeavor of understanding speech perception within the context of neuroscientific theories of perception, attention, and effort. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the problem, researchers vary widely in their precise conceptualization of the catch-all term listening effort. Very recent consensus work stresses the relationship between listening effort and the allocation of cognitive resources, providing a conceptual link to current cognitive neuropsychological theories associating effort with the allocation of selective attention...
May 31, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556813/cognitive-motivational-determinants-of-residents-civic-engagement-and-health-inequities-in-the-context-of-noise-action-planning-a-conceptual-model
#3
Natalie Riedel, Irene van Kamp, Heike Köckler, Joachim Scheiner, Adrian Loerbroks, Thomas Claßen, Gabriele Bolte
The Environmental Noise Directive expects residents to be actively involved in localising and selecting noise abatement interventions during the noise action planning process. Its intervention impact is meant to be homogeneous across population groups. Against the background of social heterogeneity and environmental disparities, however, the impact of noise action planning on exposure to traffic-related noise and its health effects is unlikely to follow homogenous distributions. Until now, there has been no study evaluating the impact of noise action measures on the social distribution of traffic-related noise exposure and health outcomes...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513886/regulating-water-reduction-kinetics-in-cobalt-phosphide-for-enhancing-her-catalytic-activity-in-alkaline-solution
#4
Kun Xu, Hui Ding, Mengxing Zhang, Min Chen, Zikai Hao, Lidong Zhang, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
Electrochemical water splitting to produce hydrogen renders a promising pathway for renewable energy storage. Considering limited electrocatalysts have good oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) catalytic activity in acid solution while numerous economical materials show excellent OER catalytic performance in alkaline solution, developing new strategies that enhance the alkaline hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) catalytic activity of cost-effective catalysts is highly desirable for achieving highly efficient overall water splitting...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#5
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403677/spatial-temporal-variations-of-crime-a-routine-activity-theory-perspective
#6
Silas Nogueira de Melo, Débora V S Pereira, Martin A Andresen, Lindon Fonseca Matias
Temporal and spatial patterns of crime in Campinas, Brazil, are analyzed considering the relevance of routine activity theory in a Latin American context. We use geo-referenced criminal event data, 2010-2013, analyzing spatial patterns using census tracts and temporal patterns considering seasons, months, days, and hours. Our analyses include difference in means tests, count-based regression models, and Kulldorff's scan test. We find that crime in Campinas, Brazil, exhibits both temporal and spatial-temporal patterns...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401571/tying-knots-an-activity-theory-analysis-of-student-learning-goals-in-clinical-education
#7
Douglas P Larsen, Austin Wesevich, Jana Lichtenfeld, Antony R Artino, Ryan Brydges, Lara Varpio
CONTEXT: Learning goal programmes are often created to help students develop self-regulated learning skills; however, these programmes do not necessarily consider the social contexts surrounding learning goals or how they fit into daily educational practice. OBJECTIVES: We investigated a high-frequency learning goal programme in which students generated and shared weekly learning goals with their clinical teams in core Year 3 clerkships. Our study explores: (i) how learning goals were incorporated into the clinical work, and (ii) the factors that influenced the use of students' learning goals in work-based learning...
April 12, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384482/decoding-levels-of-representation-in-reading-a%C3%A2-representational-similarity-approach
#8
Simon Fischer-Baum, Dorothy Bruggemann, Ivan Felipe Gallego, Donald S P Li, Emilio R Tamez
Multiple levels of representation are involved in reading single words: visual representations of letter shape, orthographic representations of letter identity and order, phonological representations of the word's pronunciation, and semantic representations of its meaning. Previous lesion and neuroimaging studies have identified a network of regions recruited during word reading, including ventral occipital-temporal regions and the angular gyrus (AG). However, there is still debate about what information is being represented and processed in these regions...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379081/tensions-in-mentoring-medical-students-toward-self-directed-and-reflective-learning-in-a-longitudinal-portfolio-based-mentoring-system-an-activity-theory-analysis
#9
Sylvia Heeneman, Willem de Grave
BACKGROUND: In medical education, students need to acquire skills to self-direct(ed) learning (SDL), to enable their development into self-directing and reflective professionals. This study addressed the mentor perspective on how processes in the mentor-student interaction influenced development of SDL. METHODS: n = 22 mentors of a graduate-entry medical school with a problem-based curriculum and longitudinal mentoring system were interviewed (n = 1 recording failed)...
April 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360872/integrative-priming-of-compositional-and-locative-relations
#10
Lara L Jones, Lee H Wurm, Ryan D Calcaterra, Noa Ofen
Integrative priming refers to the facilitated recognition of a target word (bench) as a real word following a prime (park). Prior integrative priming studies have used a wide variety of integrative relations including temporal (summer rain), topical (travel book), locative (forest river), and compositional (peach pie) relations. Yet differences in the types of integrative relations may yield differences in the underlying explanatory processes of integrative priming. In this study, we compared the magnitude, time course, and three theoretically based correlates of integrative priming for compositional (stone table) and locative (patio table) pairs in a lexical decision task across four stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50, 300, 800, and 1,600 ms)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329818/elder-fraud-and-financial-exploitation-application-of-routine-activity-theory
#11
Marguerite DeLiema
Background and Objectives: Elder financial exploitation, committed by individuals in positions of trust, and elder fraud, committed by predatory strangers, are two forms of financial victimization that target vulnerable older adults. This study analyzes differences between fraud and financial exploitation victims and tests routine activity theory as a contextual model for victimization. Routine activity theory predicts that criminal opportunities arise when a motivated offender and suitable target meet in the absence of capable guardians...
March 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269239/use-of-activity-theory-based-need-finding-for-biomedical-device-development
#12
Shalaleh Rismani, Matt Ratto, H F Machiel Van der Loos
Identifying the appropriate needs for biomedical device design is challenging, especially for less structured environments. The paper proposes an alternate need-finding method based on Cultural Historical Activity Theory and expanded to explicitly examine the role of devices within a socioeconomic system. This is compared to a conventional need-finding technique in a preliminary study with engineering student teams. The initial results show that the Activity Theory-based technique allows teams to gain deeper insights into their needs space...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227473/use-of-activity-theory-based-need-finding-for-biomedical-device-development
#13
Shalaleh Rismani, Matt Ratto, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Shalaleh Rismani, Matt Ratto, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Shalaleh Rismani, Matt Ratto
Identifying the appropriate needs for biomedical device design is challenging, especially for less structured environments. The paper proposes an alternate need-finding method based on Cultural Historical Activity Theory and expanded to explicitly examine the role of devices within a socioeconomic system. This is compared to a conventional need-finding technique in a preliminary study with engineering student teams. The initial results show that the Activity Theory-based technique allows teams to gain deeper insights into their needs space...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164372/tackling-wicked-problems-how-theories-of-agency-can-provide-new-insights
#14
Lara Varpio, Carol Aschenbrener, Joanna Bates
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews why and how theories of agency can be used as analytical lenses to help health professions education (HPE) scholars address our community's wicked problems. Wicked problems are those that resist clear problem statements, defy traditional analysis approaches, and refuse definitive resolution (e.g. student remediation, assessments of professionalism, etc.). We illustrate how theories of agency can provide new insights into such challenges by examining the application of these theories to one particular wicked problem in HPE: interprofessional education (IPE)...
February 6, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110430/ontological-issues-and-the-possible-development-of-cultural-psychology
#15
Gilberto Pérez-Campos
Ontological issues have a bad reputation within mainstream psychology. This paper, however, is an attempt to argue that ontological reflection may play an important role in the development of cultural psychology. A cross-reading of two recent papers on the subject (Mammen & Mironenko, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49(4), 681-713, 2015; Simão Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 50, 568-585, 2016), aimed at characterizing their respective approaches to ontological issues, sets the stage for a presentation of Cornelius Castoriadis' ontological reflections...
January 21, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005339/laboratory-studies-of-the-cloud-droplet-activation-properties-and-corresponding-chemistry-of-saline-playa-dust
#16
Cassandra J Gaston, Kerri A Pratt, Kaitlyn J Suski, Nathaniel W May, Thomas E Gill, Kimberly A Prather
Playas emit large quantities of dust that can facilitate the activation of cloud droplets. Despite the potential importance of playa dusts for cloud formation, most climate models assume that all dust is nonhygroscopic; however, measurements are needed to clarify the role of dusts in aerosol-cloud interactions. Here, we report measurements of CCN activation from playa dusts and parameterize these results in terms of both κ-Köhler theory and adsorption activation theory for inclusion in atmospheric models...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917021/the-impact-of-testing-on-the-formation-of-children-s-and-adults-false-memories
#17
Nathalie Brackmann, Henry Otgaar, Melanie Sauerland, Mark L Howe
Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy-trace and Associative-activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation...
September 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913717/assessing-the-macro-level-correlates-of-malware-infections-using-a-routine-activities-framework
#18
Thomas J Holt, George W Burruss, Adam M Bossler
The ability to gain unauthorized access to computer systems to engage in espionage and data theft poses a massive threat to individuals worldwide. There has been minimal focus, however, on the role of malicious software, or malware, which can automate this process. This study examined the macro-correlates of malware infection at the national level by using an open repository of known malware infections and utilizing a routine activities framework. Negative inflated binomial models for counts indicated that nations with greater technological infrastructure, more political freedoms, and with less organized crime financial impact were more likely to report malware infections...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669732/sex-offending-and-situational-motivation-findings-from-a-qualitative-analysis-of-desistance-from-sexual-offending
#19
Mark Farmer, Anne-Marie McAlinden, Shadd Maruna
Sex offending is typically understood from a pathology perspective with the origin of the behavior thought to be within the offending individual. Such a perspective may not be beneficial for those seeking to desist from sexual offending and reintegrate into mainstream society. A thematic analysis of 32 self-narratives of men convicted of sexual offences against children suggests that such individuals typically explain their pasts utilizing a script consistent with routine activity theory, emphasizing the role of circumstantial changes in both the onset of and desistance from sexual offending...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552987/improving-management-of-student-clinical-placements-insights-from-activity-theory
#20
Maree O'Keefe, Victoria Wade, Sue McAllister, Ieva Stupans, Teresa Burgess
BACKGROUND: An approach to improve management of student clinical placements, the Building Teams for Quality Learning project, was trialed in three different health services. In a previous paper the authors explored in some detail the factors associated with considerable success of this approach at one of these services. In this paper, the authors extend this work with further analysis to determine if the more limited outcomes observed with participants at the other two services could be explained by application of activity theory and in particular the expansive learning cycle...
August 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
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