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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324742/epithelial-homeostasis-a-piezo-of-the-puzzle
#1
Eugenia Piddini
A recent study shows that, upon stretching or wounding, epithelia display a fast proliferative response that allows for re-establishment of optimal cell density or sealing of the wound. This increased proliferation is induced by the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 and involves calcium-triggered ERK signalling.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319375/dissociative-photoionization-of-dimethyl-carbonate-the-more-it-is-cut-the-bigger-the-fragment-ion
#2
Xiangkun Wu, Xiaoguo Zhou, Patrick Hemberger, Andras Bodi
The dissociation of internal energy selected dimethyl carbonate (DMC) cations was studied by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (iPEPICO) in the 10.3-12.5 eV photon energy range. Vibrational fine structure is observed in the ground state band of the threshold photoelectron spectrum up to the dissociation threshold, and Franck-Condon simulations identify the O-C-O bend mode, in particular in combination with the C=O stretch mode, to be active. The DMC ionization energy was determined to be 10...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303387/caveolar-remodeling-is-a-critical-mechanotransduction-mechanism-of-the-stretch-induced-l-type-ca-2-channel-activation-in-vascular-myocytes
#3
Sang Woong Park, Kyung Chul Shin, Hyun Ji Park, Soon-Kyu Yoou, Jin-Yeon Park, Young-Sun Kang, Dong Jun Sung, Jae Gon Kim, Seung Hwa Park, BoKyung Kim, Hana Cho, Young Min Bae
Activation of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCL) by membrane stretch contributes to many biological responses such as myogenic contraction of arteries. However, mechanism for the stretch-induced VDCCL activation is unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that caveolar remodeling and its related signaling cascade contribute to the stretch-induced activation of VDCCL in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells. The VDCCL currents were recorded with nystatin-perforated or with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
March 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303107/localization-and-ordering-of-lipids-around-aquaporin-0-protein-and-lipid-mobility-effects
#4
Rodolfo Briones, Camilo Aponte-Santamaría, Bert L de Groot
Hydrophobic matching, lipid sorting, and protein oligomerization are key principles by which lipids and proteins organize in biological membranes. The Aquaporin-0 channel (AQP0), solved by electron crystallography (EC) at cryogenic temperatures, is one of the few protein-lipid complexes of which the structure is available in atomic detail. EC and room-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) of dimyristoylglycerophosphocholine (DMPC) annular lipids around AQP0 show similarities, however, crystal-packing and temperature might affect the protein surface or the lipids distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297643/effects-of-polymer-length-and-salt-concentration-on-the-transport-of-ssdna-in-nanofluidic-channels
#5
Weixin Qian, Kentaro Doi, Satoyuki Kawano
Electrokinetic phenomena in micro/nanofluidic channels have attracted considerable attention because precise control of molecular transport in liquids is required to optically and electrically capture the behavior of single molecules. However, the detailed mechanisms of polymer transport influenced by electroosmotic flows and electric fields in micro/nanofluidic channels have not yet been elucidated. In this study, a Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the electrokinetic transport of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a cylindrical nanochannel, employing a coarse-grained bead-spring model that quantitatively reproduced the radius of gyration, diffusion coefficient, and electrophoretic mobility of the polymer...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293464/measurement-of-dna-length-changes-upon-cpg-hypermethylation-by-microfluidic-molecular-stretching
#6
Daisuke Onoshima, Naoko Kawakita, Daiki Takeshita, Hirohiko Niioka, Hiroshi Yukawa, Jun Miyake, Yoshinobu Baba
Abnormal DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters is recognized as a distinct molecular feature of precursor lesions to cancer. Such unintended methylation can occur during in vitro differentiation of stem cells. It takes place in a subset of genes during the differentiation or expansion of stem cell derivatives under general culture conditions, which may need to be monitored in future cell transplantation studies. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic device for investigating morphological length changes in DNA methylation...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286334/mechanical-strain-induced-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-via-stretch-activated-channels-in-rat-abdominal-aortic-dissection
#7
ZhiHuang Qiu, LiangWan Chen, Hua Cao, Qiang Chen, Hua Peng
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rat abdominal aortic dissection (AD) induced by mechanical strain, so as to offer a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS Experimental AD in rats was achieved by the injection of porcine pancreatic elastase. At days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 30 after the establishment of AD model, serum MMP-9 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four groups of vascular rings were stretched in vitro with a mechanical strength of 0 g, 1 g, 3 g, or 5 g for 30 min...
March 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267308/rollable-microfluidic-systems-with-micrometer-scale-bending-radius-and-tuning-of-device-function-with-reconfigurable-3d-channel-geometry
#8
Jihye Kim, Jae Bem You, Sung Min Nam, Sumin Seo, Sung Gap Im, Wonhee Lee
Flexible microfluidic system is an essential component of wearable biosensors to handle body fluids. Parylene-based, thin-film microfluidic system is developed to achieve flexible microfluidics with microscale bending radius. A new molding and bonding technique is developed for parylene microchannel fabrication. Bonding with nano-adhesive layers deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) enables the construction of microfluidic channels with short fabrication time and high bonding strength. High mechanical strength of parylene allows less channel deformation from internal pressure for thin-film parylene channel than bulk PDMS channel...
March 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254749/expression-and-localization-of-pannexin-1-and-calhm1-in-porcine-bladder-and-their-involvement-in-modulating-atp-release
#9
Hafiz Sana-Ur-Rehman, Irit Markus, Kate Hilda Moore, Kylie Jan Mansfield, Lu Liu
ATP release from urinary bladder is vital for afferent signaling. The aims of this study were to localize CALHM1 and pannexin-1 expression and to determine their involvement in mediating ATP release in the bladder. Gene expression by PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed in the porcine bladder. CALHM1 and pannexin-1 mediated ATP release in response to hypotonic solution (0.45% NaCl) induced stretch and extracellular Ca(2+) depletion ([Ca(2+)]0) was measured in isolated urothelial, suburothelial and detrusor muscle cells...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248537/effects-of-bepridil-on-stretch-activated-bkca-channels-and-stretch-induced-extrasystoles-in-isolated-chick-hearts
#10
Honghua Jin, Gentaro Iribe, Keiji Naruse
Various types of mechanosensitive ion channels, including cationic stretch-activated channels (SAC(NS)) and stretch-activated BKca (SAKca) channels, modulate heart rhythm. Bepridil has been used as an antiarrhythmic drug with multiple pharmacological effects; however, whether it is effective for mechanically induced arrhythmia has not been well investigated. To test the effects of Bepridil on SAKca channels activity, cultured chick embryonic ventricular myocytes were used for single-channel recordings. Bepridil significantly reduced the open probability of the SAKca channel (P(O))...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242754/sodium-permeable-and-hypersensitive-trek-1-channels-cause-ventricular-tachycardia
#11
Niels Decher, Beatriz Ortiz-Bonnin, Corinna Friedrich, Marcus Schewe, Aytug K Kiper, Susanne Rinné, Gunnar Seemann, Rémi Peyronnet, Sven Zumhagen, Daniel Bustos, Jens Kockskämper, Peter Kohl, Steffen Just, Wendy González, Thomas Baukrowitz, Birgit Stallmeyer, Eric Schulze-Bahr
In a patient with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia, we identified a heterozygous point mutation in the selectivity filter of the stretch-activated K2P potassium channel TREK-1 (KCNK2 or K2P2.1). This mutation introduces abnormal sodium permeability to TREK-1. In addition, mutant channels exhibit a hypersensitivity to stretch-activation, suggesting that the selectivity filter is directly involved in stretch-induced activation and desensitization. Increased sodium permeability and stretch-sensitivity of mutant TREK-1 channels may trigger arrhythmias in areas of the heart with high physical strain such as the RVOT We present a pharmacological strategy to rescue the selectivity defect of the TREK-1 pore...
February 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239332/characterization-of-the-circumlimbal-suture-model-of-chronic-iop-elevation-in-mice-and-assessment-of-changes-in-gene-expression-of-stretch-sensitive-channels
#12
Da Zhao, Christine T O Nguyen, Vickie H Y Wong, Jeremiah K H Lim, Zheng He, Andrew I Jobling, Erica L Fletcher, Holly R Chinnery, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui
To consider whether a circumlimbal suture can be used to chronically elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) in mice and to assess its effect on retinal structure, function and gene expression of stretch sensitive channels. Anesthetized adult C57BL6/J mice had a circumlimbal suture (10/0) applied around the equator of one eye. In treated eyes (n = 23) the suture was left in place for 12 weeks whilst in sham control eyes the suture was removed at day two (n = 17). Contralateral eyes served as untreated controls. IOP was measured after surgery and once a week thereafter...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228734/%C3%AE-subunits-functionally-differentiate-human-kv4-3-potassium-channel-splice-variants
#13
Geoffrey W Abbott
The human ventricular cardiomyocyte transient outward K(+) current (Ito) mediates the initial phase of myocyte repolarization and its disruption is implicated in Brugada Syndrome and heart failure (HF). Human cardiac Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S, diverging only by a C-terminal, S6-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L), which are differentially remodeled in HF, but considered functionally alike at baseline. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by β subunits including KChIP2b and KCNEs, but their effects were previously assumed to be Kv4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199303/mechanical-stretch-triggers-rapid-epithelial-cell-division-through-piezo1
#14
S A Gudipaty, J Lindblom, P D Loftus, M J Redd, K Edes, C F Davey, V Krishnegowda, J Rosenblatt
Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state...
March 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151682/molecular-simulation-of-the-ions-ultraconfined-in-the-nanometer-channel-of-calcium-silicate-hydrate-hydration-mechanism-dynamic-properties-and-influence-on-the-cohesive-strength
#15
Dongshuai Hou, Chuanlin Hu, Zongjin Li
Reactive force field molecular dynamics was utilized to investigate the structure, dynamics, and mechanical nature of different cations solvated in the nanometer-channel of highly disordered calcium silicate hydrate. The local structures of different cations bonded with hydroxyl groups are characterized by the long spatial correlation, bond angel distribution preference, and featured coordinated number, resembling those of the tetra-/penta-/octahedron for cation-oxygen structure in the defective region of the silicate glass...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147631/multi-channel-fiber-based-seed-pulse-distribution-system-for-femtosecond-level-synchronized-chirped-pulse-amplifiers
#16
Martin Horáček, Lukáš Indra, Jonathan T Green, Jack A Naylon, Boguslaw Tykalewicz, Jakub Novák, František Batysta, Tomáš Mazanec, Jakub Horáček, Roman Antipenkov, Zbyněk Hubka, Robert Boge, Pavel Bakule, Bedřich Rus
We report on the design and performance of a fiber-based, multi-channel laser amplifier seed pulse distribution system. The device is designed to condition and distribute low energy laser pulses from a mode-locked oscillator to multiple, highly synchronized, high energy amplifiers integrated into a laser beamline. Critical functions such as temporal pulse stretching well beyond 100 ps/nm, pulse picking, and fine control over the pulse delay up to 300 ps are all performed in fiber eliminating the need for bulky and expensive grating stretchers, Pockels cells, and delay lines...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147516/electronic-spectrum-and-photodissociation-chemistry-of-the-linear-methyl-propargyl-cation-h2c4h3
#17
Katherine J Catani, Giel Muller, Gabriel da Silva, Evan J Bieske
The electronic spectrum of the methyl propargyl cation (2-butyn-1-yl cation, H2C4H3(+)) is measured over the 230-270 nm range by photodissociating the bare cation and its Ar and N2 tagged complexes in a tandem mass spectrometer. The observed A'1←A'1 band system has an origin at 37 753 cm(-1) for H2C4H3(+), 37738 cm(-1) for H2C4H3(+)-Ar, and 37 658 cm(-1) for H2C4H3(+)-N2. The methyl propargyl cation photodissociates to produce either C2H3(+)+C2H2 (protonated acetylene + acetylene) or H2C4H(+)+H2 (protonated diacetylene + dihydrogen)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145592/the-c-n-bonds-in-ammoniums-are-charge-shift-bonds
#18
Peter Chen, Renana Gershoni-Poranne
A comprehensive investigation, utilizing Valence Bond and Molecular Orbitals based techniques, reveals that the C-N bonds in protonated and methylated ammoniums are Charge Shift Bonds. Moreover, the ammoniums are found to be predominantly covalent at the equilibrium distance, yet have two competing dissociation channels, which determine whether or not a state function crossing occurs during dissociation. We show that the location of the crossing point can be predicted with relative ionization potentials, and may be tuned by altering the stabilization of the respective fragments...
February 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140365/multichannel-activity-propagation-across-an-engineered-axon-network
#19
H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, Douglas H Smith
OBJECTIVE: Although substantial progress has been made in mapping the connections of the brain, less is known about how this organization translates into brain function. In particular, the massive interconnectivity of the brain has made it difficult to specifically examine data transmission between two nodes of the connectome, a central component of the 'neural code.' Here, we investigated the propagation of multiple streams of asynchronous neuronal activity across an isolated in vitro 'connectome unit...
April 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135189/direct-measurement-of-trpv4-and-piezo1-activity-reveals-multiple-mechanotransduction-pathways-in-chondrocytes
#20
M Rocio Servin-Vences, Mirko Moroni, Gary R Lewin, Kate Poole
The joints of mammals are lined with cartilage, comprised of individual chondrocytes embedded in a specialized extracellular matrix. Chondrocytes experience a complex mechanical environment and respond to changing mechanical loads in order to maintain cartilage homeostasis. It has been proposed that mechanically gated ion channels are of functional importance in chondrocyte mechanotransduction; however, direct evidence of mechanical current activation in these cells has been lacking. We have used high-speed pressure clamp and elastomeric pillar arrays to apply distinct mechanical stimuli to primary murine chondrocytes, stretch of the membrane and deflection of cell-substrate contacts points, respectively...
January 30, 2017: ELife
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