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"Cognitive training" plasticity

Bin-Yin Li, Ying Wang, Hui-Dong Tang, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline poses a great concern to elderly people and their families. In addition to pharmacological therapies, several varieties of nonpharmacological intervention have been developed. Most training trials proved that a well-organized task is clinically effective in cognition improvement. MAIN BODY: We will first review clinical trials of cognitive training for healthy elders, MCI and AD patients, respectively. Besides, potential neuroprotective and compensatory mechanisms in animal models of AD are discussed...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
Susanne Passow, Franka Thurm, Shu-Chen Li
Existing neurocomputational and empirical data link deficient neuromodulation of the fronto-parietal and hippocampal-striatal circuitries with aging-related increase in processing noise and declines in various cognitive functions. Specifically, the theory of aging neuronal gain control postulates that aging-related suboptimal neuromodulation may attenuate neuronal gain control, which yields computational consequences on reducing the signal-to-noise-ratio of synaptic signal transmission and hampering information processing within and between cortical networks...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Feng Lin, Kathi L Heffner, Ping Ren, Duje Tadin
BACKGROUND: Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Sylvie Belleville, Benjamin Boller
Alzheimer's disease begins with a phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), characterized by the presence of minor symptoms that have little or no impact on functional independence. The study of patients with MCI has led to spectacular advances in understanding the prodrome of the disease. It has also produced a typical cognitive profile: an impairment of episodic memory, especially delayed recall and associative memory, deficit in executive functions or working memory and certain semantic problems. Recent studies have also examined compensatory processes that take place during the early phase of the disease...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Xinyi Cao, Ye Yao, Ting Li, Yan Cheng, Wei Feng, Yuan Shen, Qingwei Li, Lijuan Jiang, Wenyuan Wu, Jijun Wang, Jianhua Sheng, Jianfeng Feng, Chunbo Li
It has been shown that cognitive training (CogTr) is effective and recuperative for older adults, and can be used to fight against cognitive decline. In this study, we investigated whether behavioural gains from CogTr would extend to white matter (WM) microstructure, and whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive function, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 48 healthy community elderly were either assigned to multi-domain or single-domain CogTr groups to receive 24 sessions over 12 weeks, or to a control group...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bruno Biagianti, Melissa Fisher, Torsten B Neilands, Rachel Loewy, Sophia Vinogradov
BACKGROUND: Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. METHOD: 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time...
November 2016: Neuropsychology
Samira Anderson, Kimberly Jenkins
Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function...
November 2015: Seminars in Hearing
Yi Tang, Zude Zhu, Qing Liu, Fang Li, Jianwei Yang, Fangyu Li, Yi Xing, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) refers to cognitive deficits associated with underlying vascular causes that fall short of a dementia diagnosis. There is currently no treatment for VCIND. Computerized cognitive training, which has significantly improved cognitive function in healthy older adults and patients with cognitive impairment has not yet been applied to VCIND. METHODS/DESIGN: The proposed study is a three-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial that will include 60 patients with VCIND...
August 5, 2016: Trials
Keith H Nuechterlein, Joseph Ventura, Sarah C McEwen, Denise Gretchen-Doorly, Sophia Vinogradov, Kenneth L Subotnik
Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Emily A Cooper, Allyson P Mackey
Research in neuroscience has great potential for transforming education. However, the brain systems that support academic and cognitive skills are poorly understood in comparison to the systems that support sensory processing. Decades of basic research have examined the role that brain plasticity plays in the genesis and treatment of developmental visual disorders, which may help to inform how cognitive training approaches can be tailored for students who experience environmental disadvantage. In this review, we draw parallels between visual and cognitive intervention approaches, and suggest research avenues that could inform educational practice in the future...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Renza Perini, Marta Bortoletto, Michela Capogrosso, Anna Fertonani, Carlo Miniussi
The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex...
2016: Scientific Reports
Karen Caeyenberghs, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Sonya Foley, Derek K Jones
UNLABELLED: Brain region-specific changes have been demonstrated with a variety of cognitive training interventions. The effect of cognitive training on brain subnetworks in humans, however, remains largely unknown, with studies limited to functional networks. Here, we used a well-established working memory training program and state-of-the art neuroimaging methods in 40 healthy adults (21 females, mean age 26.5 years). Near and far-transfer training effects were assessed using computerized working memory and executive function tasks...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daria Antonenko, Nadine Külzow, Magda E Cesarz, Kristina Schindler, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
White matter deterioration in the aging human brain contributes to cognitive decline. The fornix as main efferent hippocampal pathway is one of the tracts most strongly associated with age-related memory impairment. Its deterioration may predict conversion to Alzheimer's dementia and its precursors. However, the associations between the ability to form novel memories, fornix microstructure and plasticity in response to training have never been tested. In the present study, 25 healthy older adults (15 women; mean age (SD): 69 (6) years) underwent an object-location training on three consecutive days...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sophia Vinogradov, S Charles Schulz
In recent years, the goal of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia has shifted from symptom control to functional recovery. For recovery to occur, the substantial cognitive impairments associated with this disorder must be addressed. Advances in neuroscience have paved the way for the development of more effective behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Behavioral interventions such as cognitive training are tapping into the innate plasticity and adaptive qualities of the brain. Emerging pharmacologic treatments are targeting new neurotransmitters and systems, such as the glutamatergic system and the nicotinic-cholinergic system, which are involved in the cognitive and sensory deficits that lead to impairment...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Hikaru Takeuchi, Tomomi Nagase, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuko Sassa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Cognitive training, including fast simple numerical calculation (FSNC), has been shown to improve performance on untrained processing speed and executive function tasks in the elderly. However, the effects of FSNC training on cognitive functions in the young and on neural mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of 1-week intensive FSNC training on cognitive function, regional gray matter volume (rGMV), and regional cerebral blood flow at rest (resting rCBF) in healthy young adults. FSNC training was associated with improvements in performance on simple processing speed, speeded executive functioning, and simple and complex arithmetic tasks...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Melissa Tarasenko, Veronica B Perez, Sean T Pianka, Sophia Vinogradov, David L Braff, Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
UNLABELLED: Auditory-Targeted Cognitive Training (ATCT), which aims to improve auditory information processing efficiency, has shown great promise for remediating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). However, there is substantial heterogeneity in the degree of cognitive gains made during ATCT, and some patients show negligible benefit after completing therapeutic doses of training. Identifying individual differences that can be measured early in the course of ATCT and that predict subsequent cognitive benefits from the intervention is therefore important...
April 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Anouk Vermeij, Roy P C Kessels, Linda Heskamp, Esther M F Simons, Paul L J Dautzenberg, Jurgen A H R Claassen
Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load...
February 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ting Li, Ye Yao, Yan Cheng, Bing Xu, Xinyi Cao, David Waxman, Wei Feng, Yuan Shen, Qingwei Li, Jijun Wang, Wenyuan Wu, Chunbo Li, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms underlying the restorative effects of cognitive training on aging brains remain unclear. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between changes in spontaneous brain activity and cognitive performance that occur after cognitive training. METHODS: Participants were older adults who were part of a randomized control trial within a larger longitudinal cognitive training study. We conducted single-domain and multi-domain cognitive training in two respective intervention groups...
January 14, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Bin-Yin Li, Hui-Dong Tang, Yuan Qiao, Sheng-Di Chen
Cognitive impairment is a major concern in elderly people, and a variety of nonpharmacological therapies (NPTs) have been developed to help with cognitive decline. One of the most popular therapies is cognitive training, which includes pencil-and-paper puzzles, computerized games, or the combination of the two. Training is designed to have participants perform diverse exercises in one or more cognitive domains. Most clinical training trials indicate that well-organized tasks are clinically effective for cognitive improvement...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
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