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clinical Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818092/associations-of-thyroid-hormone-serum-levels-with-in-vivo-alzheimer-s-disease-pathologies
#1
Hyo Jung Choi, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun Ho Lee, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the relationships between thyroid hormone serum levels or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and two Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific biomarkers, cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) burden and glucose metabolism, in AD-signature brain regions in cognitively normal (CN) middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: This study assessed 148 CN individuals who received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments that included (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET) scans, (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans, and the quantification of serum triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, free thyroxine (fT4), and TSH levels...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817578/deliberate-self-harm-behavior-among-young-violent-offenders
#2
Natalie Laporte, Andrejs Ozolins, Sofie Westling, Åsa Westrin, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Märta Wallinius
Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813214/cognitive-function-in-a-randomized-trial-of-evolocumab
#3
Robert P Giugliano, François Mach, Kenton Zavitz, Christopher Kurtz, Kyungah Im, Estella Kanevsky, Jingjing Schneider, Huei Wang, Anthony Keech, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Peter S Sever, Jennifer G Robinson, Narimon Honarpour, Scott M Wasserman, Brian R Ott
Background Findings from clinical trials of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have led to concern that these drugs or the low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that result from their use are associated with cognitive deficits. Methods In a subgroup of patients from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab added to statin therapy, we prospectively assessed cognitive function using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The primary end point was the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (scores range from 4 to 28, with lower scores indicating a more efficient use of strategy and planning)...
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811938/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-children-with-mixed-autism-and-adhd
#4
Costanza Colombi, Mohammad Ghaziuddin
Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy, as measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811719/refractory-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-hypothyroidism-another-element-in-ammonia-metabolism
#5
Fernando Díaz-Fontenla, Marta Castillo-Pradillo, Arantxa Díaz-Gómez, Luis Ibañez-Samaniego, Pilar Gancedo, Juan Adan Guzmán-de-Villoria, Pilar Fernández-García, Rafael Bañares-Cañizares, Rita García-Martínez
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains a diagnosis of exclusion due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms. Refractory HE is an uncommon but serious condition that requires the search of hidden precipitating events (i.e., portosystemic shunt) and alternative diagnosis. Hypothyroidism shares clinical manifestations with HE and is usually considered within the differential diagnosis of HE. Here, we describe a patient with refractory HE who presented a large portosystemic shunt and post-ablative hypothyroidism...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807493/homocysteine-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
August 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807434/nutritional-strategies-in-the-management-of-alzheimer-disease-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis
#7
Shirley Steffany Muñoz Fernández, Terry Ivanauskas, Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major cause of dependency and disability in the elderly. Numerous studies have sought to achieve its prevention and/or management examining a role for modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition. This work aims to investigate the effects of food and/or nutrients in the management of AD at different stages. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for clinical trials examining the effect of nutrient intervention in individuals with AD, compared with placebo, published up to 2014...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#8
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805104/present-and-future-selves-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Alexandra Ernst, Joanne Allen, Lydia Dubourg, Céline Souchay
The study of the self in neuropsychological patients raises not only theoretical questions on the relationships between the self, autobiographical memory (AM), and episodic future thinking but also clinical issues for patients' daily life and care. We addressed this issue in Parkinson's disease patients for whom AM and future thinking impairments have been documented. All patients and controls generated and dated up past and future self-images and provided associated past and future events. Our findings suggest a subtle pattern of preservation/impairment of different dimensions (quantitative and qualitative) of self-images, which rely partially on the episodic quality of past and future events...
August 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804898/epilepsy-surgery-of-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumors-a-retrospective-nationwide-italian-study
#10
Marco Giulioni, Gianluca Marucci, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Carmen Barba, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier Paolo Quarato, Vincenzo Esposito, Alessandro Consales, Matteo Martinoni, Gianfranco Vornetti, Corrado Zenesini, Carlo Efisio Marras, Nicola Specchio, Luca De Palma, Raffaele Rocchi, Flavio Giordano, Giovanni Tringali, Paolo Nozza, Gabriella Colicchio, Guido Rubboli, Giorgio Lo Russo, Renzo Guerrini, Paolo Tinuper, Francesco Cardinale, Massimo Cossu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude and results of Italian epilepsy surgery centers in the surgical management of "low grade epilepsy associated neuroepithelial tumors" (LEATs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling 339 consecutive patients with LEATs who underwent surgery between January 2009 and June 2015 at eight Italian epilepsy surgery centers. We compared demographic, clinical, pathologic, and surgical features of patients with favorable (Engel class I) and unfavorable (Engel class II, III, and IV) seizure outcome...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#11
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799287/neuropsychological-and-cognitive-correlates-of-recovery-in-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Jessica A Harper, Brooks Brodrick, Erin Van Enkevort, Carrie J McAdams
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical or cognitive measures either predictive of illness trajectory or altered with sustained weight recovery in adult women with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: Participants were recruited from prior studies of women with anorexia nervosa (AN-C) and in weight-recovery following anorexia nervosa (AN-WR). Participants completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline and clinical assessments at both baseline and follow-up. Groups based on clinical outcome (continued eating disorder, AN-CC; newly in recovery, AN-CR; sustained weight-recovery, AN-WR) were compared by using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons...
August 11, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798661/multisensory-based-rehabilitation-approach-translational-insights-from-animal-models-to-early-intervention
#13
REVIEW
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Multisensory processes permit combinations of several inputs, coming from different sensory systems, allowing for a coherent representation of biological events and facilitating adaptation to environment. For these reasons, their application in neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation has been enhanced in the last decades. Recent studies on animals and human models have indicated that, on one hand multisensory integration matures gradually during post-natal life and development is closely linked to environment and experience and, on the other hand, that modality-specific information seems to do not benefit by redundancy across multiple sense modalities and is more readily perceived in unimodal than in multimodal stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798299/diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-more-severe-brain-spontaneous-activity-impairment-and-gray-matter-loss-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#14
Yun Fei Wang, Xiang Kong, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
Recent studies showed many cirrhosis patients may have diabetes mellitus (DM), however, the effect of DM on brain in cirrhotic patients is unclear. This study included 34 cirrhosis patients (17 with DM, 17 without DM) and 17 age-, sex-matched healthy controls. MRI examination and neuropsychological tests were performed. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and voxel-based morphometry algorithms were used to obtain fALFF values and gray matter volume, which were compared and correlated with clinical variables...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797021/personalized-risk-index-for-neurocognitive-decline-among-people-with-well-controlled-hiv-infection
#15
Tracy Yuen, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Nancy Mayo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. METHODS: As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#16
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796560/facial-emotion-decoding-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Marco De Risi, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Angelo Picardi, Sara Casciato, Liliana G Grammaldo, Alfredo D'Aniello, Deborah Lanni, Stefano Meletti, Nicola Modugno
PURPOSE: In line with the growing attention on non-motor symptoms and disturbance of affective and emotional processing in Parkinson's disease, we aimed to study different aspects of facial emotion expression evaluation in a group of PD without cognitive decline in treatment with common antiparkinsonian drugs, matched for sex, age, and education with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 30 patients (13 male; mean age: 63.3±6.7; mean age of disease onset: 56...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#18
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792946/is-intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-an-independent-cognitive-predictor-of-mortality-in-old-age-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#19
Nicole A Kochan, David Bunce, Sarah Pont, John D Crawford, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70-90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792103/progression-of-regional-atrophy-in-the-left-hemisphere-contributes-to-clinical-and-cognitive-deterioration-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-5-year-study
#20
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Sarlota Mesaros, Gianna C Riccitelli, Jelena Dackovic, Jelena Drulovic, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the regional patterns of focal lesions accumulation, and gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy progression over a five-year follow-up (FU) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their association with clinical and cognitive deterioration. Neurological, neuropsychological and brain MRI (dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted sequences) assessments were prospectively performed at baseline (T0) and after a median FU of 4.9 years from 66 MS patients (including relapse-onset and primary progressive MS) and 16 matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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