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Tree nuts

M N Kim, K E Lee, J Y Hong, K W Kim, K-E Kim, M H Sohn, J W Park
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergies are common and can be life-threating for sensitised individuals. Peanut allergens share significant amino acid homology with those of other legumes and tree nuts, but their cross-reactivity still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the clinical significance of the cross-reactivity of peanut allergens with those of walnut and soybean. METHODS: Pooled sera from eight subjects with both peanut and walnut specific IgE were investigated in an inhibition test...
October 7, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
X Luo, Z Li, Z Sun, X Wan
Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Pavel Grasgruber, Martin Sebera, Eduard Hrazdira, Sylva Hrebickova, Jan Cacek
BACKGROUND: The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. DESIGN: The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993-2008) was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index) and the historical stability of results were also examined...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Vikram A Bagchi, Joel P Siegel, Mark R Demkovich, Luke N Zehr, May R Berenbaum
For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
M U Granata, F Bracco, L Gratani, R Catoni, F Corana, B Mannucci, F Sartori, E Martino
The kernel composition (moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, calories, fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of two hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars ('Tonda Gentile Trilobata' and 'Tonda Gentile Romana') and of two wild types growing in different climatic conditions (north-west and central Italy) was evaluated. The main kernel component was fatty acid (65.9 ± 1.8%, mean value), and the most abundant fatty acid in hazelnut was oleic acid (C18:1) (83.5 ± 1.0%, mean value). The saturated fatty acids are the minor compounds in kernel hazelnut, resulting in a unsatured fatty acid to saturated (U/S) fatty acid ratio of 9...
September 7, 2016: Natural Product Research
Aneta Wagner, Angelika Szwed, Krzysztof Buczyłko, Waldemar Wagner
BACKGROUND: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is caused by cross-reacting allergens found in pollen, raw fruits, vegetables, and some tree nuts. The major apple allergen, Mal d 1, is a cause of food allergic reactions in birch pollen sensitized patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore the allergenicity of the most popular and commonly consumed apple cultivars in Poland in patients with birch pollen allergy with or without OAS. METHODS: Data were obtained from 46 adults with clinical symptoms of birch allergy and allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Qingmin Han, Akira Kagawa, Daisuke Kabeya, Yoshiyuki Inagaki
The contribution of new photo-assimilates and stored carbon (C) to plant growth remains poorly understood, especially during reproduction. In order to elucidate how mast seeding affects C allocation to both reproductive and vegetative tissues, we measured biomass increase in each tissue, branch starch concentration and stable C isotope composition (δ(13)C) in bulk leaves, current-year shoots, 3-year branches and tree rings in fruiting and non-fruiting trees for 2 years, as well as in fruits. We isolated the effect of reproduction on C allocation to vegetative growth by comparing (13)C enrichment in woody tissues in fruiting and non-fruiting specimens...
September 1, 2016: Tree Physiology
Cíntia Mendes, Joana Costa, António A Vicente, Maria Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel Mafra
Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is the most relevant species of the Anacardium genus. It presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. Cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. However, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic immune reactions (e...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Brooke I Polk, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Maya Nanda, Charles Barnes, Chitra Dinakar
BACKGROUND: Coconut (Cocos nucifera), despite being a drupe, was added to the US Food and Drug Administration list of tree nuts in 2006, causing potential confusion regarding the prevalence of coconut allergy among tree nut allergic patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sensitization to tree nuts is associated with increased odds of coconut sensitization. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis of serum specific IgE levels to coconut, tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pistachio, and walnut), and controls (milk and peanut) was performed using deidentified data from January 2000 to August 2012...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
D R M Timmermans
In order to be able to make informed choices, it is important that patients have transparent information about the pros and cons of treatment. When using the number unnecessarily treated (NUT) as information for patients, we should take the following into account. First, patients should understand that non-effective treatment may still do harm. This might be in contradiction with their ideas about the effects of treatment. Second, as many patients have difficulties understanding numbers and probabilities, the usefulness of NUT may be limited...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Linda J Harris, Vanessa Lieberman, Rupinder P Mashiana, Edward Atwill, Mai Yang, Jeffrey C Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Thomas Jones
After harvest, pistachios are hulled with mechanical abrasion and then separated in a float tank containing water; the nuts that float (∼15%; floaters) and those that sink (∼85%; sinkers) are dried and stored separately. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella in pistachios, a total of 3,966 samples (1,032 floaters and 2,934 sinkers) were collected within 4 months of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 harvests from storage silos (12 samples from each silo, in most cases) and were stored at 4°C; 100-g subsamples were enriched for the presence of Salmonella...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
André Drenth, David I Guest
The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Mary Kathryn Downer, Alfredo Gea, Meir Stampfer, Ana Sánchez-Tainta, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Emilio Ros, Ramón Estruch, Montserrat Fitó, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, Francisco Jose Garcia De-la-Corte, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pinto, Josep Basora, José V Sorlí, Ernest Vinyoles, Itziar Zazpe, Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González
BACKGROUND: Dietary intervention success requires strong participant adherence, but very few studies have examined factors related to both short-term and long-term adherence. A better understanding of predictors of adherence is necessary to improve the design and execution of dietary intervention trials. This study was designed to identify participant characteristics at baseline and study features that predict short-term and long-term adherence with interventions promoting the Mediterranean-type diet (MedDiet) in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) randomized trial...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Hanaa Saeed, Christine Gagnon, Elroy Cober, Steve Gleddie
The data information provided in this article relate to our research article "Using patient serum to epitope map soybean glycinins reveals common epitopes shared with many legumes and tree nuts" (Saeed et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide western blot detection of glycinin subunits by soy-sensitive human sera, ELISA screens with overlapping synthetic peptides (epitope mapping), and various database/server epitope searches.
September 2016: Data in Brief
M Ponce, S C Diesner, Z Szépfalusi, T Eiwegger
IgE-mediated reactions to food allergens are the most common cause of anaphylaxis in childhood. Although allergies to cow's milk, egg, or soy proteins, in contrast to peanut and tree nut allergens, resolve within the first 6 years of life in up to 60% due to natural tolerance development, this process is not well understood. At present, there is no cure or treatment for food allergy that would result in an induction of tolerance to the symptom-eliciting food. Avoidance, providing an emergency plan and education, is the standard of treatment...
October 2016: Allergy
Nedeljko Radlović, Zoran Leković, Vladimir Radlović, Dusica Simić, Dragana Ristić, Biljana Vuletić
Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity...
January 2016: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Shelagh T DeLiberto, Scott J Werner
We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence...
October 2016: Pest Management Science
Sai Kranthi Vanga, Vijaya Raghavan
"Tree nut" is a broad term for classification of nuts that include cashews, almonds, hazelnuts etc. Reports of mild to adverse immune reactions following the consumption of these nuts has been on a rise in recent years. Currently, about 1.2 - 2% of the world's population suffer from sensitivity to tree nuts. The only solution is complete abstinence from the allergy causing tree nut which is not feasible in most cases due to issues like cross contamination or their presence in the form of hidden ingredients in processed foods...
May 12, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zhanglin Ni, Fubin Tang, Qing Yu, Yihua Liu
In this study, a total of 35 tree nut samples of walnut, pecan, pine seed, hickory nut and torreya were obtained from 5 farm product markets in Hangzhou, China, and investigated for essential (Cr, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr) and toxic (Al, As, Cd and Pb) elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Mean elemental concentrations of different tree nuts were in the following ranges: Cr 0.26-0.78 mg kg(-1), Mn 42.1-174 mg kg(-1), Fe 33.7-43.9 mg kg(-1), Mo 0.11-0.48 mg kg(-1), Cu 10.3-17...
June 16, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Melanie L Downs, Joseph L Baumert, Steve L Taylor, E N C Mills
UNLABELLED: Thermal processing of allergenic foods can induce changes in the foods' constituent allergens, but the effects of heat treatment are poorly defined. Like other commonly allergenic tree nuts, walnuts often undergo heat treatment (e.g. roasting or baking) prior to consumption. This study evaluated the changes in solubility and detectability of allergens from roasted walnuts using tandem mass spectrometry methods. Walnuts were roasted (132°C or 180°C for 5, 10, or 20min) and prepared for LC-MS/MS using sequential or simultaneous extraction and tryptic digestion protocols...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
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