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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#1
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898183/effect-of-exenatide-on-postprandial-glucose-fluxes-lipolysis-and-%C3%A3-cell-function-in-nondiabetic-morbidly-obese-patients
#2
Stefania Camastra, Brenno Astiarraga, Andrea Tura, Silvia Frascerra, Demetrio Ciociaro, Andrea Mari, Amalia Gastaldelli, Ele Ferrannini
AIMS: To investigate the effect of exenatide on glucose disposal, insulin secretion, ß-cell function, lipolysis, and hormone concentrations in non-diabetic, morbidly obese subjects under physiological conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were assigned to exenatide 10 µg twice daily (EXE, n = 15) or control (CT, n = 15) for 3 months. Patients received a meal test/tracer study (MTT) to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP), rate of oral glucose appearance (RaO), insulin secretion rate (ISR), ß-cell function, hepatic (HIR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (AT-IR) and insulin sensitivity (IS)...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894746/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-versus-calorie-restriction-support-for-surgery-per-se-as-the-direct-contributor-to-altered-responses-of-insulin-and-incretins-to-a-mixed-meal
#3
Johan Berggren, Andreas Lindqvist, Jan Hedenbro, Leif Groop, Nils Wierup
OBJECTIVE: To study the immediate effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on glucose homeostasis, insulin, and incretin responses to mixed-meal tests compared with the effects of calorie restriction (CR). SETTING: University-affiliated bariatric surgery clinic. BACKGROUND: RYGB induces remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) long before significant weight loss occurs. The time course and underlying mechanisms of this remission remain enigmatic...
September 28, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836729/discovering-recurring-patterns-in-electrophysiological-recordings
#5
Bart Gips, Ali Bahramisharif, Eric Lowet, Mark J Roberts, Peter de Weerd, Ole Jensen, Jan van der Eerden
BACKGROUND: Fourier-based techniques are used abundantly in the analysis of electrophysiological data. However, these techniques are of limited value when the signal of interest is non-sinusoidal or non-periodic. NEW METHOD: We present sliding window matching (SWM): a new data-driven method for discovering recurring temporal patterns in electrophysiological data. SWM is effective in detecting recurring but unknown patterns even when they appear non-periodically...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811952/lipid-stimulation-of-fatty-acid-sensors-in-the-human-duodenum-relationship-with-gastrointestinal-hormones-bmi-and-diet
#6
N Cvijanovic, N J Isaacs, C K Rayner, C Feinle-Bisset, R L Young, T J Little
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The small intestinal free fatty acid (FFA) sensors, FFA receptor 1 (FFAR1), FFAR4, G-protein receptor 119 (GPR119) and cluster of differentiation-36 (CD36), mediate the fat-induced release of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones. We investigated whether expression of duodenal FFA sensors in humans was (i) altered by intraduodenal (ID) lipid infusion, (ii) disordered in overweight or obese individuals, (iii) related to lipid-induced GI hormone secretion or (iv) affected by habitual dietary patterns...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#7
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806092/effect-of-portal-glucose-sensing-on-systemic-glucose-levels-in-sd-and-zdf-rats
#8
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801414/-incretin-secretion-and-glucose-metabolism-in-morbidly-obese-patients-in-the-early-and-late-periods-after-biliopancreatic-diversion
#9
I I Dedov, G A Mel'nichenko, E A Troshina, E V Ershova, N V Mazurina, N A Ogneva, Yu I Yashkov, A V Il'in
AIM: To estimate the parameters of glucose metabolism and to assess the secretion of incretins in patients after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for morbid obesity (MO) in the early and late postoperative periods. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The prospective part of the investigation included 22 patients with a body mass index of 35.8 to 68.4 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All the patients were examined before, 3 weeks and 3 months after BPD. The retrospective part covered 23 patients who were examined after BPD for MO; the postoperative period was 4...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800649/effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-linagliptin-and-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-on-physiological-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-japanese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-open-label-2-arm-parallel-comparative-exploratory-trial
#10
Daisuke Yabe, Takashi Eto, Masanari Shiramoto, Shin Irie, Kenta Murotani, Yusuke Seino, Hitoshi Kuwata, Takeshi Kurose, Susumu Seino, Bo Ahren, Yutaka Seino
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors reduces the risk of hypoglycemia, possibly through augmentation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) action but not that of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on glucagon secretion. To examine this model in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin on glucagon and other counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were evaluated and compared with those of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in a multi-center, randomized, open-label, 2 arm parallel comparative, exploratory trial...
November 1, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798656/third-exposure-to-a-reduced-carbohydrate-meal-lowers-evening-postprandial-insulin-and-gip-responses-and-homa-ir-estimate-of-insulin-resistance
#11
Po-Ju Lin, Katarina T Borer
BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789050/-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-proactive-and-integrated-healthcare-programme-for-chronic-complex-patients
#12
Jordi Coderch, Xavier Pérez-Berruezo, Inma Sánchez-Pérez, Elvira Sánchez, Pere Ibern, Marc Pérez, Marc Carreras, José M Inoriza
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a proactive and integrated care programme to adjust the use of health resources by chronic complex patients (CCP) identified as potential high consumers according to a predictive model based on prior use and morbidity. METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trial with three parallel groups of CCP: a blinded control group (GC), usual care; a partial intervention group (GIP) reported in the EMR; a total intervention group (GIT), also reported to primary care (PC)...
October 24, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#13
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780735/regional-specificity-of-the-gut-incretin-response-to-small-intestinal-glucose-infusion-in-healthy-older-subjects
#14
Rachael S Rigda, Laurence G Trahair, Tanya J Little, Tongzhi Wu, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
The importance of the region, as opposed to the length, of small intestine exposed to glucose in determining the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains unclear. We sought to compare the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses to glucose administered to the proximal (12-60cm beyond the pylorus), or more distal (>70cm beyond the pylorus) small intestine, or both. 10 healthy subjects (9M,1F; aged 70.3±1.4years) underwent infusion of glucose via a catheter into the proximal (glucose proximally; GP), or distal (glucose distally; GD) small intestine, or both (GPD), on three separate days in a randomised fashion...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779915/gpr119-a-major-enteroendocrine-sensor-of-dietary-triglyceride-metabolites-coacting-in-synergy-with-ffa1-gpr40
#15
Jeppe H Ekberg, Maria Hauge, Line V Kristensen, Andreas N Madsen, Maja S Engelstoft, Anna-Sofie Husted, Rasmus Sichlau, Kristoffer L Egerod, Pascal Timshel, Timothy J Kowalski, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reiman, Harald S Hansen, Andrew D Howard, Birgitte Holst, Thue W Schwartz
Triglycerides (TGs) are among the most efficacious stimulators of incretin secretion; however, the relative importance of FFA1 (G Protein-coupled Receptor [GPR] 40), FFA4 (GPR120), and GPR119, which all recognize TG metabolites, ie, long-chain fatty acid and 2-monoacylglycerol, respectively, is still unclear. Here, we find all 3 receptors to be highly expressed and highly enriched in fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified GLP-1 and GIP cells isolated from transgenic reporter mice. In vivo, the TG-induced increase in plasma GIP was significantly reduced in FFA1-deficient mice (to 34%, mean of 4 experiments each with 8-10 animals), in GPR119-deficient mice (to 24%) and in FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice (to 15%) but not in FFA4-deficient mice...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777606/hormonal-responses-to-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-water-and-diet-soda
#16
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776308/characteristics-of-iron-corrosion-scales-and-water-quality-variations-in-drinking-water-distribution-systems-of-different-pipe-materials
#17
Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764725/drinks-containing-anthocyanin-rich-blackcurrant-extract-decrease-postprandial-blood-glucose-insulin-and-incretin-concentrations
#18
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Leanne Smith, Rosalind J Miller, Danielle I McCarthy, Jonathan A Farrimond, Wendy L Hall
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747579/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-perforations-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-treated-with-tocilizumab-from-clinical-trial-postmarketing-and-real-world-data-sources
#19
Sharareh Monemi, Erhan Berber, Khaled Sarsour, Jianmei Wang, Kathy Lampl, Kamal Bharucha, Attila Pethoe-Schramm
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to use multiple data sources to update information on gastrointestinal perforations (GIPs) during tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Reporting rates of GIP events were estimated from three distinct patient data sets: a TCZ-IV RA clinical trial all-exposure population, a global TCZ postmarketing safety database population, and a US healthcare claims database population of patients with RA, including patients who received TCZ, anti-tumor necrosis factor (aTNF) agents, or abatacept...
December 2016: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-complexity-controversy-and-clinical-relevance
#20
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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