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Pseudo-nitzschia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#1
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427568/inter-and-intra-specific-growth-and-domoic-acid-production-in-relation-to-nutrient-ratios-and-concentrations-in-pseudo-nitzschia-phosphate-an-important-factor
#2
Kimberley A Lema, Marie Latimier, Élisabeth Nézan, Juliette Fauchot, Mickael Le Gac
The factors responsible for inducing the synthesis of toxins and responses from toxic phytoplankton blooms remain unclear. In this study we compare the influence of genotypic (at both the intra and interspecific levels) and environmental factors (nutrient concentration and ratio) on growth (in terms of cell densities) and domoic acid (DA) production in three Pseudo-nitzschia species: P. australis, P.pungens and P.fradulenta. A strong phosphate effect was detected. More precisely, a low initial concentration in phosphate, even at high initial nitrogen and silicate concentrations, induced the highest DA concentrations and the lowest cell densities in all strains/species studied...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394444/development-of-a-molecular-based-index-for-assessing-iron-status-in-bloom-forming-pennate-diatoms
#3
Adrian Marchetti, Carly M Moreno, Natalie R Cohen, Irina Oleinikov, Kimberly deLong, Benjamin S Twining, E Virginia Armbrust, Robert H Lampe
Iron availability limits primary productivity in large areas of the world's oceans. Ascertaining the iron status of phytoplankton is essential for understanding the factors regulating their growth and ecology. We developed an incubation-independent, molecular-based approach to assess the iron nutritional status of specific members of the diatom community, initially focusing on the ecologically important pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Through a comparative transcriptomic approach, we identified two genes that track the iron status of Pseudo-nitzschia with high fidelity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366401/development-of-a-qpcr-assay-for-tracking-the-ecological-niches-of-genetic-sub-populations-within-pseudo-nitzschia-pungens-bacillariophyceae
#4
Jin Ho Kim, Joo-Hwan Kim, Bum Soo Park, Pengbin Wang, Shailesh Kumar Patidar, Myung-Soo Han
Three genetic sub-populations (clade I, II and III) of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, the potential toxic marine diatom, are known to have distinguishable growth characteristics under different culture conditions and distinct distributed patterns in the world. However, to date their exact eco-physiological traits are unrevealed in fields due to lack of the method to detect and/or measure abundances of each sub-populations, hence, the qPCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) assay was developed to detect and quantify the P...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366399/species-occurrence-of-the-potentially-toxigenic-diatom-genus-pseudo-nitzschia-and-the-associated-neurotoxin-domoic-acid-in-the-argentine-sea
#5
Gastón O Almandoz, Elena Fabro, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
The marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, the major known producer of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome in humans and marine mammals, is globally distributed. The genus presents high species richness in the Argentine Sea and DA has been frequently detected in the last few years in plankton and shellfish samples, but the species identity of the producers remains unclear. In the present work, the distribution and abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species and DA were determined from samples collected on two oceanographic cruises carried out through the Argentine Sea (∼39-47°S) during summer and spring 2013...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366394/the-relationship-between-pseudo-nitzschia-peragallo-and-domoic-acid-in-scottish-shellfish
#6
E Bresnan, R J Fryer, S Fraser, N Smith, L Stobo, N Brown, E Turrell
The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Peragallo) associated with the production of domoic acid (DA), the toxin reposnsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, is abundant in Scottish waters. A two year study examined the relationship between Pseudo-nitzschia cells in the water column and DA concentration in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at two sites, and king scallops (Pecten maximus) at one site. The rate of DA uptake and depuration differed greatly between the two species with M. edulis whole tissue accumulating and depurating 7μgg(-1) (now expressed as mgkg(-1)) per week...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342004/modulatory-effects-of-terminalia-arjuna-against-domoic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-caco-2-cell-line
#7
E M Ramya, G Phani Kumar, T Anand, K R Anilakumar
Domoic acid is a potent marine algal toxin produced by diatomic genus of Pseudo-nitzschia causing amnesic shell fish poisoning. Domoic acid toxicosis mainly involves excitotoxic effects coupled with oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against domoic acid induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cell line. It was observed that the toxicity induced by domoic acid in Caco-2 cells was mediated by oxidative insult leading to morphological changes, DNA damage and apoptosis...
March 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303313/significant-change-in-marine-plankton-structure-and-carbon-production-after-the-addition-of-river-water-in-a-mesocosm-experiment
#8
E Fouilland, A Trottet, C Alves-de-Souza, D Bonnet, T Bouvier, M Bouvy, S Boyer, L Guillou, E Hatey, H Jing, C Leboulanger, E Le Floc'h, H Liu, S Mas, B Mostajir, J Nouguier, D Pecqueur, E Rochelle-Newall, C Roques, C Salles, M-G Tournoud, C Vasseur, F Vidussi
Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285260/microsatellite-markers-for-population-genetic-applications-in-the-domoic-acid-producing-diatom-pseudo-nitzschia-australis-frenguelli-bacillariophyceae
#9
Nicolaus G Adams, Piper Schwenke, G Jason Smith, Vera L Trainer
Microsatellites are commonly used markers in population genetics and are increasingly being employed to determine population structure in phytoplankton populations. We have developed seven polymorphic microsatellite markers for the domoic-acid producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Using these markers, thirty P. australis isolates were genotyped, 10 isolates were from Monterey Bay, California and 20 were from off the northern coast of Oregon. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0...
January 26, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073532/toxigenic-algae-and-associated-phycotoxins-in-two-coastal-embayments-in-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#10
Julia A Busch, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Kerstin Toebe, Uwe John, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Allan D Cembella
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) surveillance is complicated by high diversity of species and associated phycotoxins. Such species-level information on taxonomic affiliations and on cell abundance and toxin content is, however, crucial for effective monitoring, especially of aquaculture and fisheries areas. The aim addressed in this study was to determine putative HAB taxa and related phycotoxins in plankton from aquaculture sites in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. The comparative geographical distribution of potentially harmful plankton taxa was established by weekly field sampling throughout the water column during late spring-early summer over two years at key stations in Alfacs and Fangar embayments within the Ebro Delta...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#11
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073500/initial-skill-assessment-of-the-california-harmful-algae-risk-mapping-c-harm-system
#12
Clarissa R Anderson, Raphael M Kudela, Mati Kahru, Yi Chao, Leslie K Rosenfeld, Frederick L Bahr, David M Anderson, Tenaya A Norris
Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#13
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073448/modeling-the-transport-pathways-of-harmful-algal-blooms-in-the-iberian-coast
#14
L Pinto, M Mateus, A Silva
The prediction of the path of harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the coast can be achieved using numerical models of ocean circulation in order to reproduce the hydrodynamics of the study area. With this setting, our work aimed at the (1) study of key past events to evaluate the model ability to reproduce the transport pathways of blooms along the Iberian coast, and (2) to assess the relevance of such strictly physical approach. The simulations described here rely on the advection of lagrangian elements after a point release in a hypothetical location for bloom initiation, and the subsequent assessment of the influence of the surface currents transport on the extent of the bloom...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065552/occurrence-of-four-species-of-algae-in-the-marine-water-of-hong-kong
#15
Yemao Chai, Wen-Jing Deng, Xing Qin, Xiangrong Xu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have broken out frequently throughout the world in recent decades; they are caused by the rapid multiplication of algal cells in near-coastal waters polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus and greatly affect the quality of marine water and human health. Over the past several decades, climate change and increasing environmental degradation have provided favourable growth conditions for certain phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is essential to rapidly identify and enumerate harmful marine algae to control these species...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058244/occurrence-of-harmful-algal-species-and-shellfish-toxicity-in-sardinia-italy
#16
Anna Maria Bazzoni, Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Antonella Lugliè, Barbara Vivaldi, Valentina Cicotelli, Giovanna Sanna, Giuseppe Tedde, Salvatore Ledda, Enrico Alesso, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
Sardinia (Italy, north-western Mediterranean) is a commercially important producer of edible bivalve molluscs. Since the early 2000s, it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algal poison. Here, we present the studies on toxin concentrations and the associated potentially toxic phytoplankton distribution and abundances carried out by a regular monitoring programme in Sardinian shellfish areas, from January to May 2015. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in several bivalve molluscs samples, while paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were present just once, without exceeding the legal limits...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003060/two-decades-of-pseudo-nitzschia-spp-blooms-and-king-scallop-pecten-maximus-contamination-by-domoic-acid-along-the-french-atlantic-and-english-channel-coasts-seasonal-dynamics-spatial-heterogeneity-and-interannual-variability
#17
Bérengère Husson, Tania Hernández-Fariñas, Romain Le Gendre, Mathilde Schapira, Annie Chapelle
King scallop contamination (Pecten maximus) by domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, is highly problematic because of its lengthy retention in the bivalve tissue, leading to prolonged fishery closures. Data collected within the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxin monitoring network (REPHY) over the 1995-2012 period were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics and the interannual variability of P.-nitzschia spp. blooms as well as the contamination of king scallop fishing grounds, in six contrasted bays distributed along the French Atlantic coast and English Channel...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951467/cobalamin-independent-methionine-synthase-distribution-and-influence-on-vitamin-b12-growth-requirements-in-marine-diatoms
#18
Kelsey A Ellis, Natalie R Cohen, Carly Moreno, Adrian Marchetti
The requirement for cobalamin (vitamin B12) in microalgae is primarily a function of the type of methionine synthase present within their gene repertoires. Our study validates this concept through analysis of the distribution of B12-independent methionine synthase in ecologically relevant diatom genera, including the closely related bloom-forming genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Fragilariopsis. Growth and gene expression analysis of the vitamin B12-requiring version of the methionine synthase enzyme, METH, and the B12-independent version, METE, demonstrate that it is the presence of the METE gene which allows Fragilariopsis cylindrus to grow in the absence of B12...
February 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917011/an-unprecedented-coastwide-toxic-algal-bloom-linked-to-anomalous-ocean-conditions
#19
Ryan M McCabe, Barbara M Hickey, Raphael M Kudela, Kathi A Lefebvre, Nicolaus G Adams, Brian D Bill, Frances M D Gulland, Richard E Thomson, William P Cochlan, Vera L Trainer
A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in spring 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak of the neurotoxin, domoic acid, along the North American west coast. Elevated toxins were measured in numerous stranded marine mammals and resulted in geographically extensive and prolonged closures of razor clam, rock crab, and Dungeness crab fisheries. We demonstrate that this outbreak was initiated by anomalously warm ocean conditions. Pseudo-nitzschia australis thrived north of its typical range in the warm, nutrient-poor water that spanned the northeast Pacific in early 2015...
October 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809344/morphological-and-genetic-diversity-of-beaufort-sea-diatoms-with-high-contributions-from-the-chaetoceros-neogracilis-species-complex
#20
Sergio Balzano, Isabella Percopo, Raffaele Siano, Priscillia Gourvil, Mélanie Chanoine, Dominique Marie, Daniel Vaulot, Diana Sarno
Seventy-five diatom strains isolated from the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) in the summer of 2009 were characterized by light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), as well as 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains group into 20 genotypes and 17 morphotypes and are affiliated with the genera Arcocellulus, Attheya, Chaetoceros, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Nitzschia, Porosira, Pseudo-nitzschia, Shionodiscus, Thalassiosira, and Synedropsis. Most of the species have a distribution confined to the northern/polar area...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
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