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Thyroid cancer, thyroid nodules

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453230/role-of-biomarkers-in-predicting-the-occurrence-of-thyroid-neoplasms-in-radiation-exposed-children
#1
Joseph Shulan, Leonid Vydro, Arthur B Schneider, Dan Mihailescu
With increasing numbers of childhood cancer survivors who were treated with radiation, there is a need to evaluate potential biomarkers that could signal an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. We aimed to examine the relationships between thyrotropin and thyroglobulin levels and the risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer in a cohort of radiation exposed children. 806 subjects who were irradiated in the neck area as children were examined and followed for up to 25 years. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, measurements of thyrotropin, thyroglobulin levels and thyroid imaging...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428046/the-bethesda-classification-for-thyroid-fine-needle-aspiration-a-predictor-or-an-alarmist
#2
John D Galbraith, Noah Swann, Brian Cox, Nobel LeTendre, James Recabaren
Thyroid malignancies comprise only 2 per cent of all cancers. Yet the incidence of thyroid cancers has been increasing faster than other malignancies, likely due to increased screening and surveillance of thyroid nodules. The Bethesda system represents the preferred method of evaluating thyroid nodules for malignancy using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Many thyroidectomies are performed for small, asymptomatic nodules found on ultrasound. These small papillary cancers (<0.5 cm) are termed microcarcinomas and represent a more indolent natural history causing some to name them "occult papillary tumors...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428041/the-sonographic-subcentimeter-malignant-thyroid-nodule-what-does-it-stand-for
#3
Annette Pascual Marrero, Alvaro Gracia, William Méndez
Thyroid cancer management has moved to less extensive surgery in lesions with favorable criteria. Our study evaluated if the sonographic (US) size of thyroid nodules is a reliable criterion to determine the extent of surgery in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A retrospective study was performed to evaluate thyroid nodules measuring <10 mm in the preop sonogram with a permanent pathology of PTC. Patients were subdivided into two groups based on the US size: A (1-5 mm) and B (6-10 mm). Statistical correlations were made for the presence of the following unfavorable criteria: multifocality, capsular invasion, angio/lymphatic invasion, extrathyroidal invasion, and presence of metastases...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427991/reliability-of-core-needle-biopsy-as-a-second-line-procedure-in-thyroid-nodules-with-an-indeterminate-fine-needle-aspiration-report-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Luca Giovanella
Purpose: This study was undertaken to summarize the published data and to provide more robust estimates regarding the issue of core needle biopsy (CNB) for discriminating thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results. Methods: The systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The sources comprised studies published through November 2017. Original articles that investigated CNB in indeterminate thyroid lesions were searched...
January 2, 2018: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424960/the-impact-of-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-on-the-rate-of-malignancy-for-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-subcategories
#5
Jen-Fan Hang, William H Westra, Amy G Zhou, David S Cooper, Syed Z Ali
BACKGROUND: The recent revision in terminology, with noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) replacing noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, has reclassified the clinically indolent tumor as nonmalignant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of this change on the rate of malignancy (ROM) for subcategories of an atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology...
February 9, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424203/clinicopathological-significance-of-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-expression-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#6
Zhaoshu Wu, Yue Cao, Xiaoyan Jiang, Min Li, Gang Wang, Yue Yang, Kai Lu
INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence indicates that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4(CXCR 4) is a candidate oncogene in several types of human tumors including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To investigate its expression impact on clinicopathological features, a meta-analysis was performed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive search in the PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library (up to March 14, 2017) was performed for relevant studies using multiple search strategies...
February 8, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422426/the-presence-of-papillary-features-in-thyroid-nodules-diagnosed-as-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-or-follicular-lesion-of-undetermined-significance-increases-cancer-risk-and-should-influence-treatment
#7
Jean L Oosthuizen, Blair Walker, Emilija Todorovic, Hamid Masoudi, Sam M Wiseman
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of papillary features on risk of malignancy (ROM) within the Atypia of Undetermined Significance or Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance (AUS-FLUS) Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) diagnostic category. METHODS: A Retrospective review of cases with an AUS-FLUS diagnosis that underwent a thyroidectomy was carried out, and cases were subcategorized based upon the presence of papillary features...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416781/gene-master-regulators-of-papillary-and-anaplastic-thyroid-cancers
#8
Dumitru A Iacobas, Neha Y Tuli, Sanda Iacobas, John K Rasamny, Augustine Moscatello, Jan Geliebter, Raj K Tiwari
We hypothesize that distinct cell phenotypes are governed by different sets of gene master regulators (GMRs) whose strongly protected (by the homeostatic mechanisms) abundance modulates most cell processes by coordinating the expression of numerous genes from the corresponding functional pathways. Gene Commanding Height (GCH), a composite measure of gene expression control and coordination, is introduced to establish the gene hierarchy in each phenotype. If the hypothesis is true, than one can selectively destroy cancer nodules from a heterogeneous tissue by altering the expression of genes whose GCHs are high in cancer but low in normal cell phenotype...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412392/coexistence-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-a-patient-affected-by-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#9
Maria Trovato, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Antonino Seminara, Simone Fogliani, Vittorio Cavallari, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Alfredo Campennì
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. On the contrary, primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease, accounting for 2% to 5% of all thyroid malignancies. Despite several cases in which both PTC and PTL arise in the setting of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), the coexistence of both tumors in HT patients is very rare. Herein we report the case of a 66-year-old woman with long-standing nodular HT under replacement therapy, who presented with a fast, painless enlargement in the right anterior side of the neck...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409458/it-is-no-longer-the-time-to-disregard-thyroid-metastases-from-breast-cancer-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Matilde Pensabene, Brigida Stanzione, Ivana Cerillo, Giuseppe Ciancia, Immacolata Cozzolino, Raffaella Ruocco, Caterina Condello, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Mario Giuliano, Valeria Forestieri, Grazia Arpino, Sabino De Placido, Rossella Lauria
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the thyroid gland are more frequent than previously thought, although most of them are occult or not clinically relevant. Overall, only 42 cases of metastases to thyroid from breast cancer have been reported thus far. Here we report the case of a patient with breast cancer metastatic to the thyroid. We also review the 42 previously reported cases (published between 1962 and 2012). This is the first review about metastases to thyroid gland from breast cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman of Caucasian origin was diagnosed with a lobular invasive carcinoma of the breast (luminal A, stage II)...
February 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408964/a-homozygous-ret-k666n-genotype-with-an-men2a-phenotype
#11
Tania Jaber, Samuel M Hyde, Gilbert J Cote, Elizabeth G Grubbs, Wesley H Giles, Cathy A Stevens, Ramona Dadu
Context: Germline RET K666N mutation has been described as a pathogenic mutation with low disease penetrance for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) without other features of MEN2A. We describe a patient with homozygous RET K666N mutation with MTC and bilateral pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Case Description: A 59-year-old female was diagnosed with MTC after biopsy of two thyroid nodules. Coincident biochemical and radiologic testing was suspicious for bilateral PHEO, confirmed after bilateral adrenalectomy...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406334/hmga2-gene-expression-in-fine-needle-aspiration-samples-of-thyroid-nodules-as-a-marker-for-preoperative-diagnosis-of-thyroid-cancer
#12
Ivan Šamija, Neven Mateša, Sanja Kožaj, Ivana Majstorović, Ante Bolanča, Zvonko Kusić
There is a great interest in molecular markers that would help in the preoperative diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules in cases of indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytology. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of HMGA2 gene expression in discriminating benign from malignant thyroid nodules. In this study, 237 preoperative thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples were analyzed prospectively for the expression of the HMGA2 gene by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
February 5, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396808/histologic-outcome-of-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-classified-at-low-or-high-risk
#13
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Franco Fulciniti, Elisabetta Merlo, Jessica Barizzi, Luca Mazzucchelli, Luca Giovanella
The revised Italian consensus for the classification and reporting of thyroid cytology (ICCRTC) was published in 2014. Very recently, a high reliability of ICCRTC in classifying low and high risk indeterminate nodules (Tir 3A and Tir 3B, respectively) was demonstrated. This finding prompted us to review our case series of thyroid indeterminate lesions to verify these data. Only lesions undergone FNAC from December 2014 to October 2017 with subsequent histology at our institutions were eligible for the study...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395024/papillary-features-in-thyroid-nodules-with-a-diagnosis-of-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-or-follicular-lesion-of-undetermined-significance-increases-cancer-risk-and-should-influence-treatment
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393868/galectin-3-the-impact-on-the-clinical-management-of-patients-with-thyroid-nodules-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Armando Bartolazzi, Salvatore Sciacchitano, Calogero D'Alessandria
Galectins (S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily-conserved family of lectin molecules, which can be expressed intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix, as well. Galectins bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are functionally active in converting glycan-related information into cell biological programs. Altered glycosylation notably occurring in cancer cells and expression of specific galectins provide, indeed, a fashionable mechanism of molecular interactions able to regulate several tumor relevant functions, among which are cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation, gene transcription and RNA splicing, cell cycle and apoptosis...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387664/papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-cystic-neck-lesion-case-series
#16
Sethu T Subha, Mohd-Adzreil Bakri, Hisyam Salleh, Mohamad Doi, Abdul-Jalil Nordin
Introduction: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) constitutes 75-85% of all thyroid cancers. PTC usually presents as a subtle, commonly slow-growing, painless thyroid mass or a solitary nodule in the neck. This presentation of a cystic neck lump, without the presence of a thyroid nodule, may imitate the course of a benign disease, thus delaying diagnosis and proper treatment. Case Report: Three cases that had been initially presented as a cystic neck lesion in which a benign etiology was considered primarily were compiled in this study...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373949/effect-of-tumor-size-on-risk-of-metastatic-disease-and-survival-for-thyroid-cancer-implications-for-biopsy-guidelines
#17
Xuan V Nguyen, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Franklin N Tessler, Jenny K Hoang
<b>Background: </b>In many risk-stratification systems, the decision to biopsy thyroid nodules is determined by their sonographic features and size. Nevertheless, even small, low-suspicion nodules are often biopsied because it is assumed that larger malignant nodules are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of thyroid cancer tumor size on survival and risk of T4 stage, nodal disease, and distant metastases. <b>Methods: </b>The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database was queried to obtain tumor size, staging information, and survival data for cases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and non-differentiated thyroid cancer reported between 2004 and 2014...
January 26, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369334/the-incidental-thyroid-nodule
#18
REVIEW
Sarah B Fisher, Nancy D Perrier
Incidental thyroid nodules that are found on an imaging study performed for reasons other than thyroid pathology represent a common scenario encountered by health care providers. The initial workup for these nodules comprises a thorough history and physical examination, thyroid function tests, a dedicated thyroid ultrasound, and fine-needle aspiration of any suspicious lesions. Management ranges from observation and reassurance to surgical resection and depends on the cytologic diagnosis. In cases of cytologically indeterminate or discordant nodules, surgical excision (lobectomy) offers a definitive diagnosis, although molecular testing or a reasonable period of observation may be useful as less invasive adjuncts...
January 25, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364576/simultaneous-detection-of-single-nucleotide-variant-deletion-insertion-and-fusion-in-lung-and-thyroid-carcinoma-using-cytology-specimen-and-an-rna-based-next-generation-sequencing-assay
#19
Natalya V Guseva, Omar Jaber, Aaron A Stence, Krishnaveni Sompallae, Amani Bashir, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Aaron D Bossler, Chris S Jensen, Deqin Ma
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) fusion is routinely performed in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma to assess their eligibility for targeted therapy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-derived material frequently is the only pathologic material available. The identification of genomic aberrations in thyroid nodules from FNA smears may help stratify cancer risk and spare patients from a second surgery...
January 24, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362138/texture-analysis-and-machine-learning-to-characterize-suspected-thyroid-nodules-and-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-where-do-we-stand
#20
REVIEW
Martina Sollini, Luca Cozzi, Arturo Chiti, Margarita Kirienko
In thyroid imaging, "texture" refers to the echographic appearence of the parenchyma or a nodule. However, definition of the image characteristics is operator dependent and influenced by the operator's experience. In a more objective texture analysis, a variety of mathematical methods are used to describe image inhomogeneity, allowing assessment of an image by means of quantitative parameters. Moreover, this approach may be used to develop an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to yield a second opinion when differentiating malignant and benign thyroid lesions...
February 2018: European Journal of Radiology
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