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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994817/a-simple-robust-and-high-throughput-single-molecule-flow-stretching-assay-implementation-for-studying-transport-of-molecules-along-dna
#1
Kan Xiong, Paul C Blainey
We describe a simple, robust and high throughput single molecule flow-stretching assay for studying 1D diffusion of molecules along DNA. In this assay, glass coverslips are functionalized in a one-step reaction with silane-PEG-biotin. Flow cells are constructed by sandwiching an adhesive tape with pre-cut channels between a functionalized coverslip and a PDMS slab containing inlet and outlet holes. Multiple channels are integrated into one flow cell and the flow of reagents into each channel can be fully automated, which significantly increases the assay throughput and reduces hands-on time per assay...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990197/pollen-tube-growth-and-guidance-occam-s-razor-sharpened-on-a-molecular-arabinogalactan-glycoprotein-rosetta-stone
#2
Derek T A Lamport, Li Tan, Michael Held, Marcia J Kieliszewski
Occam's Razor suggests a new model of pollen tube tip growth based on a novel Hechtian oscillator that integrates a periplasmic arabinogalactan glycoprotein-calcium (AGP-Ca(2+) ) capacitor with tip-localized AGPs as the source of tip-focussed cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations: Hechtian adhesion between the plasma membrane and the cell wall of the growing tip acts as a piconewton force transducer that couples the internal stress of a rapidly growing wall to the plasma membrane. Such Hechtian transduction opens stretch-activated Ca(2+) channels and activates H(+) -ATPase proton pump efflux that dissociates periplasmic AGP-Ca(2+) resulting in a Ca(2+) influx that activates exocytosis of wall precursors...
October 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939039/hyperosmolarity-evokes-histamine-release-from-ileum-mucosa-by-stimulating-a-cholinergic-pathway
#3
Banqin Wang, Ning An, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Haoyi Wang, Ling Xiao, Hongwei Liu, Jingxin Li, Dongbo Zhao
Changes in extracellular osmolarity lead to alteration in cellular volume. In the study, we examined the effects of hyperosmolarity on short-circuit currents (Isc) in the rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. Mucosal exposure to 20 mM glucose evoked a decrease of ISC in the rat ileum, which was antagonized by the stretch-activated channel blocker GdCl3, TTX and atropine, respectively. In contrast, it was not blocked by phlorizin, a Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 inhibitor. Furthermore, the unabsorbed substances, such as sucrose, lactulose or urea, also induced a decrease of ISC in rat ileum...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937215/infrared-spectroscopy-of-the-entrance-channel-complex-formed-between-the-hydroxyl-radical-and-methane-in-helium-nanodroplets
#4
Paul L Raston, Emmanuel I Obi, Gary E Douberly
The entrance channel complex in the exothermic OH + CH4 → H2O + CH3 reaction has been isolated in helium nanodroplets following the sequential pick-up of the hydroxyl radical and methane. The a-type OH stretching band was probed with infrared depletion spectroscopy, revealing a spectrum qualitatively similar to that previously reported in the gas phase, but with additional substructure that is due to the different internal rotation states of methane (jCH4 = 0, 1, or 2) in the complex. We fit the spectra by assuming the rotational constants of the complex are the same for all internal rotation states; however, subband origins are found to decrease with increasing jCH4...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936276/microscopic-origin-of-wall-slip-during-flow-of-an-entangled-dna-solution-in-microfluidics-flow-induced-chain-stretching-versus-chain-desorption
#5
Orin Hemminger, Pouyan E Boukany
Despite the relevance and importance of slip, a fundamental understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of wall slip in polymer flow is still missing. In this work, we investigate the slip behavior of an entangled DNA solution at a molecular scale using a confocal microscope coupled to a microfluidic device. From microscopic measurement, we obtain both the velocity profile and conformation of polymeric chains by visualizing DNA molecules during flow on various surfaces (ranging from weak to strong interactions with DNA molecules)...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919864/%C3%AE-subunits-control-the-effects-of-human-kv4-3-potassium-channel-phosphorylation
#6
Geoffrey W Abbott
The transient outward K(+) current, Ito, activates early in the cardiac myocyte action potential, to begin repolarization. Human Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 potassium channel α subunit splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S) that diverge only by a C-terminal, membrane-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of threonine 504 within the Kv4.3L-specific 19-residues mediates α-adrenergic inhibition of Ito in human heart. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by various β subunits, including cytosolic KChIP2b and transmembrane KCNEs, yet their impact on the functional effects of human Kv4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905996/merkel-cells-and-meissner-s-corpuscles-in-human-digital-skin-display-piezo2-immunoreactivity
#7
Y García-Mesa, J García-Piqueras, B García, J Feito, R Cabo, J Cobo, J A Vega, O García-Suárez
The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900933/neurological-and-motor-disorders-trpc-in-the-skeletal-muscle
#8
Sophie Saüc, Maud Frieden
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels belong to the large family of TRPs that are mostly nonselective cation channels with a great variety of gating mechanisms. TRPC are composed of seven members that can all be activated downstream of agonist-induced phospholipase C stimulation, but some members are also stretch-activated and/or are part of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway. Skeletal muscles generate contraction via an explosive increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration resulting almost exclusively from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) channel opening...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886639/internal-energy-dependence-of-the-photodissociation-dynamics-of-o3-using-cryogenic-photoelectron-photofragment-coincidence-spectroscopy
#9
Ben B Shen, Yanice Benitez, Katharine G Lunny, Robert E Continetti
Photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) spectra of ozonide, O3(-), were measured at 388 nm (Ehν = 3.20 eV) using a newly constructed cryogenic octopole accumulation trap coupled to a PPC spectrometer. The photoelectron spectra reveal three processes consisting of a stable photodetachment channel, and two distinct photodissociation pathways yielding (1) O2 + O(-) or (2) O + O2(-). The first photodissociation pathway is observed in the PPC spectra by photodetachment of the O(-) product by a second photon, and produces electronically excited O2((1)Δg)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855831/adsorption-characteristics-of-sulfur-solution-by-acticarbon-against-drinking-water-toxicosis
#10
Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu, Yuzo Furuta, Wanxi Peng
Sulfur and ammonia nitrogen are rich nutrient pollutants, after entering water can cause algal blooms, cause eutrophication of water body, the spread of them will not only pollute the environment, destroy the ecological balance, but also harm human health through food chain channels, especially drinking-water toxicosis. Acticarbon can adsorb harmful substances, it was beneficial for people's health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of acticarbon, five chemicals were adsorbed by acticarbon and analyzed by FT-IR...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#11
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798968/stretching-of-surface-tethered-polymers-in-pressure-driven-flow-under-confinement
#12
Tamal Roy, Kai Szuttor, Jens Smiatek, Christian Holm, Steffen Hardt
We study the effect of pressure-driven flow on a single surface-tethered DNA molecule confined between parallel surfaces. The influence of flow and channel parameters as well as the length of the molecules on their extension and orientation is explored. In the experiments the chain conformations are imaged by laser scanning confocal microscopy. We find that the fractional extension of the tethered DNA molecules mainly depends on the wall shear stress, with effects of confinement being very weak. Experiments performed with molecules of different contour length show that the fractional extension is a universal function of the product of the wall shear stress and the contour length, a result that can be obtained from a simple scaling relation...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795245/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-anal-fissure
#13
REVIEW
R L Nelson, D Manuel, C Gumienny, B Spencer, K Patel, K Schmitt, D Castillo, A Bravo, A Yeboah-Sampong
BACKGROUND: Anal fissure has a very large number of treatment options. The choice is difficult. In an effort to assist in that, choice presented here is a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published treatments for anal fissure that have been studied in randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Randomized trials were sought in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE and the trials registry sites clinicaltrials.gov and who/int/ictrp/search/en...
August 9, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794084/mechanically-induced-ectopy-via-stretch-activated-cation-nonselective-channels-is-caused-by-local-tissue-deformation-and-results-in-ventricular-fibrillation-if-triggered-on-the-repolarization-wave-edge-commotio-cordis
#14
T Alexander Quinn, Honghua Jin, Peter Lee, Peter Kohl
BACKGROUND: External chest impacts (commotio cordis) can cause mechanically induced premature ventricular excitation (PVEM) and, rarely, ventricular fibrillation (VF). Because block of stretch-sensitive ATP-inactivated potassium channels curtailed VF occurrence in a porcine model of commotio cordis, VF has been suggested to arise from abnormal repolarization caused by stretch activation of potassium channels. Alternatively, VF could result from abnormal excitation by PVEM, overlapping with normal repolarization-related electric heterogeneity...
August 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789534/excited-state-wavepacket-dynamics-in-no2-probed-by-strong-field-ionization
#15
Ruaridh Forbes, Andrey E Boguslavskiy, Iain Wilkinson, Jonathan G Underwood, Albert Stolow
We present an experimental femtosecond time-resolved study of the 399 nm excited state dynamics of nitrogen dioxide using channel-resolved above threshold ionization (CRATI) as the probe process. This method relies on photoelectron-photoion coincidence and covariance to correlate the strong-field photoelectron spectrum with ionic fragments, which label the channel. In all ionization channels observed, we report apparent oscillations in the ion and photoelectron yields as a function of pump-probe delay. Further, we observe the presence of a persistent, time-invariant above threshold ionization comb in the photoelectron spectra associated with most ionization channels at long time delays...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789530/dissociation-dynamics-of-transient-anion-formed-via-electron-attachment-to-sulfur-dioxide
#16
K Gope, V S Prabhudesai, N J Mason, E Krishnakumar
We report the molecular dynamics of dissociative electron attachment to sulfur dioxide (SO2) by measuring the momentum distribution of fragment anions using the velocity slice imaging technique in the electron energy range of 2-10 eV. The S(-) channel results from symmetric dissociation which exhibits competition between the stretch mode and bending mode of vibration in the excited parent anion. The asymmetric dissociation of parent anions leads to the production of O(-) and SO(-) channels where the corresponding neutral fragments are formed in their ground as well as excited electronic states...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768667/trpv4-channels-contribute-to-renal-myogenic-autoregulation-in-neonatal-pigs
#17
Hitesh Soni, Dieniffer Peixoto-Neves, Anberitha T Matthews, Adebowale Adebiyi
Myogenic response, a phenomenon in which resistance size arteries and arterioles swiftly constrict or dilate in response to an acute elevation or reduction, respectively in intravascular pressure is a key component of renal autoregulation mechanisms. Although it is well-established that the renal system is functionally immature in neonates, mechanisms that regulate neonatal renal blood flow (RBF) remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are molecular components of renal myogenic constriction in newborns...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757442/endothelin-receptor-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-coronary-arteries-after-experimentally-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat
#18
Sarah Brøgger Kristiansen, Kristian A Haanes, Majid Sheykhzade, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death. It is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery leading to reduced blood flow to the myocardium and hence ischemic damage. In addition, a second wave of damage after the flow has been restored, named reperfusion injury greatly exacerbate the damage. For the latter, no medical treatment exist. In this study the aim was to characterize Ca(2+) sensitivity in coronary arteries following experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750098/the-unique-n-terminal-sequence-of-the-bkca-channel-%C3%AE-subunit-determines-its-modulation-by-%C3%AE-subunits
#19
Ramón A Lorca, Xiaofeng Ma, Sarah K England
Large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels are essential regulators of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. An important mechanism of modulation of BKCa channel activity is its association with auxiliary subunits. In smooth muscle cells, the most predominant regulatory subunit of BKCa channels is the β1-subunit. We have previously described that BKCa channels with distinctive N-terminal ends (starting with the amino acid sequence MDAL, MSSN or MANG) are differentially modulated by the β1-subunit, but not by the β2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746858/modeling-of-biomechanics-and-biorheology-of-red-blood-cells-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Hung-Yu Chang, Xuejin Li, George Em Karniadakis
Erythrocytes in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with reduced cell deformability and elevated blood viscosity, which contribute to impaired blood flow and other pathophysiological aspects of diabetes-related vascular complications. In this study, by using a two-component red blood cell (RBC) model and systematic parameter variation, we perform detailed computational simulations to probe the alteration of the biomechanical, rheological, and dynamic behavior of T2DM RBCs in response to morphological change and membrane stiffening...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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