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Pseudo-nitzschia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073532/toxigenic-algae-and-associated-phycotoxins-in-two-coastal-embayments-in-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#1
Julia A Busch, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Kerstin Toebe, Uwe John, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Allan D Cembella
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) surveillance is complicated by high diversity of species and associated phycotoxins. Such species-level information on taxonomic affiliations and on cell abundance and toxin content is, however, crucial for effective monitoring, especially of aquaculture and fisheries areas. The aim addressed in this study was to determine putative HAB taxa and related phycotoxins in plankton from aquaculture sites in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. The comparative geographical distribution of potentially harmful plankton taxa was established by weekly field sampling throughout the water column during late spring-early summer over two years at key stations in Alfacs and Fangar embayments within the Ebro Delta...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#2
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073500/initial-skill-assessment-of-the-california-harmful-algae-risk-mapping-c-harm-system
#3
Clarissa R Anderson, Raphael M Kudela, Mati Kahru, Yi Chao, Leslie K Rosenfeld, Frederick L Bahr, David M Anderson, Tenaya A Norris
Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#4
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073448/modeling-the-transport-pathways-of-harmful-algal-blooms-in-the-iberian-coast
#5
L Pinto, M Mateus, A Silva
The prediction of the path of harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the coast can be achieved using numerical models of ocean circulation in order to reproduce the hydrodynamics of the study area. With this setting, our work aimed at the (1) study of key past events to evaluate the model ability to reproduce the transport pathways of blooms along the Iberian coast, and (2) to assess the relevance of such strictly physical approach. The simulations described here rely on the advection of lagrangian elements after a point release in a hypothetical location for bloom initiation, and the subsequent assessment of the influence of the surface currents transport on the extent of the bloom...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065552/occurrence-of-four-species-of-algae-in-the-marine-water-of-hong-kong
#6
Yemao Chai, Wen-Jing Deng, Xing Qin, Xiangrong Xu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have broken out frequently throughout the world in recent decades; they are caused by the rapid multiplication of algal cells in near-coastal waters polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus and greatly affect the quality of marine water and human health. Over the past several decades, climate change and increasing environmental degradation have provided favourable growth conditions for certain phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is essential to rapidly identify and enumerate harmful marine algae to control these species...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058244/occurrence-of-harmful-algal-species-and-shellfish-toxicity-in-sardinia-italy
#7
Anna Maria Bazzoni, Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Antonella Lugliè, Barbara Vivaldi, Valentina Cicotelli, Giovanna Sanna, Giuseppe Tedde, Salvatore Ledda, Enrico Alesso, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
Sardinia (Italy, north-western Mediterranean) is a commercially important producer of edible bivalve molluscs. Since the early 2000s, it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algal poison. Here, we present the studies on toxin concentrations and the associated potentially toxic phytoplankton distribution and abundances carried out by a regular monitoring programme in Sardinian shellfish areas, from January to May 2015. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in several bivalve molluscs samples, while paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were present just once, without exceeding the legal limits...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003060/two-decades-of-pseudo-nitzschia-spp-blooms-and-king-scallop-pecten-maximus-contamination-by-domoic-acid-along-the-french-atlantic-and-english-channel-coasts-seasonal-dynamics-spatial-heterogeneity-and-interannual-variability
#8
Bérengère Husson, Tania Hernández-Fariñas, Romain Le Gendre, Mathilde Schapira, Annie Chapelle
King scallop contamination (Pecten maximus) by domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, is highly problematic because of its lengthy retention in the bivalve tissue, leading to prolonged fishery closures. Data collected within the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxin monitoring network (REPHY) over the 1995-2012 period were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics and the interannual variability of P.-nitzschia spp. blooms as well as the contamination of king scallop fishing grounds, in six contrasted bays distributed along the French Atlantic coast and English Channel...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951467/cobalamin-independent-methionine-synthase-distribution-and-influence-on-vitamin-b12-growth-requirements-in-marine-diatoms
#9
Kelsey A Ellis, Natalie R Cohen, Carly Moreno, Adrian Marchetti
The requirement for cobalamin (vitamin B12) in microalgae is primarily a function of the type of methionine synthase present within their gene repertoires. Our study validates this concept through analysis of the distribution of B12-independent methionine synthase in ecologically relevant diatom genera, including the closely related bloom-forming genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Fragilariopsis. Growth and gene expression analysis of the vitamin B12-requiring version of the methionine synthase enzyme, METH, and the B12-independent version, METE, demonstrate that it is the presence of the METE gene which allows Fragilariopsis cylindrus to grow in the absence of B12...
October 25, 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917011/an-unprecedented-coastwide-toxic-algal-bloom-linked-to-anomalous-ocean-conditions
#10
Ryan M McCabe, Barbara M Hickey, Raphael M Kudela, Kathi A Lefebvre, Nicolaus G Adams, Brian D Bill, Frances M D Gulland, Richard E Thomson, William P Cochlan, Vera L Trainer
A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in spring 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak of the neurotoxin, domoic acid, along the North American west coast. Elevated toxins were measured in numerous stranded marine mammals and resulted in geographically extensive and prolonged closures of razor clam, rock crab, and Dungeness crab fisheries. We demonstrate that this outbreak was initiated by anomalously warm ocean conditions. Pseudo-nitzschia australis thrived north of its typical range in the warm, nutrient-poor water that spanned the northeast Pacific in early 2015...
October 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809344/morphological-and-genetic-diversity-of-beaufort-sea-diatoms-with-high-contributions-from-the-chaetoceros-neogracilis-species-complex
#11
Sergio Balzano, Isabella Percopo, Raffaele Siano, Priscillia Gourvil, Mélanie Chanoine, Dominique Marie, Daniel Vaulot, Diana Sarno
Seventy-five diatoms strains isolated from the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) in the summer of 2009 were characterized by light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) as well as 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains group into 20 genotypes and 17 morphotypes and are affiliated with the genera Arcocellulus, Attheya, Chaetoceros, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Nitzschia, Porosira, Pseudo-nitzschia, Shionodiscus, Thalassiosira, Synedropsis. Most of the species have a distribution confined to the northern/polar area...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732630/initiation-and-development-of-a-toxic-and-persistent-pseudo-nitzschia-bloom-off-the-oregon-coast-in-spring-summer-2015
#12
Xiuning Du, William Peterson, Jennifer Fisher, Matt Hunter, Jay Peterson
In spring/summer 2015, a toxic bloom by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) occurred along the west coast of the United States which led to closures of the harvest of razor clams and Dungeness crabs. Twice monthly observations of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton species composition allowed us to track oceanographic conditions preceding and during the development of the bloom. PN cells were first detected during late winter 2015. A PN bloom was initiated following the onset of coastal upwelling in mid-April; subsequent peaks in May and June were sustained by episodic upwelling events and reached magnitudes of 105 cells/L and 106 cells/L, 40% and 90% of the total diatom abundance, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672385/phytoplankton-associated-bacterial-community-composition-and-succession-during-toxic-diatom-bloom-and-non-bloom-events
#13
Marilou P Sison-Mangus, Sunny Jiang, Raphael M Kudela, Sanjin Mehic
Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530123/domoic-acid-poisoning-as-a-possible-cause-of-seasonal-cetacean-mass-stranding-events-in-tasmania-australia
#14
S M Bengtson Nash, M C Baddock, E Takahashi, A Dawson, R Cropp
The periodic trend to cetacean mass stranding events in the Australian island state of Tasmania remains unexplained. This article introduces the hypothesis that domoic acid poisoning may be a causative agent in these events. The hypothesis arises from the previously evidenced role of aeolian dust as a vector of iron input to the Southern Ocean; the role of iron enrichment in Pseudo-nitzschia bloom proliferation and domoic acid production; and importantly, the characteristic toxicosis of domoic acid poisoning in mammalian subjects leading to spatial navigation deficits...
January 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403749/high-diversity-of-pseudo-nitzschia-along-the-northern-coast-of-sarawak-malaysian-borneo-with-descriptions-of-p-%C3%A2-bipertita-sp-nov-and-p-%C3%A2-limii-sp-nov-bacillariophyceae
#15
Sing Tung Teng, Suh Nih Tan, Hong Chang Lim, Viet Ha Dao, Stephen S Bates, Chui Pin Leaw
Forty-eight isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia species were established from the Miri coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and underwent TEM observation and molecular characterization. Ten species were found: P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. fukuyoi, P. kodamae, P. lundholmiae, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, as well as two additional new morphotypes, herein designated as P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. This is the first report of P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi, and P...
December 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225994/effects-of-nitrogen-supply-on-pseudo-nitzschia-calliantha-and-pseudo-nitzschia-cf-seriata-field-and-laboratory-experiments
#16
Sondes Melliti Ben Garali, Inès Sahraoui, Pablo de la Iglesia, Mohamed Chalghaf, Jorge Diogène, Jamel Ksouri, Asma Sakka Hlaili
The effects of inorganic and organic nitrogen supply on the growth and domoic acid (DA) production of Pseudo-nitzschia cf. seriata and Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha from Bizerte Lagoon (SW Mediterranean Sea) were studied during field and laboratory experiments. Nitrogen enrichments (40 µM NO3 (-); 10 µM NH4 (+); 20 µM CH4N2O) and a control, with no added N, were carried out in separate carboys with seawater collected from Bizerte Lagoon. In the field experiments, all N-enrichments resulted in significant increases in chlorophyll a concentration, and maintained exponential growth until the end of the experiment...
August 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148216/pseudo-nitzschia-challenged-with-co-occurring-viral-communities-display-diverse-infection-phenotypes
#17
Michael C G Carlson, Nicolette D McCary, Terence S Leach, Gabrielle Rocap
Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at two coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037584/pseudo-nitzschia-arctica-sp-nov-a-new-cold-water-cryptic-pseudo-nitzschia-species-within-the-p-%C3%A2-pseudodelicatissima-complex
#18
Isabella Percopo, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Sergio Balzano, Priscillia Gourvil, Nina Lundholm, Raffaele Siano, Anna Tammilehto, Daniel Vaulot, Diana Sarno
A new nontoxic Pseudo-nitzschia species belonging to the P. pseudodelicatissima complex, P. arctica, was isolated from different areas of the Arctic. The erection of P. arctica is mainly supported by molecular data, since the species shares identical ultrastructure with another species in the complex, P. fryxelliana, and represents a new case of crypticity within the genus. Despite their morphological similarity, the two species are not closely related in phylogenies based on LSU, ITS and rbcL. Interestingly, P...
April 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987095/recovery-and-identification-of-pseudo-nitzschia-bacillariophyceae-frustules-from-natural-samples-acquired-using-the-environmental-sample-processor
#19
Holly A Bowers, Roman Marin, James M Birch, Christopher A Scholin, Gregory J Doucette
Many species within the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are difficult to distinguish without applying molecular analytical or microscopy-based methods. DNA, antibody and lectin probes have previously been used to provide rapid and specific detection of species and strains in complex field assemblages. Recently, however, well-documented cryptic genetic diversity within the group has confounded results of DNA probe tests in particular. Moreover, the number of species descriptions within the genus continues to increase, as do insights into toxin production by both new and previously described species...
February 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986792/a-non-toxigenic-but-morphologically-and-phylogenetically-distinct-new-species-of-pseudo-nitzschia-p-%C3%A2-sabit-sp-nov-bacillariophyceae
#20
Sing Tung Teng, Po Teen Lim, Hong Chang Lim, María Rivera-Vilarelle, Sonia Quijano-Scheggia, Yoshinobu Takata, Michael A Quilliam, Matthias Wolf, Stephen S Bates, Chui Pin Leaw
A new species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) is described from plankton samples collected from Port Dickson (Malacca Strait, Malaysia) and Manzanillo Bay (Colima, Mexico). The species possesses a distinctive falcate cell valve, from which they form sickle-like colonies in both environmental samples and cultured strains. Detailed observation of frustules under TEM revealed ultrastructure that closely resembles P. decipiens, yet the new species differs by the valve shape and greater ranges of striae and poroid densities...
August 2015: Journal of Phycology
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