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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228843/a-new-mechanism-for-efficient-hydrocarbon-electro-extraction-from-botryococcus-braunii
#1
Alexis Guionet, Bahareh Hosseini, Justin Teissié, Hidenori Akiyama, Hamid Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Recent understanding that specific algae have high hydrocarbon production potential has attracted considerable attention. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with an extracellular hydrocarbon matrix, which makes it an appropriate green energy source. RESULTS: This study focuses on extracting oil from the microalgae matrix rather than the cells, eliminating the need for an excessive electric field to create electro-permeabilization. In such a way, technical limitations due to high extraction energy and cost can be overcome...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147680/miniaturized-two-stack-blumlein-pulser-with-a-variable-repetition-rate-for-non-thermal-irreversible-electroporation-experiments
#2
Sun-Hong Min, Ohjoon Kwon, Matlabjon Sattorov, In-Keun Baek, Seontae Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Dongpyo Hong, Seunghyuk Park, Gun-Sik Park
Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) to avoid thermal damage to cells during intense DC ns pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a recent modality for medical applications. This mechanism, related to bioelectrical dynamics of the cell, is linked to the effect of a DC electric field and a threshold effect with an electrically stimulated membrane for the charge distribution in the cell. To create the NTIRE condition, the pulse width of the nsPEF should be shorter than the charging time constant of the membrane related to the cell radius, membrane capacitance, cytoplasm resistivity, and medium resistivity...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117459/calcium-independent-disruption-of-microtubule-dynamics-by-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-in-u87-human-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Lynn Carr, Sylvia M Bardet, Ryan C Burke, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney P O'Connor
High powered, nanosecond duration, pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) cause cell death by a mechanism that is not fully understood and have been proposed as a targeted cancer therapy. Numerous chemotherapeutics work by disrupting microtubules. As microtubules are affected by electrical fields, this study looks at the possibility of disrupting them electrically with nsPEF. Human glioblastoma cells (U87-MG) treated with 100, 10 ns, 44 kV/cm pulses at a frequency of 10 Hz showed a breakdown of their interphase microtubule network that was accompanied by a reduction in the number of growing microtubules...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065834/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-trigger-cell-differentiation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Fan Bai, Christian Gusbeth, Wolfgang Frey, Peter Nick
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have great potential for biotechnological and medical applications. However, the biological mechanisms causing the cellular responses are still far from understood. We used the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as experimental model to dissect the immediate consequences of electroporation from the developmental cellular responses evoked by nsPEFs. We observe that nsPEFs induce a short-term permeabilization of the membrane, accompanied by swelling and oxidative burst...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058631/induction-of-apoptosis-of-liver-cancer-cells-by-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-nspefs
#5
Ling He, Deyou Xiao, Jianguo Feng, Chenguo Yao, Liling Tang
The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a novel method to induce the death of cancer cells. NsPEFs could directly function on the cell membrane and activate the apoptosis pathways, then induce apoptosis in various cell lines. However, the nsPEFs-inducing-apoptosis action sites and the exact pathways are not clear now. In this study, nsPEFs were applied to the human liver cancer cells HepG2 with different parameters. By apoptosis assay, morphological observation, detecting the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m), intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and the expressions of key apoptosis factors, we demonstrated that nsPEFs could induce the morphology of cell apoptosis, the change in ΔΨ m, [Ca(2+)]i and the upregulation of some key apoptosis factors, which revealed the responses of liver cancer cells and indicated that cells may undergo apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway after nsPEFs were applied...
February 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054548/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-enhance-the-anti-tumour-effects-of-the-mtor-inhibitor-everolimus-against-melanoma
#6
Jie Dai, Shan Wu, Yan Kong, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Jing Fang, Jue Zhang, Jun Guo
The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas, but mTOR inhibitors used singly have limited activity against advanced melanomas. The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a promising cancer therapy approach. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic anti-tumour efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in conjunction with nsPEFs against melanoma. The combined treatment of nsPEFs and everolimus gradually decreased cell growth concurrent with nsPEF intensity. nsPEFs alone or combined with everolimus could promote melanoma cell apoptosis, accompanied with a loss in cellular mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in Ca(2+) levels...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986976/selective-susceptibility-to-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field-nspef-across-different-human-cell-types
#7
Elena C Gianulis, Chantelle Labib, Gintautas Saulis, Vitalij Novickij, Olga N Pakhomova, Andrei G Pakhomov
Tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is an emerging therapeutic modality. We compared nsPEF cytotoxicity for human cell lines of cancerous (IMR-32, Hep G2, HT-1080, and HPAF-II) and non-cancerous origin (BJ and MRC-5) under strictly controlled and identical conditions. Adherent cells were uniformly treated by 300-ns PEF (0-2000 pulses, 1.8 kV/cm, 50 Hz) on indium tin oxide-covered glass coverslips, using the same media and serum. Cell survival plotted against the number of pulses displayed three distinct regions (initial resistivity, logarithmic survival decline, and residual resistivity) for all tested cell types, but with differences in LD50 spanning as much as nearly 80-fold...
December 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698479/multiphoton-imaging-reveals-that-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-collapse-tumor-and-normal-vascular-perfusion-in-human-glioblastoma-xenografts
#8
Sylvia M Bardet, Lynn Carr, Malak Soueid, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney P O'Connor
Despite the biomedical advances of the last century, many cancers including glioblastoma are still resistant to existing therapies leaving patients with poor prognoses. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) are a promising technology for the treatment of cancer that have thus far been evaluated in vitro and in superficial malignancies. In this paper, we develop a tumor organoid model of glioblastoma and apply intravital multiphoton microscopy to assess their response to nsPEFs. We demonstrate for the first time that a single 10 ns, high voltage electric pulse (35-45 kV/cm), collapses the perfusion of neovasculature, and also alters the diameter of capillaries and larger vessels in normal tissue...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676191/radiosensitization-of-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-nspefs
#9
Jinsong Guo, Yu Wang, Jing Wang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are a non-thermal and non-toxic technology that induce a myriad of biological effects. They have been proven to be effective in tumor shrinkage, but few studies focus on its radiosensitization in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this research was to study the radiosensitization effect of nsPEFs on a human oral tongue cancer cell line Tca8113 and to investigate the potential antitumor mechanism. A Tca8113 cell line was tested respectively by MTT assay, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry assay, annexin V-FITC/PI assay, mitochondrial potential assay and total nitric oxide assay...
February 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586355/theoretical-analysis-of-transmembrane-potential-of-cells-exposed-to-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field
#10
Wei Lu, Ke Wu, Xiangjun Hu, Xiangdong Xie, Jing Ning, Changzhen Wang, Hongmei Zhou, Guoshan Yang
PURPOSE: Intracellular electroporation occurs when the cells are exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). It is believed the electroporation (formation and extension of pores on the membrane induced by external electric field) is affected significantly by the transmembrane potential. This paper analyzed transmembrane potential induced by nsPEF in the term of pulse frequency spectrum, aiming to provide a theoretical explanation to intracellular bio-effects. METHODS: Based on the double-shelled spherical cell model, the frequency dependence of transmembrane potential was obtained by solving Laplace's equation, while the time course of transmembrane potential was obtained by a method combined with discrete Fourier transform and Laplace transform...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561639/exploring-the-applicability-of-nano-poration-for-remote-control-in-smart-drug-delivery-systems
#11
Agnese Denzi, Elena Della Valle, Francesca Apollonio, Marie Breton, Lluis M Mir, Micaela Liberti
Smart drug delivery systems represent an interesting tool to significantly improve the efficiency and the precision in the treatment of a broad category of diseases. In this context, a drug delivery mediated by nanosecond pulsed electric fields seems a promising technique, allowing for a controlled release and uptake of drugs by the synergy between the electropulsation and nanocarriers with encapsulated drugs. The main concern about the use of electroporation for drug delivery applications is the difference in dimension between the liposome (nanometer range) and the cell (micrometer range)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535877/quantifying-pulsed-electric-field-induced-membrane-nanoporation-in-single-cells
#12
Erick K Moen, Bennett L Ibey, Hope T Beier, Andrea M Armani
Plasma membrane disruption can trigger a host of cellular activities. One commonly observed type of disruption is pore formation. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of simplified lipid membrane structures predict that controllably disrupting the membrane via nano-scale poration may be possible with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). Until recently, researchers hoping to verify this hypothesis experimentally have been limited to measuring the relatively slow process of fluorescent markers diffusing across the membrane, which is indirect evidence of nanoporation that could be channel-mediated...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439151/transient-suppression-of-gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-after-exposure-to-100-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields
#13
Anna Steuer, Anke Schmidt, Petra Labohá, Pavel Babica, Juergen F Kolb
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is an important mechanism that is involved and affected in many diseases and injuries. So far, the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) on the communication between cells was not investigated. An in vitro approach is presented with rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells grown and exposed in a monolayer. In order to observe sub-lethal effects, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields with a duration of 100ns and amplitudes between 10 and 20kV/cm...
December 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435216/nanometer-scale-permeabilization-and-osmotic-swelling-induced-by-5-ns-pulsed-electric-fields
#14
Esin B Sözer, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Stefania Romeo, P Thomas Vernier
High-intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) permeabilize cell membranes. Although progress has been made toward an understanding of the mechanism of nsPEF-induced membrane poration, the dependence of pore size and distribution on pulse duration, strength, number, and repetition rate remains poorly defined experimentally. In this paper, we characterize the size of nsPEF-induced pores in living cell membranes by isosmotically replacing the solutes in pulsing media with polyethylene glycols and sugars before exposing Jurkat T lymphoblasts to 5 ns, 10 MV/m electric pulses...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431479/the-biological-response-of-cells-to-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-is-dependent-on-plasma-membrane-cholesterol
#15
Jody C Cantu, Melissa Tarango, Hope T Beier, Bennett L Ibey
Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated nanopore formation in cell membranes following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We observed differences in sensitivity to nsPEF in both acute membrane injury and 24h lethality across multiple cells lines. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the biological response of cells to nsPEF is dependent on the physical properties of the plasma membrane (PM), including regional cholesterol content. Results presented in this paper show that depletion of membrane cholesterol disrupts the PM and increases the permeability of cells to small molecules, including propidium iodide and calcium occurring after fewer nsPEF...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375200/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field-nspef-enhance-cytotoxicity-of-cisplatin-to-hepatocellular-cells-by-microdomain-disruption-on-plasma-membrane
#16
Shengyong Yin, Xinhua Chen, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Danjing Guo, Yuning Xu, Liming Wu, Shusen Zheng
Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity...
August 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181521/raising-the-avermectins-production-in-streptomyces-avermitilis-by-utilizing-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-nspefs
#17
Jinsong Guo, Ruonan Ma, Bo Su, Yinglong Li, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990601/real-time-kinetic-flow-cytometry-measurements-of-cellular-parameter-changes-evoked-by-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field
#18
Csaba Orbán, Esther Pérez-García, Anna Bajnok, Gethin McBean, Gergely Toldi, Alfonso Blanco-Fernandez
Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel method to increase cell proliferation rate. The phenomenon is based on the microporation of cellular organelles and membranes. However, we have limited information on the effects of nsPEF on cell physiology. Several studies have attempted to describe the effects of this process, however no real time measurements have been conducted to date. In this study we designed a model system which allows the measurement of cellular processes before, during and after nsPEF treatment in real time...
May 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26721436/permeabilization-of-the-nuclear-envelope-following-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field-exposure
#19
Gary L Thompson, Caleb C Roth, Marjorie A Kuipers, Gleb P Tolstykh, Hope T Beier, Bennett L Ibey
Permeabilization of cell membranes occurs upon exposure to a threshold absorbed dose (AD) of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). The ultimate, physiological bioeffect of this exposure depends on the type of cultured cell and environment, indicating that cell-specific pathways and structures are stimulated. Here we investigate 10 and 600 ns duration PEF effects on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell nuclei, where our hypothesis is that pulse disruption of the nuclear envelope membrane leads to observed cell death and decreased viability 24 h post-exposure...
January 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658139/ablation-of-myocardial-tissue-with-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields
#20
Fei Xie, Frency Varghese, Andrei G Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Jonathan Philpott, Christian Zemlin
BACKGROUND: Ablation of cardiac tissue is an essential tool for the treatment of arrhythmias, particularly of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. Current ablation technologies suffer from substantial recurrence rates, thermal side effects, and long procedure times. We demonstrate that ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can potentially overcome these limitations. METHODS: We used optical mapping to monitor electrical activity in Langendorff-perfused New Zealand rabbit hearts (n = 12)...
2015: PloS One
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