Read by QxMD icon Read

stretch channels

Andreas Reichenbach, Andreas Bringmann
Müller glia, the principal macroglia of the retina, express diverse subtypes of adenosine and metabotropic purinergic (P2Y) receptors. Müller cells of several species, including man, also express ionotropic P2X7 receptors. ATP is liberated from Müller cells after activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and during osmotic and mechanical induction of membrane stretch; adenosine is released through equilibrative nucleoside transporters. Müller cell-derived purines modulate the neuronal activity and have autocrine effects, for example, induction of glial calcium waves and regulation of the cellular volume...
October 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
N Bavi, O Bavi, M Vossoughi, R Naghdabadi, A P Hill, B Martinac, Y Jamali
Gating of mechanosentive (MS) channels is driven by a hierarchical cascade of movements and deformations of transmembrane helices in response to bilayer tension. Determining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the individual transmembrane helices is therefore central to understanding the intricacies of the gating mechanism of MS channels. We used a constant-force steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to perform unidirectional pulling tests on all the helices of MscL in M. tuberculosis and E. coli homologs...
October 18, 2016: Channels
Nadia Soudani, Crystal M Ghantous, Zein Farhat, Wassim N Shebaby, Kazem Zibara, Asad Zeidan
Background and Aims: Hypertension and obesity are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They are both associated with high leptin levels and have been shown to promote vascular hypertrophy, through the RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcineurin/NFAT activation also induces vascular hypertrophy by upregulating various genes. This study aimed to decipher whether a crosstalk exists between the RhoA/ROCK pathway, Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the process of mechanical stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy and leptin synthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
P Leitner, C Hauer, W Graf
Artificial flow fluctuations due to the operation of hydropower plants, frequently described as hydropeaking, result in a constant decrease of biomass of specific macrozoobenthos (MZB) taxa. For the presented case study, we assessed three reaches in the Ziller River catchment. At each sampling reach we performed the Multi-Habitat-Sampling (MHS) method with a Water Framework Directive (WFD) compliant AQEM/MHS net according to the Austrian guideline. Additionally, a hydraulic-specific sampling was conducted with a modified Box (Surber) sampler...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Seunghyun Eom, Sungjoon Lim
In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF) sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn) and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D) printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2...
October 11, 2016: Sensors
Kristen Zuraski, Daniel Thomas Kwasniewski, Amit Kumar Samanta, Hanna Reisler
The vibrational predissociation of the HCl-(H2O)3 tetramer, the largest HCl-(H2O)n cluster for which HCl is not predicted to be ionized, is reported. This work focuses on the predissociation pathway giving rise to H2O + HCl-(H2O)2 following IR laser excitation of the H-bonded OH stretch fundamental. H2O fragments are monitored state-selectively by 2+1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Velocity map images of H2O in selected rotational levels are used to determine translational energy distributions from which the internal energy distributions in the pair-correlated cofragments are derived...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
A Tiribocchi, M Da Re, D Marenduzzo, E Orlandini
Here we study theoretically the dynamics of a 2D and a 3D isotropic droplet in a nematic liquid crystal under a shear flow. We find a large repertoire of possible nonequilibrium steady states as a function of the shear rate and of the anchoring of the nematic director field at the droplet surface. We first discuss homeotropic anchoring. For weak anchoring, we recover the typical behaviour of a sheared isotropic droplet in a binary fluid, which rotates, stretches and can be broken by the applied flow. For intermediate anchoring, new possibilities arise due to elastic effects in the nematic fluid...
October 4, 2016: Soft Matter
C Wang, J Wang, D Jia, L Li, B Jia, S Fan, J Song, X Hu, Y Wang, D Wang
Paecilomyces hepiali (PH), a well-known medicinal fungus, has various pharmacological efficacies. In our study, the antinociceptive effects of PH and underlying mechanisms were evaluated using various mouse models. An acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activities of PH. The levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamus and monoamine neurotransmitters in the serum and hypothalamus of experimental mice were examined...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Junghwa Cha, Hyunjae Shin, Pilnam Kim
A bioinspired fluidic system with cracks and folds was introduced to emulate the structures and functions of desert lizards' integuments, which show marked ability of water management. Since there was a structural analogy between scales and interscalar channels of lizard's skin and cracks and folds of a bilayer elastic material, we can mimic lizard's skin by controlling the stress distribution on patterned elastomers. Our system showed not only capillary-driven water retention within confined fluidic network, but also stretching-driven biaxial water transport...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wanlop Kunanusornchai, Chatchai Muanprasat, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Matthew A Dragovich, Daniel Chester, Bingmei M Fu, Chenyu Wu, Yan Xu, Michael S Goligorsky, X Frank Zhang
The endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) is a carbohydrate-rich layer found on the vascular endothelium, serving critical functions in the mechanotransduction of blood flow induced forces. One of the most important protective functions of the ESG is to mediate the production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to blood flow. However, the detailed mechanism underlying ESG's mechanotransduction of the production of NO has not been completely identified. Herein, using the cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yan Choi Lam, Harry B Gray, Jay R Winkler
Intersystem crossing (ISC) in solid [(C4H9)4N]4[Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4], abbreviated Pt(pop-BF2), is remarkably slow for a third-row transition metal complex, ranging from τISC ≈ 0.9 ns at 310 K to τISC ≈ 29 ns below 100 K. A classical model based on Boltzmann population of one temperature-independent and two thermally activated pathways was previously employed to account for the ISC rate behavior. An alternative we prefer is to treat Pt(pop-BF2) ISC quantum mechanically, using expressions for multiphonon radiationless transitions...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Stefania Russo, Tommaso Ranzani, Hongbin Liu, Samia Nefti-Meziani, Kaspar Althoefer, Arianna Menciassi
This article introduces a soft and stretchable sensor composed of silicone rubber integrating a conductive liquid-filled channel with a biocompatible sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and novel stretchable gold sputtered electrodes to facilitate the biocompatibility of the sensor. By stretching the sensor, the cross section of the channel deforms, thus leading to a change in electrical resistance. The functionalities of the sensor have been validated experimentally: changes in electrical resistance are measured as a function of the applied strain...
December 1, 2015: Soft Robot
Zuxiao Yang, Jinzhong Lin, Keqiong Ye
Box C/D RNAs guide site-specific 2'-O-methylation of RNAs in archaea and eukaryotes. The spacer regions between boxes C to D' and boxes C' to D contain the guide sequence that can form a stretch of base pairs with substrate RNAs. The lengths of spacer regions and guide-substrate duplexes are variable among C/D RNAs. In a previously determined structure of C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP), a 12-nt-long spacer forms 10 bp with the substrate. How spacers and guide-substrate duplexes of other lengths are accommodated remains unknown...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria João Marques-Carvalho, Johannes Oppermann, Eva Muñoz, Andreia S Fernandes, Guillaume Gabant, Martine Cadene, Stefan H Heinemann, Roland Schönherr, João Henrique Morais-Cabral
The human EAG1 potassium channel belongs to the superfamily of KCNH voltage-gated potassium channels that have roles in cardiac repolarization and neuronal excitability. EAG1 is strongly inhibited by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) through a mechanism that is not understood. We determined the binding properties of CaM with each one of three previously identified binding sites (BDN, BDC1, and BDC2), analyzed binding to protein stretches that include more than one site, and determined the effect of neighboring globular domains on the binding properties...
October 4, 2016: Structure
V Kazanski, V M Mitrokhin, M I Mladenov, A G Kamkin
: The role of cytokines as regulators of stretch-related mechanisms is of special importance since mechano-sensitivity plays an important role in a wide variety of biological processes. Here, we elucidate the influence of cytokine application on mechano-sensitivity and mechano-transduction. The atrial myocardial stretch induces production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A, and IL-18 with exception of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B)...
September 12, 2016: Immunological Investigations
E Aguettaz, J J Lopez, A Krzesiak, B Constantin, C Cognard, S Sebille
In this data article, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was measured in isolated ventricular Wild Type (WT) and mdx cardiomyocytes in two different conditions: at rest and during the application of an axial stretch. Using a carbon microfibers technique, axial stretch was applied to mimic effects of physiological conditions of ventricular filling. A study of cation entry with the same experimental model and the manganese quenching method reported (i) a constitutive cation entry in mdx cardiomyocytes and (ii) the involvement of TRPV2 channels in axial-stretch dependant cation entry, "Axial stretch-dependent cation entry in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: involvement of several TRPs channels" (Aguettaz et al...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Kyu-Sang Kyeong, Seung Hwa Hong, Young Chul Kim, Woong Cho, Sun Chul Myung, Moo Yeol Lee, Ra Young You, Chan Hyung Kim, So Yeon Kwon, Hikaru Suzuki, Yeon Jin Park, Eun-Hwan Jeong, Hak Soon Kim, Heon Kim, Seung Woon Lim, Wen-Xie Xu, Sang Jin Lee, Il Woon Ji
Myometrial relaxation of mouse via expression of two-pore domain acid sensitive (TASK) channels was studied. In our previous report, we suggested that two-pore domain acid-sensing K(+) channels (TASK-2) might be one of the candidates for the regulation of uterine circular smooth muscles in mice. In this study, we tried to show the mechanisms of relaxation via TASK-2 channels in marine myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and patch clamp technique were used to verify TASK conductance in murine myometrium...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Andrew W Woods, Nicola Mingotti
We consider the displacement of one fluid by a second immiscible fluid through a long, thin permeable channel whose thickness and permeability decrease away from the axis of the channel. We build a model that illustrates how the shape of the fluid-fluid interface evolves in time. We find that if the injected fluid is of the same viscosity as the original fluid, then the cross-channel variations in permeability and thickness tend to focus the flow along the centre of the channel. If the viscosity of the injected fluid is smaller than the original fluid, then this flow focusing intensifies, leading to very poor sweep of the original fluid in the system, with the injected fluid bypassing much of the channel...
October 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"