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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#2
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324870/incretin-responses-to-oral-glucose-and-mixed-meal-tests-and-changes-in-fasting-glucose-levels-during-7-years-of-follow-up-the-hoorn-meal-study
#3
A D M Koopman, F Rutters, S P Rauh, G Nijpels, J J Holst, J W Beulens, M Alssema, J M Dekker
We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322485/effects-of-ipragliflozin-on-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-and-gut-peptides-in-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#4
Hiroaki Ueno, Hiroko Nakazato, Emi Ebihara, Kenji Noma, Takahisa Kawano, Kazuhiro Nagamine, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
INTRODUCTION: Ipragliflozin is a novel antidiabetic drug that inhibits renal tubular sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ipragliflozin on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and gastrointestinal peptide responses to a meal tolerance test, as well as to investigate the glucose-lowering mechanisms of ipragliflozin. METHODS: Nine Japanese patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288273/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-after-an-episode-of-acute-pancreatitis-associations-with-fasting-gut-hormone-profile
#5
Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, Shayal K Chand, Aya Cervantes, Maxim S Petrov
INTRODUCTION: Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, are often elevated in individuals after acute pancreatitis but what determines their levels is poorly understood. Gut hormones have emerged as possible modulators of inflammatory response. The aim was to investigate the associations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and a comprehensive panel of gut hormones after an episode of acute pancreatitis...
December 29, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284209/calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-l-tryptophan-induced-secretion-of-cholecystokinin-and-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-in-swine-duodenum
#6
Xiuying Zhao, Yihan Xian, Chao Wang, Liren Ding, Xianglong Meng, Weiyun Zhu, Suqin Hang
This study aimed to understand the effect of Tryptophan (Trp) on gut hormones secretion as well as the roles of the CaSR and its downstream signaling pathway in gut hormones secretion using swine duodenal perfusion in vitro. Swine duodenum was perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffers (KHB) as a basal solution. Various concentrations (0, 10 mM and 20 mM) of Trp were applied to investigate the effect of Trp on gut hormones secretion. A CaSR antagonist was used to detect the involvement of CaSR and its signal molecules...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275960/inactivation-of-the-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-improves-outcomes-following-experimental-myocardial-infarction
#7
John R Ussher, Jonathan E Campbell, Erin E Mulvihill, Laurie L Baggio, Holly E Bates, Brent A McLean, Keshav Gopal, Megan Capozzi, Bernardo Yusta, Xiemin Cao, Safina Ali, Minsuk Kim, M Golam Kabir, Yutaka Seino, Jinya Suzuki, Daniel J Drucker
Incretin hormones exert pleiotropic metabolic actions beyond the pancreas. Although the heart expresses both incretin receptors, the cardiac biology of GIP receptor (GIPR) action remains incompletely understood. Here we show that GIPR agonism did not impair the response to cardiac ischemia. In contrast, genetic elimination of the Gipr reduced myocardial infarction (MI)-induced ventricular injury and enhanced survival associated with reduced hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation; it also increased myocardial triacylglycerol (TAG) stores...
December 20, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235553/pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-profile-in-obese-adults-with-high-plasma-gip-levels
#8
J Góralska, U Raźny, A Polus, J Stancel-Możwiłło, M Chojnacka, A Gruca, A Zdzienicka, A Dembińska-Kieć, B Kieć-Wilk, B Solnica, M Malczewska-Malec
BACKGROUND: GIP provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut, although results from different experimental and observational studies are contradictory, ranging from anti-inflammatory, through neutral to pro-inflammatory action of GIP. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze inflammatory pathways on the level of gene expression and circulating inflammatory markers in relation to plasma GIP level. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 128 obese adults...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235009/duodenal-exclusion-but-not-sleeve-gastrectomy-preserves-insulin-secretion-making-it-the-more-effective-metabolic-procedure
#9
Claudia Laessle, Gergana Nenova, Goran Marjanovic, Gabriel Seifert, Lampros Kousoulas, Bernd Jaenigen, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Jodok Matthias Fink
INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate on which procedure provides the best treatment for type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the pathomechanisms of diabetes improvement of partly anatomically differing operations is not fully understood. METHODS: A loop duodenojejunostomy (DJOS) with exclusion of one third of intestinal length, a sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or a combination of DJOS + SG was performed in 8-week-old male ZDF rats. One, three, and six months after surgery, an oral glucose tolerance test and measurements of GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and bile acids were conducted...
December 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227575/effect-of-a-single-dose-of-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-incretin-hormone-secretion-after-meal-ingestion-in-healthy-volunteers-and-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-well-controlled-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#10
Wathik Alsalim, Olga Göransson, Richard D Carr, Roberto Bizzotto, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Mari, Bo Ahrén
To explore the effects of a single dose of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on glucose-standardized insulin secretion and β-cell glucose sensitivity after meal ingestion, twelve healthy- and twelve drug naïve well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects (T2D; mean HbA1c 43 mmol/mol, 6.2%) received sitagliptin (100mg) or placebo before a meal (525 kcal). β-cell function was measured as the insulin secretory rate at a standardized glucose concentration and the β-cell glucose sensitivity (the slope between glucose and insulin secretory rate)...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226618/enteroinsular-hormones-in-two-siblings-with-donohue-syndrome-and-complete-leptin-deficiency
#11
M Güemes, S A Rahman, P Shah, K Hussain
The main biochemical hallmark of the rare and lethal condition of Donohue syndrome (DS) is hyperinsulinemia. The roles of the gut and other pancreatic hormones involved in glucose metabolism, satiety and energy expenditure have not been previously reported in DS. Two siblings with genetically confirmed DS and extremely low weight underwent a mixed meal (MM) test where pancreatic hormones insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, active amylin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) as well as gut hormones active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin were analyzed using a Multiplex assay...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222967/stimulation-of-the-endogenous-incretin-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-by-enteral-dextrose-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation-in-murine-endotoxemia
#12
Faraaz Ali Shah, Srikanth Singamsetty, Lanping Guo, Byron W Chuan, Sherie McDonald, Bryce A Cooper, Brett J O'Donnell, Darko Stefanovski, Burton Wice, Yingze Zhang, Christopher P O'Donnell, Bryan J McVerry
Loss of glucose homeostasis during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies to promote euglycemia in sepsis are needed. We have previously shown that early low-level intravenous (IV) dextrose suppresses pancreatic insulin secretion and induces insulin resistance in septic mice, resulting in profound hyperglycemia and worsened systemic inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of low-level dextrose via the enteral route would stimulate intestinal incretin hormone production, potentiate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and thereby improve glycemic control in the acute phase of sepsis...
November 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216250/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-roux-en-y-gastrojejunostomy-vs-gastroduodenostomy-with-respect-to-the-improvement-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-distal-gastrectomy-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yoon Young Choi, Sung Hoon Noh, Ji Yeong An
The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of diabetes control induced by Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy(RY) vs Billroth-I reconstruction(BI) after distal gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer(EGC) and type 2 diabetes(T2DM). Forty EGC patients with T2DM, aged 20-80 years, who were expected to undergo curative distal gastrectomy were randomized 1:1 to RY(n = 20) or BI(n = 20). Diabetes medication status, biochemical and hormonal data including blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP were evaluated for 12 months after surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205117/characterization-of-optimized-functional-complementary-dual-insulinotorpic-peptide-rolgg
#14
Yaofang Zhang, Li Du, Yanling Xu, Lin Tian, Peipei Tu, Minggang Li
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) play a similar but complementary role in the regulation of glucose levels in islet β-cells. This study was aimed to develop a fusion peptide, which combines 4 tandem repeated GLP-1 and 4 tandem repeated GIP (4rolGG), and to investigate its therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes using a diabetic mice model. METHOD: A 4rolGG expression plasmid was constructed and expressed in BL21 (DE3)...
December 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201861/active-phytochemicals-of-pueraria-tuberosa-for-dpp-iv-inhibition-in-silico-and-experimental-approach
#15
Shivani Srivastava, Priya Shree, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi
Background: We had earlier reported that the extract of Pueraria tuberosa significantly inhibits DPP-IV enzyme, resulting in glucose tolerance response in rats. In this study, we have explored the active phytochemicals responsible for this potential. The results have been validated in both fasting and postprandial states in the plasma of normal rats and also in fasting blood and intestinal homogenates of diabetic models. Methods: Pueraria tuberosa water extract (PTWE) was administered to normal Charles Foster rats for 35 days and to diabetic model (65 mg/kg bw) for 10 days...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184702/pharmacological-inhibition-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-and-insights-into-postprandial-gut-peptide-secretion
#16
Benjamin S Maciejewski, Tara B Manion, Claire M Steppan
AIM: To examine the role that enzyme Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) plays in postprandial gut peptide secretion and signaling. METHODS: The standard experimental paradigm utilized to evaluate the incretin response was a lipid challenge. Following a lipid challenge, plasma was collected via cardiac puncture at each time point from a cohort of 5-8 mice per group from baseline at time zero to 10 h. Incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] were then quantitated...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162361/impaired-beta-cell-sensitivity-to-incretins-in-type-2-diabetes-is-insufficiently-compensated-by-higher-incretin-response
#17
A Tura, J I Bagger, E Ferrannini, J J Holst, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll, A Mari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incretin effect is impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. We investigated the relationships between the time course of the incretin effect and that of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), thereby estimating incretin sensitivity of the beta cell, and its associated factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients with T2D and eight matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) received 25, 75, and 125 g OGTTs and corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusions (IIGI)...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157578/evaluation-of-the-insulinotropic-and-glucose-lowering-actions-of-zebrafish-gip-in-mammalian-systems-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-glp-1-receptor
#18
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt
The insulinotropic properties of zebrafish GIP (zfGIP) were assessed in vitro using clonal pancreatic β-cell lines and isolated mouse islets and acute effects on glucose tolerance and insulin release in vivo were evaluated in mice. The peptide produced a dose-dependent increase in the rate of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥30nM. Insulin release from 1.1 B4 human clonal β-cells and mouse islets was significantly increased by zfGIP (10nM and 1μM). The in vitro insulinotropic activity of zfGIP was decreased after incubating BRIN-BD11 cells with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-4(9-39) (p<0...
November 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#19
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130686/thioamide-substitution-selectively-modulates-proteolysis-and-receptor-activity-of-therapeutic-peptide-hormones
#20
Xing Chen, Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Taylor M Barrett, Lauren E McGrath, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, John J Ferrie, Matthew R Hayes, E James Petersson
Peptide hormones are attractive as injectable therapeutics and imaging agents, but they often require extensive modification by mutagenesis and/or chemical synthesis to prevent rapid in vivo degradation. Alternatively, the single-atom, O-to-S modification of peptide backbone thioamidation has the potential to selectively perturb interactions with proteases while preserving interactions with other proteins, such as target receptors. Here, we use the validated diabetes therapeutic, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and the target of clinical investigation, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), as proof-of-principle peptides to demonstrate the value of thioamide substitution...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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