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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883446/a-sensory-motor-neuron-type-mediates-proprioceptive-coordination-of-steering-in-c-elegans-via-two-trpc-channels
#1
Jihye Yeon, Jinmahn Kim, Do-Young Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Jungha Kim, Eun Jo Du, KyeongJin Kang, Hyun-Ho Lim, Daewon Moon, Kyuhyung Kim
Animal locomotion is mediated by a sensory system referred to as proprioception. Defects in the proprioceptive coordination of locomotion result in uncontrolled and inefficient movements. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying proprioception are not fully understood. Here, we identify two transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, trp-1 and trp-2, as necessary and sufficient for proprioceptive responses in C. elegans head steering locomotion. Both channels are expressed in the SMDD neurons, which are required and sufficient for head bending, and mediate coordinated head steering by sensing mechanical stretches due to the contraction of head muscle and orchestrating dorsal head muscle contractions...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868937/effects-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-on-electrophysiological-manifestations-of-mechanoelectric-feedback
#2
Luis Such-Miquel, Irene Del Canto, Manuel Zarzoso, Laia Brines, Carlos Soler, Germán Parra, Antonio Guill, Antonio Alberola, Luis Such, Francisco J Chorro
Electromechanical coupling studies have described the intervention of nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation processes in Ca2+ release induced by stretch, with heterogeneous findings. On the other hand, ion channel function activated by stretch is influenced by nitric oxide, and concentration-dependent biphasic effects upon several cellular functions have been described. The present study uses isolated and perfused rabbit hearts to investigate the changes in mechanoelectric feedback produced by two different concentrations of the nitric oxide carrier S-nitrosoglutathione...
June 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851455/hydrophilic-channel-alignment-of-perfluoronated-sulfonic-acid-ionomers-for-vanadium-redox-flow-batteries
#3
Soonyong So, Min Suc Cha, Sang-Woo Jo, Tae-Ho Kim, Jang Yong Lee, Young Taik Hong
It is known that uniaxially drawn perfluoronated sulfonic-acid ionomers (PFSAs) show diffusion anisotropy because of the aligned water channels along the deformation direction. We apply the uniaxially stretched membranes to vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) to suppress the permeation of active species, vanadium ions through the transverse directions. The aligned water channels render much lower vanadium permeability, resulting in higher Coulombic efficiency (>98%) and longer self-discharge time (>250 h)...
May 31, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798672/highly-stretchable-and-transparent-thermistor-based-on-self-healing-double-network-hydrogel
#4
Jin Wu, Songjia Han, Tengzhou Yang, Zhong Li, Zixuan Wu, Xuchun Gui, Kai Tao, Jianmin Miao, Leslie K Norford, Chuan Liu, Fengwei Huo
An ultrastretchable thermistor that combines intrinsic stretchability, thermal sensitivity, transparency, and self-healing capability is fabricated. It is found the polyacrylamide/carrageenan double network (DN) hydrogel is highly sensitive to temperature and therefore can be exploited as a novel channel material for a thermistor. This thermistor can be stretched from 0 to 330% strain with the sensitivity as high as 2.6%/°C at extreme 200% strain. Noticeably, the mechanical, electrical, and thermal sensing properties of the DN hydrogel can be self-healed, analogous to the self-healing capability of human skin...
May 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781158/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-distention-associated-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction
#5
Y Fu, Y M Lin, J H Winston, R Radhakrishnan, L-Y M Huang, X Z Shi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that visceral sensitivity is increased in bowel obstruction (BO). We hypothesized that mechanical stress-induced expression of BDNF in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the distended bowel plays a critical role in visceral hypersensitivity in BO by altering voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv ) activity in sensory neurons. METHODS: Partial colon obstruction was maintained in rats for 7 days. Colon-projecting neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were isolated for electrophysiological and gene expression studies...
May 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769447/aquaporin-1-regulates-platelet-procoagulant-membrane-dynamics-and-in-vivo-thrombosis
#6
Ejaife O Agbani, Christopher M Williams, Yong Li, Marion Tj van den Bosch, Samantha F Moore, Adele Mauroux, Lorna Hodgson, Alan S Verkman, Ingeborg Hers, Alastair W Poole
In response to collagen stimulation, platelets use a coordinated system of fluid entry to undergo membrane ballooning, procoagulant spreading, and microvesiculation. We hypothesized that water entry was mediated by the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aimed to determine its role in the platelet procoagulant response and thrombosis. We established that human and mouse platelets express AQP1 and localize to internal tubular membrane structures. However, deletion of AQP1 had minimal effects on collagen-induced platelet granule secretion, aggregation, or membrane ballooning...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757278/a-microbiomechanical-system-for-studying-varicosity-formation-and-recovery-in-central-neuron-axons
#7
Dustin Servello, Yuanzheng Gu, Chen Gu
Axonal varicosities are enlarged structures along the shafts of axons with a high degree of heterogeneity. They are present not only in brains with neurodegenerative diseases or injuries, but also in the normal brain. Here, we describe a newly-established micromechanical system to rapidly, reliably, and reversibly induce axonal varicosities, allowing us to understand the mechanisms governing varicosity formation and heterogeneous protein composition. This system represents a novel means to evaluate the effects of compression and shear stress on different subcellular compartments of neurons, different from other in vitro systems that mainly focus on the effect of stretching...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756630/a-biomimetic-microfluidic-model-to-study-signalling-between-endothelial-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-under-hemodynamic-conditions
#8
Nicole C A van Engeland, Andreas M A O Pollet, Jaap M J den Toonder, Carlijn V C Bouten, Oscar M J A Stassen, Cecilia M Sahlgren
Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked...
May 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755635/microfluidic-platform-for-probing-cancer-cells-migration-property-under-periodic-mechanical-confinement
#9
Dongce Ma, Ran Wang, Shuxun Chen, Tao Luo, Yu-Ting Chow, Dong Sun
Cancer cell migration and invasion, which are involved in tumour metastasis, are hard to predict and control. Numerous studies have demonstrated that physical cues influence cancer cell migration and affect tumour metastasis. In this study, we proposed the use of a microchannel chip equipped with a number of vertical constrictions to produce periodic compression forces on cells passing through narrow channels. The chip with repeated vertical confinement was applied on adherent MHCC-97L liver cancer cells and suspended OCI-AML leukaemia cells to determine the migration ability of these cancer cells...
March 2018: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755320/mechanically-gated-ion-channels-in-mammalian-hair-cells
#10
REVIEW
Xufeng Qiu, Ulrich Müller
Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS)/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736621/molecular-basis-for-the-sensitivity-of-trp-channels-to-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#11
Marc Riehle, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Björn-Oliver Gohlke, Robert Preissner, Christian Harteneck, Maik Gollasch, Bernd Nürnberg
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels represent a superfamily of unselective cation channels that are subdivided into seven subfamilies based on their sequence homology and differences in gating and functional properties. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel regulation, particularly of the "canonical" TRP (TRPC) subfamily and their activation by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we analyzed the structure-function relationship of Drosophila fruit fly TRPC channels...
May 8, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728742/in-vivo-three-dimensional-mr-imaging-of-the-intact-anterior-cruciate-ligament-shows-a-variable-insertion-pattern-of-the-femoral-and-tibial-footprints
#12
S U Scheffler, K Maschewski, R Becker, P Asbach
PURPOSE: Failure to reconstruct the natural footprints of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may lead to premature graft-failure. Therefore, precise analyses of insertion site anatomy and inter-individual variations of the morphology of the ACL are highly important to facilitate optimal individualized graft placement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the inter-individual variation of the morphology of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints. METHODS: Thirty subjects with an intact ACL were included in this study for MR imaging of their knee joint...
May 4, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720258/t-type-calcium-channels-functionally-interact-with-spectrin-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-ankyrin-b
#13
Agustin Garcia-Caballero, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Victoria Hodgkinson, Junting Huang, Lina Chen, Ivana A Souza, Stuart Cain, Jennifer Kass, Sascha Alles, Terrance P Snutch, Gerald W Zamponi
This study describes the functional interaction between the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels and cytoskeletal spectrin (α/β) and ankyrin B proteins. The interactions were identified utilizing a proteomic approach to identify proteins that interact with a conserved negatively charged cytosolic region present in the carboxy-terminus of T-type calcium channels. Deletion of this stretch of amino acids decreased binding of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 calcium channels to spectrin (α/β) and ankyrin B and notably also reduced T-type whole cell current densities in expression systems...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719087/regulation-of-inward-rectifier-potassium-current-ionic-channel-remodeling-by-at-1-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-pathway-in-stretch-induced-hypertrophic-atrial-myocytes
#14
Jionghong He, Yanan Xu, Long Yang, Guiling Xia, Na Deng, Yongyao Yang, Ye Tian, Zenan Fu, Yongqi Huang
Previous studies have shown that the activation of angiotensin II receptor type I (AT1 ) is attributed to cardiac remodeling stimulated by increased heart load, and that it is followed by the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway. Additionally, AT1 has been found to be a regulator of cardiocyte ionic channel remodeling, and calcineurin-NFAT signals participate in the regulation of cardiocyte ionic channel expression. A hypothesis therefore follows that stretch stimulation may regulate cardiocyte ionic channel remodeling by activating the AT1 -calcineurin-NFAT pathway...
May 2, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696705/aligning-solution-derived-carbon-nanotube-film-with-full-surface-coverage-for-high-performance-electronics-applications
#15
Ma-Guang Zhu, Jia Si, Zhiyong Zhang, Lian-Mao Peng
The main challenge for application of solution-derived carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in high performance field-effect transistor (FET) is how to align CNTs into an array with high density and full surface coverage. A directional shrinking transfer method is developed to realize high density aligned array based on randomly orientated CNT network film. Through transferring a solution-derived CNT network film onto a stretched retractable film followed by a shrinking process, alignment degree and density of CNT film increase with the shrinking multiple...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684589/hydrogen-sulfide-donor-nahs-stimulates-anp-secretion-via-the-k-atp-channel-and-the-nos-sgc-pathway-in-rat-atria
#16
Lamei Yu, Byung Mun Park, Yong Jin Ahn, Gi-Ja Lee, Suhn Hee Kim
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is normally produced from l-cysteine in mammalian tissues and related to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of H2 S donor on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and define its mechanism using normal and isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rats. Several H2 S donors were perfused into isolated beating rat atria, and atrial pressure (AP) and ANP secretion were measured. NaHS augmented high stretch-induced ANP secretion and decreased AP in a dose-dependent manner...
April 21, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674971/a-numerical-study-of-scalable-cardiac-electro-mechanical-solvers-on-hpc-architectures
#17
Piero Colli Franzone, Luca F Pavarino, Simone Scacchi
We introduce and study some scalable domain decomposition preconditioners for cardiac electro-mechanical 3D simulations on parallel HPC (High Performance Computing) architectures. The electro-mechanical model of the cardiac tissue is composed of four coupled sub-models: (1) the static finite elasticity equations for the transversely isotropic deformation of the cardiac tissue; (2) the active tension model describing the dynamics of the intracellular calcium, cross-bridge binding and myofilament tension; (3) the anisotropic Bidomain model describing the evolution of the intra- and extra-cellular potentials in the deforming cardiac tissue; and (4) the ionic membrane model describing the dynamics of ionic currents, gating variables, ionic concentrations and stretch-activated channels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673579/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-primary-hemifacial-spasm
#18
J-P Lefaucheur
Primary hemifacial spasm (pHFS) is due to a benign compression of the facial motor nerve by an offending vessel, leading to increased nerve excitability. Facial nerve hyperexcitability presents two different aspects. First, there is a spontaneous and ectopic generation of action potentials on the incriminated nerve and then this ectopic impulse can propagate and spread "laterally" from one facial nerve branch to another. This results in spontaneous and synkinetic spasms affecting one hemiface. Although the increase in excitability certainly concerns the nucleus of the facial motor nerve in the brainstem, it seems unlikely that the primary origin of this hyperexcitability and the associated phenomenon of lateral spreading strictly originate at the nuclear level...
April 16, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664963/trpv4-inhibition-attenuates-stretch-induced-inflammatory-cellular-responses-and-lung-barrier-dysfunction-during-mechanical-ventilation
#19
N Pairet, S Mang, G Fois, M Keck, M Kühnbach, J Gindele, M Frick, P Dietl, D J Lamb
Mechanical ventilation is an important tool for supporting critically ill patients but may also exert pathological forces on lung cells leading to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). We hypothesised that inhibition of the force-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV4) ion channel may attenuate the negative effects of mechanical ventilation. Mechanical stretch increased intracellular Ca2+ influx and induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung epithelial cells that was partially blocked by about 30% with the selective TRPV4 inhibitor GSK2193874, but nearly completely blocked with the pan-calcium channel blocker ruthenium red, suggesting the involvement of more than one calcium channel in the response to mechanical stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628463/-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-response-to-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-and-aortic-dissection
#20
Masanori Yoshizumi, Jing Zhao, Yoji Kyotani
Acute aortic dissection is the most common life-threatening vascular disease, with sudden onset of severe pain and a high fatality rate. The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vessel wall to cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS), which evokes VSMC death, phenotypic switching, and migration, leading to aortic dissection. We have revealed that CMS of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) caused JNK- and p38-dependent cell death and that a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, olmesartan decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and, subsequently, decreased cell death by CMS...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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