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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098301/optical-dna-mapping-in-nanofluidic-devices-principles-and-applications
#1
Vilhelm Müller, Fredrik Westerlund
Optical DNA mapping has over the last decade emerged as a very powerful tool for obtaining long range sequence information from single DNA molecules. In optical DNA mapping, intact large single DNA molecules are labeled, stretched out, and imaged using a fluorescence microscope. This means that sequence information ranging over hundreds of kilobasepairs (kbp) can be obtained in one single image. Nanochannels offer homogeneous and efficient stretching of DNA that is crucial to maximize the information that can be obtained from optical DNA maps...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079757/pathogenesis-of-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction-role-of-mechanical-stress-induced-upregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, John Winston, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Sushil K Sarna, Li-Yen M Huang, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in bowel obstruction (BO); its cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stress in obstruction upregulates expression of nociception mediator nerve growth factor (NGF) in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and NGF sensitizes primary sensory nerve to contribute to pain in BO. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band implanted in the distal bowel of Sprague-Dawley rats. Colon-projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were identified for patch clamp and gene expression studies...
January 6, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078410/effects-of-direct-current-electric-fields-on-lung-cancer-cell-electrotaxis-in-a-pmma-based-microfluidic-device
#3
Yaping Li, Tao Xu, Xiaomei Chen, Shin Lin, Michael Cho, Dong Sun, Mengsu Yang
Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of cancer death. Numerous studies have demonstrated the electrotactic responses of various cancer cell types, and suggested its potential implications in metastasis. In this study, we used a microfluidic device to emulate endogenous direct current electric field (dcEF) environment, and studied the electrotactic migration of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (H460, HCC827, H1299, and H1975) and the underlying mechanisms. These cell lines exhibited greatly different response in applied dcEFs (2-6 V/cm)...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070696/an-ionic-liquid-based-strain-sensor-for-large-displacement-measurement
#4
Grim Keulemans, Frederik Ceyssens, Robert Puers
A robust and low cost ionic liquid based strain sensor is fabricated for high strain measurements in biomedical applications (up to 40 % and higher). A tubular 5 mm long silicone microchannel with an inner diameter of 310 µm and an outer diameter of 650 µm is filled with an ionic liquid. Three ionic liquids have been investigated: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, ethylammonium nitrate and cholinium ethanoate. When the channel is axially stretched, geometrical deformations change the electrical impedance of the liquid channel...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057718/calcium-mediated-oxidative-stress-a-common-mechanism-in-tight-junction-disruption-by-different-types-of-cellular-stress
#5
Ruchika Gangwar, Avtar Meena, Pradeep Shukla, Archana Nagaraja, Piotr Dorniak, Sandeep Pallikuth, Christopher Waters, Anil Sood, Radhakrishna Rao
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro , and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA. Knockdown of CaV1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054347/ano1-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-plays-a-key-role-in-the-generation-of-slow-waves-and-tone-in-the-internal-anal-sphincter
#6
C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049324/relaxation-pathways-of-the-od-stretch-fundamental-of-hod-in-liquid-h2o
#7
Beatriz Miguel, José Zúñiga, Alberto Requena, Adolfo Bastida
The molecular dynamics with quantum transitions method is used to study the vibrational relaxation of the OD stretching mode of HOD dissolved in liquid H2O water at 303 K. All the vibrational modes of the solute and solvent molecules that participate in the relaxation process are described by quantum mechanics, while the rotational and translational degrees of freedom are treated classically. A modification of the water intramolecular SPC/E (Simple Point Charge/Extended) force field providing vibrational frequencies in solution closer to the experimental values is proposed to analyze the influence of the vibrational energy gaps on the relaxation channels...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044290/microfluidic-dna-stretching-device-for-single-molecule-diagnostics
#8
Daisuke Onoshima, Yoshinobu Baba
The method described here enables the automatic stretching and patterning of single DNA molecules onto a solid surface. It does not require chemical modification of the DNA or surface modification of the substrate. To detect a signal variation caused by sequence-specific dye binding or partial melting, it is crucial that the DNA molecules are arrayed in a parallel direction inside the narrow microscopic field. The method uses zigzag-shaped microgrooves in a densely-arranged molecular patterning apparatus in a microfluidic channel...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024367/fully-printed-stretchable-thin-film-transistors-and-integrated-logic-circuits
#9
Le Cai, Suoming Zhang, Jinshui Miao, Zhibin Yu, Chuan Wang
This paper reports intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits directly printed on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018918/role-of-bkca-in-stretch-induced-relaxation-of-colonic-smooth-muscle
#10
Jie Ren, Fang Xin, Ping Liu, Hai-Yan Zhao, Si-Tao Zhang, Peng Han, Hai-Xia Huang, Wei Wang
Stretch-induced relaxation has not been clearly identified in gastrointestinal tract. The present study is to explore the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in stretch-induced relaxation of colon. The expression and currents of BKCa were detected and the basal muscle tone and contraction amplitude of colonic smooth muscle strips were measured. The expression of BKCa in colon is higher than other GI segments (P < 0.05). The density of BKCa currents was very high in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009703/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-2-function-regulates-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-stretch-induced-activation
#11
Sheryl E Koch, Adrien Mann, Shannon Jones, Nathan Robbins, Abdullah Alkhattabi, Mariah C Worley, Xu Gao, Valerie M Lasko-Roiniotis, Rajiv Karani, Logan Fulford, Min Jiang, Michelle Nieman, John N Lorenz, Jack Rubinstein
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension (increased afterload) results in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy leading to left ventricular hypertrophy and subsequently, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 subtype (TRPV2) function regulates hypertrophy under increased afterload conditions. METHODS: We used functional (pore specific) TRPV2 knockout mice to evaluate the effects of increased afterload-induced stretch on cardiac size and function via transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as well as hypertrophic stimuli including adrenergic and angiotensin stimulation via subcutaneous pumps...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#12
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
December 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994060/twisting-a-%C3%AE-carotene-an-adaptive-trick-from-nature-for-dissipating-energy-during-photoprotection
#13
Manuel J Llansola-Portoles, Roman Sobotka, Elizabeth Kish, Mahendra Kumar Shukla, Andrew A Pascal, Tomáš Polívka, Bruno Robert
Cyanobacteria possess a family of one-helix high-light-inducible proteins (Hlips) that are homologous to light-harvesting antenna of plants and algae. An Hlip protein, high light inducible protein D (HliD) purified as a small complex with the Ycf39 protein is evaluated using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We show that the HliD binds two different β-carotenes, each present in two non-equivalent binding pockets with different conformations, having their (0,0) absorption maxima at 489 and 522 nm respectively. Both populations of β-carotene molecules were in all-trans configuration and the absorption position of the farthest blue-shifted β-carotene was attributed entirely to the polarizability of the environment in its binding pocked...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992390/the-effect-of-cochlear-damage-on-the-sensitivity-to-harmonicity
#14
Damien Bonnard, René Dauman, Catherine Semal, Laurent Demany
OBJECTIVES: A sum of simultaneous pure tones with harmonic relationships (i.e., simple frequency ratios) is normally heard as a single sound, with a single pitch, even when its components are fully resolved in the auditory periphery. This perceptual phenomenon called "harmonic fusion" is thought to play an important role in auditory scene analysis as listeners often have to segregate simultaneous harmonic sounds with different fundamental frequencies. The present study explored the consequences of mild or moderate cochlear hearing loss for the sensitivity to harmonicity and the detection of inharmonicity...
January 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991560/trpc3-gef-h1-axis-mediates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-fibrosis
#15
Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Naoyuki Kitajima, Takuya Kuroda, Akiyuki Nishimura, Kei Miyano, Satoshi Yasuda, Koichiro Kuwahara, Yoji Sato, Tomomi Ide, Lutz Birnbaumer, Hideki Sumimoto, Yasuo Mori, Motohiro Nishida
Structural cardiac remodeling, accompanying cytoskeletal reorganization of cardiac cells, is a major clinical outcome of diastolic heart failure. A highly local Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane has been suggested to code signals to induce Rho GTPase-mediated fibrosis, but it is obscure how the heart specifically decodes the local Ca(2+) influx as a cytoskeletal reorganizing signal under the conditions of the rhythmic Ca(2+) handling required for pump function. We found that an inhibition of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) channel activity exhibited resistance to Rho-mediated maladaptive fibrosis in pressure-overloaded mouse hearts...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986325/effects-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-1-trpc1-on-the-mechanical-stretch-induced-expression-of-airway-remodeling-associated-factors-in-human-bronchial-epithelioid-cells
#16
Qian Yu, Minchao Li
Research has shown that mechanical stress stimulation can cause airway remodeling. We investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on the expression of the airway remodeling-associated factors interleukin-13 (IL-13) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) and signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelioid (16HBE) cells under mechanical stretch. A Flexcell FX-4000 Tension System with a flexible substrate was applied to stretch 16HBE cells at a 15% elongation amplitude and 1Hz frequency, with stretching for 0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979859/capsaicin-induced-ca2-signaling-is-enhanced-via-upregulated-trpv1-channels-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-from-patients-with-idiopathic-pah
#17
Shanshan Song, Ramon J Ayon, Aya Yamamura, Hisao Yamamura, Swetaleena Dash, Aleksandra Babicheva, Haiyang Tang, Xutong Sun, Arlette G Cordery, Zain I Khalpey, Stephen M Black, Ankit A Desai, Franz Rischard, Kimberly M McDermott, Joe G N Garcia, Ayako Makino, Jason X-J Yuan
Capsaicin is an active component of chili pepper and a pain relief drug. Capsaicin can activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels to increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). A rise in [Ca2+]cyt in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is an important stimulus for pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. In this study, we observed that capsaicin-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt was significantly enhanced in PASMCs from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) compared with normal PASMCs...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975174/dysregulation-of-intracellular-ca-2-in-dystrophic-cortical-and-hippocampal-neurons
#18
José R Lopez, Juan Kolster, Arkady Uryash, Eric Estève, Francisco Altamirano, José A Adams
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited X-linked disorder characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiomyopathy, as well as cognitive impairment. Lack of dystrophin in striated muscle produces dyshomeostasis of resting intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), Na(+) ([Na(+)]i), and oxidative stress. Here, we test the hypothesis that similar to striated muscle cells, an absence of dystrophin in neurons from mdx mice (a mouse model for DMD) is also associated with dysfunction of [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis and oxidative stress...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973792/resolved-v1-v2-1-combination-vibrational-states-of-cf3-fragments-in-the-photofragment-translational-spectra-of-cf3i
#19
Dan Lin, Lili Hu, Sheng Liu, Wenke Qi, Min Cheng, Yikui Du, Qihe Zhu
The photodissociation of CF3I → CF3(v1,v2) + I*/I has been investigated at 248, 266, and 277 nm with our high resolution mini-TOF photofragment translational spectrometer. Based on the theoretical calculations of Clary and of Bowman et al., now in this manuscript, we assign 701 cm(-1) to the CF symmetric stretch (breathing) ν1 mode, and 1086 cm(-1) to the umbrella ν2 mode of the CF3 fragment. In the obtained TOF spectra of I(+) from the I* channel, situated in the 701 cm(-1) gaps between the original series of (v1, 0) vibrational peaks, a new series of weaker (v1, 1) vibrational peaks are partially resolved...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965731/dynamic-simulations-show-repeated-narrowing-maximizes-dna-linearization-in-elastomeric-nanochannels
#20
Minsub Han, Byoung Choul Kim, Toshiki Matsuoka, M D Thouless, Shuichi Takayama
This paper uses computer simulations to reveal unprecedented details about linearization of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) inside dynamic nanochannels that can be repeatedly widened and narrowed. We first analyze the effect of rate of channel narrowing on DNA linearization dynamics. Quick (∼0.1 s) narrowing of nanoscale channels results in rapid overstretching of the semi-flexible chain followed by a slower (∼0.1-10 s) relaxation to an equilibrium extension. Two phenomena that induce linearization during channel narrowing, namely, elongational-flow and confinement, occur simultaneously, regardless of narrowing speed...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
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