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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683082/regulatory-forum-opinion-paper-considerations-for-toxicologic-pathologists-evaluating-the-safety-of-biomaterials-and-finished-medical-devices
#1
Shayne C Gad, JoAnn C L Schuh
Safety ("biocompatibility") assessment of medical devices has evolved along a different path than that of drugs, being historically governed more by the considerations and needs of engineers rather than chemists and biologists. As a result, the involvement of veterinary pathologists has been much more limited-almost entirely to evaluating tissue responses in tissues in direct contact with implanted devices. As devices have become more complex in composition, structure, placement, and use, concerns as to adverse systemic responses in patients have called for more comprehensive and thoughtful evaluations of effects throughout the body...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681868/impaired-cognitive-control-of-emotional-conflict-in-trait-anxiety-a-preliminary-study-based-on-clinical-and-non-clinical-individuals
#2
Yongju Yu, Chenggang Jiang, Haiyan Xu, Qian Yang, Jiawen Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenjun Xiang, Li Peng, Botao Liu, Fang Lv, Min Li
Background: It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods: The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680827/hiv-seroprevalence-self-reported-stis-and-associated-risk-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rwanda-2015
#3
Roman Saba Ntale, Gad Rutayisire, Pierre Mujyarugamba, Eliah Shema, Jane Greatorex, Simon David William Frost, Pontiano Kaleebu
OBJECTIVES: In many populations, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at a high risk of HIV infection. This study aimed to estimate the burden of HIV, other STIs and risk behaviours among Rwandan MSM. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited through peer referral men aged between 18 and 60 years, who reported sex with men at least once in the 12 months prior to the survey. Representativeness was increased using 'seeds' from a variety of sources. Signed informed consent was obtained from all participants...
April 21, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680514/brain-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Alireza Mohammadi, Ehsan Rashidi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian
Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678766/in-silico-toxicology-protocols
#5
Glenn J Myatt, Ernst Ahlberg, Yumi Akahori, David Allen, Alexander Amberg, Lennart T Anger, Aynur Aptula, Scott Auerbach, Lisa Beilke, Phillip Bellion, Romualdo Benigni, Joel Bercu, Ewan D Booth, Dave Bower, Alessandro Brigo, Natalie Burden, Zoryana Cammerer, Mark T D Cronin, Kevin P Cross, Laura Custer, Magdalena Dettwiler, Krista Dobo, Kevin A Ford, Marie C Fortin, Samantha E Gad-McDonald, Nichola Gellatly, Véronique Gervais, Kyle P Glover, Susanne Glowienke, Jacky Van Gompel, Steve Gutsell, Barry Hardy, James S Harvey, Jedd Hillegass, Masamitsu Honma, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Chia-Wen Hsu, Kathy Hughes, Candice Johnson, Robert Jolly, David Jones, Ray Kemper, Michelle O Kenyon, Marlene T Kim, Naomi L Kruhlak, Sunil A Kulkarni, Klaus Kümmerer, Penny Leavitt, Bernhard Majer, Scott Masten, Scott Miller, Janet Moser, Moiz Mumtaz, Wolfgang Muster, Louise Neilson, Tudor I Oprea, Grace Patlewicz, Alexandre Paulino, Elena Lo Piparo, Mark Powley, Donald P Quigley, M Vijayaraj Reddy, Andrea-Nicole Richarz, Patricia Ruiz, Benoit Schilter, Rositsa Serafimova, Wendy Simpson, Lidiya Stavitskaya, Reinhard Stidl, Diana Suarez-Rodriguez, David T Szabo, Andrew Teasdale, Alejandra Trejo-Martin, Jean-Pierre Valentin, Anna Vuorinen, Brian A Wall, Pete Watts, Angela T White, Joerg Wichard, Kristine L Witt, Adam Woolley, David Woolley, Craig Zwickl, Catrin Hasselgren
The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies...
April 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675943/relationship-of-anxiety-with-joint-pain-and-its-management-a-population-survey
#6
Lauren A Barnett, Mark G Pritchard, John J Edwards, Ebenezer K Afolabi, Kelvin P Jordan, Emma L Healey, Andrew G Finney, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Christian D Mallen, Krysia S Dziedzic
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study was to examine the associations between the severity of pain and anxiety in a community population reporting joint pain, and to investigate the management of joint pain in the presence of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: A population survey was carried out of people aged ≥45 years, registered with eight general practices in Cheshire, Shropshire and Staffordshire, UK. Respondents were asked to report pain intensity in their hands, hips, knees and feet (on a numerical rating scale), anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item [GAD-7] scale) and guideline-recommended treatments used to manage pain...
April 20, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674595/developmental-and-oncogenic-programs-in-h3k27m-gliomas-dissected-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#7
Mariella G Filbin, Itay Tirosh, Volker Hovestadt, McKenzie L Shaw, Leah E Escalante, Nathan D Mathewson, Cyril Neftel, Nelli Frank, Kristine Pelton, Christine M Hebert, Christine Haberler, Keren Yizhak, Johannes Gojo, Kristof Egervari, Christopher Mount, Peter van Galen, Dennis M Bonal, Quang-De Nguyen, Alexander Beck, Claire Sinai, Thomas Czech, Christian Dorfer, Liliana Goumnerova, Cinzia Lavarino, Angel M Carcaboso, Jaume Mora, Ravindra Mylvaganam, Christina C Luo, Andreas Peyrl, Mara Popović, Amedeo Azizi, Tracy T Batchelor, Matthew P Frosch, Maria Martinez-Lage, Mark W Kieran, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Rameen Beroukhim, Gerhard Fritsch, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David N Louis, Michelle Monje, Irene Slavc, Keith L Ligon, Todd R Golub, Aviv Regev, Bradley E Bernstein, Mario L Suvà
Gliomas with histone H3 lysine27-to-methionine mutations (H3K27M-glioma) arise primarily in the midline of the central nervous system of young children, suggesting a cooperation between genetics and cellular context in tumorigenesis. Although the genetics of H3K27M-glioma are well characterized, their cellular architecture remains uncharted. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in 3321 cells from six primary H3K27M-glioma and matched models. We found that H3K27M-glioma primarily contain cells that resemble oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC-like), whereas more differentiated malignant cells are a minority...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672748/biopsychosocial-profiles-and-functional-correlates-in-older-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-preliminary-study
#8
Debra K Weiner, Angela Gentili, Katherine Coffey-Vega, Natalia Morone, Michelle Rossi, Subashan Perera
Objective: To describe key peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) conditions in a group of older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their association with pain severity and self-reported and performance-based physical function. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Outpatient VA clinics. Subjects: Forty-seven community-dwelling veterans with CLBP (age 68.0 ± 6.5 years, range = 60-88 years, 12.8% female, 66% white) participated...
April 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671147/ribosomal-binding-site-sequences-and-promoters-for-expressing-glutamate-decarboxylase-and-producing-%C3%AE-aminobutyrate-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#9
Feng Shi, Mingyue Luan, Yongfu Li
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) converts L-glutamate (Glu) into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses exogenous GAD gene, gadB2 or gadB1, can synthesize GABA from its own produced Glu. To enhance GABA production in C. glutamicum, ribosomal binding site (RBS) sequence and promoter were searched and optimized for increasing the expression efficiency of gadB2. R4 exhibited the highest strength among RBS sequences tested, with 6 nt the optimal aligned spacing (AS) between RBS and start codon...
April 18, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668725/comparison-of-mental-health-screening-tools-for-detecting-antenatal-depression-and-anxiety-disorders-in-south-african-women
#10
Thandi van Heyningen, Simone Honikman, Mark Tomlinson, Sally Field, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries. Screening of pregnant women in primary care antenatal settings provides an opportunity for entry to care, but data are needed on the performance of different screening tools. We compared five widely-used questionnaires in a sample of pregnant women in urban South Africa. METHOD: Pregnant women attending a primary care antenatal clinic were administered five tools by trained research assistants: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) and a shortened 6-item version (K6), the Whooley questions and the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666976/do-youth-with-separation-anxiety-disorder-differ-in-anxiety-sensitivity-from-youth-with-other-anxiety-disorders
#11
Dagmar Kr Hannesdottir, Sandra Bjorg Sigurjonsdottir, Urdur Njardvik, Thomas H Ollendick
Studies on the relationship between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in childhood and panic disorder (PD) in adolescence and adulthood have yielded results which suggest a common underlying vulnerability for both disorders. In this study, we examined whether one such possible vulnerability-anxiety sensitivity-differed for youth diagnosed with SAD versus other anxiety disorders. Anxiety sensitivity was assessed using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in 315 clinic-referred youth (ages 6-17, 113 girls)...
April 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665715/mental-health-correlates-of-financial-mistreatment-in-the-national-elder-mistreatment-study-wave-ii
#12
Ron Acierno, Jordan Watkins, Melba A Hernandez-Tejada, Wendy Muzzy, Gabrielle Frook, Mara Steedley, Georgia Anetzberger
OBJECTIVE: Whereas prevalence of elder financial mistreatment has received increased attention over the past decade, health and mental health correlates are rarely studied. Thus, the potential relevance of financial abuse to mental health and perceived health is relatively unknown, and the objective of this article is to illustrate this relationship. METHOD: The second wave of the National Elder Mistreatment Study used random digit dialing telephone survey methodology to assess both recent financial mistreatment and its potential mental health correlates (i...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665048/a-neural-biomarker-the-error-related-negativity-predicts-the-first-onset-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-a-large-sample-of-adolescent-females
#13
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664840/malignant-ascites-validation-of-a-novel-ascites-symptom-mini-scale-for-use-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#14
Ram Eitan, Oded Raban, Daliah Tsoref, Ariella Jakobson-Setton, Gad Sabah, Lina Salman, Effi Yeoshua, Avi Ben-Haroush
BACKGROUND: Ascites is a common finding in patients with ovarian cancer. Paracentesis is a relatively simple, safe, and effective procedure for draining fluid from the peritoneum, but valid quality-of-life tools are needed to determine its subjective value for alleviating symptoms and improving patient quality of life. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the performance of a novel Ascites Symptom Mini-Scale (ASmS) and compare it with a previously available questionnaire...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663083/-self-hypnosis-training-for-in-hospital-chronic-pain-patients-a-retrolective-observational-study
#15
Peter C Keil, Nicole Lindenberg, Christoph L Lassen, Bernhard M Graf, Jens Meier, Christoph H Wiese
BACKGROUND: Hypnosis is probably one of the oldest therapies known to man. In the last decades modern hypnosis has mainly been used by psychotherapists; however, hypnosis is becoming increasingly more important as a therapeutic method in medicine. Hypnosis can be used for a variety of medical indications. In the literature there is much evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis. The aim of the present investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in inpatient treatment of chronic pain patients and to present a self-hypnosis program, which can be easily integrated into pain therapy...
April 16, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661166/high-ox40-expression-in-recurrent-ovarian-carcinoma-is-indicative-for-response-to-repeated-chemotherapy
#16
Michaela Ramser, Simone Eichelberger, Silvio Däster, Benjamin Weixler, Marko Kraljević, Robert Mechera, Athanasios Tampakis, Tarik Delko, Uwe Güth, Sylvia Stadlmann, Luigi Terracciano, Raoul A Droeser, Gad Singer
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the fifth most common female cancer and mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. Surgical debulking is usually followed by adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Only few biomarkers are known to be related to chemosensitivity. OX40 is a TNF receptor member and expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It is known that OX40 signaling promotes survival and responds to various immune cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Therefore we investigated the indicative value of OX40 expression for recurrence and survival in OC...
April 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660473/increasing-thermal-stability-of-glutamate-decarboxylase-from-escherichia-coli-by-site-directed-saturation-mutagenesis-and-its-application-in-gaba-production
#17
Li-Qiang Fan, Ming-Wei Li, Yong-Jun Qiu, Qi-Ming Chen, Si-Jing Jiang, Yu-Jie Shang, Li-Ming Zhao
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important bio-product used in pharmaceuticals, functional foods, and a precursor of the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4 (Nylon 4). Glutamate decarboxylase B (GadB) from Escherichia. coli is a highly active biocatalyst that can convert L-glutamate to GABA. However, its practical application is limited by the poor thermostability and only active under acidic conditions of GadB. In this study, we performed site-directed saturation mutagenesis of the N-terminal residues of GadB from Escherichia coli to improve its thermostability...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659757/depression-and-anxiety-as-risk-factors-for-delayed-care-seeking-behavior-in-hiv-positive-individuals-in-south-africa
#18
Madhura S Rane, Ting Hong, Sabina Govere, Hilary Thulare, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Connie Celum, Paul K Drain
Background: Facility- and community-based efforts to improve HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from understanding how mental health influences HIV care-seeking behavior. Methods: We conducted a study among adults presenting for HIV testing in the Umlazi township of South Africa. Prior to testing, we measured depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and anxiety using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. We categorized patients as delayed presenters (presenting to clinic >3 months after first HIV positive test), late testers (presenting within 3 months of diagnosis with a CD4 count ≤200 cells per μl), or neither...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659102/initial-severity-and-antidepressant-efficacy-for-anxiety-disorders-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#19
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressant benefits are smaller for mild than severe depression. Because antidepressants are also used for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the influence of severity for these disorders. METHODS: We used individual patient data of eight trials (3,430 participants) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); four trials (1,195 participants) for social anxiety disorder (SAD); four trials (1,132 participants) for OCD; three trials (1,071 participants) for PTSD; and 10 trials (2,151 participants) for panic disorder (PD)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658205/reduced-suprathreshold-odor-identification-in-patients-with-pseudotumor-cerebri-a-non-randomized-prospective-study
#20
Gad Dotan, Eyal Cohen, Ainat Klein, Anat Kesler
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that olfaction is impaired in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). OBJECTIVES: To measure suprathreshold olfactory function by using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assessing its usefulness for routine clinical use. METHODS: Forty PTC patients underwent USPIT olfactory testing. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 40 (73%) PTC patients (36 women, 4 men; mean age 34 years) had reduced suprathreshold smell sensation according to UPSIT scores: 19 (47%) had mild microsmia, 9 (23%) had moderate microsmia, and one (3%) was classified as having severe microsmia...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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