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"Cognitive training" plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670822/change-in-emotional-self-concept-following-socio-cognitive-training-relates-to-structural-plasticity-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Anna-Lena Lumma, Sofie L Valk, Anne Böckler, Pascal Vrtička, Tania Singer
Introduction: Self-referential processing is a key component of the emotional self-concept. Previous studies have shown that emotional self-referential processing is related to structure and function of cortical midline areas such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and that it can be altered on a behavioral level by specific mental training practices. However, it remains unknown how behavioral training-related change in emotional self-concept content relates to structural plasticity...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656951/auditory-system-target-engagement-during-plasticity-based-interventions-in-schizophrenia-a-focus-on-modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-type-glutamate-receptor-function
#2
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Neal R Swerdlow, Walter Dunn, Sophia Vinogradov
Cognitive deficits are predictive of long-term social and occupational functional deficits in schizophrenia but are currently without gold-standard treatments. In particular, augmentation of auditory cortical neuroplasticity may represent a rate-limiting first step before addressing higher-order cognitive deficits. We review the rationale for N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) modulators as treatments for auditory plasticity deficits in schizophrenia, along with potential serum and electroencephalographic target engagement biomarkers for NMDAR function...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#3
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572187/joggin-the-noggin-towards-a-physiological-understanding-of-exercise-induced-cognitive-benefits
#4
REVIEW
Nikolas J Stimpson, Glen Davison, Amir-Homayoun Javadi
This narrative review examines literature pertaining to possible physiological explanations for observed cognitive benefits stemming from improvements to cardiovascular fitness following chronic aerobic exercise. Studies regarding exercise and cardiovascular fitness, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation in relation to IGF-1 signalling, regulation of neurotrophins, neurogenesis and plasticity, cognitive training, are briefly described. We propose that current evidence points towards a mechanism by which cardiovascular fitness improvements act to promote long-term angiogenesis and cerebral circulation...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546797/evidence-for-differential-effects-of-2-forms-of-exercise-on-prefrontal-plasticity-during-walking-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Inbal Maidan, Freek Nieuwhof, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: In a randomized control trial conducted in patients with Parkinson's disease, a treadmill training program combined with virtual reality that targeted motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation led to fewer falls, compared with treadmill training alone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the 2 types of training differentially affected prefrontal activation and if this might explain differences in fall rates after the intervention. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were randomized into the treadmill training arm (n = 34, mean age 73...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522820/interventional-programmes-to-improve-cognition-during-healthy-and-pathological-ageing-cortical-modulations-and-evidence-for-brain-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493441/environmental-training-and-synaptic-functions-in-young-and-old-brain-a-presynaptic-perspective
#7
Bonfiglio Tommaso, Vergassola Matteo, Guendalina Olivero, Anna Pittaluga
BACKGROUND: Aging is an unavoidable, physiological process that reduces the complexity and the plasticity of the synaptic contacts in central nervous system (CNS), having profound implications for human wellbeing. The term "cognitive reserve" refers to central cellular adaptations that augment the resilience of human brain to damage and aging. The term "Cognitive training" indicates the cultural, social and physical stimulations proposed as add-on therapy for the cure of central neurological diseases...
February 28, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490013/the-temporal-dynamics-of-brain-plasticity-in-aging
#8
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Cognitive training has been suggested as a possible remediation of decline in brain structure with older age. However, it is unknown whether training effects are transient or enduring, as no studies have examined training-induced plasticity relative to decline in older adults across extended periods with multiple intervention phases. We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain plasticity across periods on and off memory training, hypothesizing that (1) a decline in white matter (WM) microstructure would be observed across the duration of the study and (2) that periods of memory training would moderate the WM microstructural decline...
February 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378205/coordinated-neural-behavioral-and-phenomenological-changes-in-perceptual-plasticity-through-overtraining-of-synesthetic-associations
#9
Nicolas Rothen, David J Schwartzman, Daniel Bor, Anil K Seth
Synesthesia is associated with additional perceptual experiences, which are automatically and consistently triggered by specific inducing stimuli. Synesthesia is also accompanied by more general sensory and cortical changes, including enhanced modality-specific cortical excitability. Extensive cognitive training has been shown to generate synesthesia-like phenomenology but whether these experiences are accompanied by neurophysiological changes characteristic of synesthesia remains unknown. Addressing this question provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the neural basis of perceptual plasticity relevant to conscious experiences...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324073/rapid-improvement-on-a-temporal-attention-task-within-a-single-session-of-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#10
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
May 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298678/the-brainfit-study-efficacy-of-cognitive-training-and-exergaming-in-pediatric-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Valentin Benzing, Noëmi Eggenberger, Janine Spitzhüttl, Valerie Siegwart, Manuela Pastore-Wapp, Claus Kiefer, Nedelina Slavova, Michael Grotzer, Theda Heinks, Mirko Schmidt, Achim Conzelmann, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts, Kurt Leibundgut
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival comes at a price: pediatric cancer survivors bear a high risk for a wide range of cognitive difficulties. Therefore, interventions targeting these difficulties are required. The aim of the present clinical trial is to extend empirical evidence about efficacy of cognitive and physical training in pediatric cancer survivors. It is hypothesized that early cognitive and physical interventions affect the remediation of pediatric cancer survivors in terms of improved executive functions (primary outcome)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213522/memory-specificity-training-can-improve-working-and-prospective-memory-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Golita Emsaki, Hamid Taher NeshatDoost, Mahgol Tavakoli, Majid Barekatain
Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is one of the cognitive profiles of aging. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Memory Specificity Training (MEST) was used as cognitive training in patients with amnestic MCI to understand the effectiveness of the intervention on memory dimensions. METHODS: Twenty patients that met the criteria for amnestic MCI were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (n=10) or control (n=10) groups. The experimental group received five sessions of training on memory specificity while the participants in the control group took part in two general placebo sessions...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984619/the-therapeutic-use-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#14
Rosa Iodice, Fiore Manganelli, Raffaele Dubbioso
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of disability in young adults. Many disabling symptoms in MS, such as spasticity, pain, depression and cognitive deficits are not fully controlled by drug treatment. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can be used as tools for modulating altered cortical excitability and plasticity MS patients, providing an improvement in disabling symptoms affecting such patients...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983507/structural-plasticity-of-the-social-brain-differential-change-after-socio-affective-and-cognitive-mental-training
#15
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Nicolas Guizard, D Louis Collins, Tania Singer
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913349/brain-computer-interface-for-clinical-purposes-cognitive-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#16
REVIEW
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Paolo Meriggi, Davide Sangalli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Alongside the best-known applications of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for restoring communication abilities and controlling external devices, we present the state of the art of BCI use for cognitive assessment and training purposes. We first describe some preliminary attempts to develop verbal-motor free BCI-based tests for evaluating specific or multiple cognitive domains in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, disorders of consciousness, and other neurological diseases. Then we present the more heterogeneous and advanced field of BCI-based cognitive training, which has its roots in the context of neurofeedback therapy and addresses patients with neurological developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), stroke patients, and elderly subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747878/transcranial-electric-stimulation-can-impair-gains-during-working-memory-training-and-affects-the-resting-state-connectivity
#17
Annie Möller, Federico Nemmi, Kim Karlsson, Torkel Klingberg
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising technique that has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance and enhance the effect of cognitive training. However, experimental set up and electrode placement are not always determined based on neurofunctional knowledge about WM, leading to inconsistent results. Additional research on the effects of tES grounded on neurofunctional evidence is therefore necessary. Sixty young, healthy, volunteers, assigned to six different groups, participated in 5 days of stimulation or sham treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736309/neural-interactions-mediating-conflict-control-and-its-training-induced-plasticity
#18
Min Hu, Xiangpeng Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Xueping Hu, Antao Chen
Cognitive control is of great plasticity. Training programs targeted on improving it have been suggested to yield neural changes in the brain. However, until recently, the relationship between training-induced brain changes and improvements in cognitive control is still an open issue. Besides, although the literature has attributed the operation of cognitive control to interactions between large-scale networks, the neural pathways directly associated with it remain unclear. The current study aimed to examine these issues by focusing on conflict processing...
December 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689758/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-cognitive-training-induced-improvements-in-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#19
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Melissa Fisher, Pratik Mukherjee, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive improvements induced by 70h (~16weeks) of cognitive training. We measured anatomical connectivity in 48 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 28 healthy control participants (HC) at baseline, and then examined the relationship between anatomical connectivity at baseline and training-induced cognitive gains in 30 SZ who performed diffusion imaging after completing 70h of training...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638338/physical-exercise-with-music-reduces-gray-and-white-matter-loss-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-elderly-people-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project
#20
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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