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regenerate biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100394/replication-study-melanoma-genome-sequencing-reveals-frequent-prex2-mutations
#1
Stephen K Horrigan, Pascal Courville, Darryl Sampey, Faren Zhou, Steve Cai
In 2015, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Chroscinski et al., 2014) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations" (Berger et al., 2012). Here we report the results of those experiments. We regenerated cells stably expressing ectopic wild-type and mutant phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2 (PREX2) using the same immortalized human NRAS(G12D) melanocytes as the original study...
January 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099853/a-tissue-mapped-axolotl-de-novo-transcriptome-enables-identification-of-limb-regeneration-factors
#2
Donald M Bryant, Kimberly Johnson, Tia DiTommaso, Timothy Tickle, Matthew Brian Couger, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Tae J Lee, Nicholas D Leigh, Tzu-Hsing Kuo, Francis G Davis, Joel Bateman, Sevara Bryant, Anna R Guzikowski, Stephanie L Tsai, Steven Coyne, William W Ye, Robert M Freeman, Leonid Peshkin, Clifford J Tabin, Aviv Regev, Brian J Haas, Jessica L Whited
Mammals have extremely limited regenerative capabilities; however, axolotls are profoundly regenerative and can replace entire limbs. The mechanisms underlying limb regeneration remain poorly understood, partly because the enormous and incompletely sequenced genomes of axolotls have hindered the study of genes facilitating regeneration. We assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome using RNA-sequencing profiles for a broad spectrum of tissues that is estimated to have near-complete sequence information for 88% of axolotl genes...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098306/effective-viscosity-and-dynamics-of-spreading-epithelia-a-solvable-model
#3
C Blanch-Mercader, R Vincent, E Bazellières, X Serra-Picamal, X Trepat, J Casademunt
Collective cell migration in spreading epithelia in controlled environments has become a landmark in our current understanding of fundamental biophysical processes in development, regeneration, wound healing or cancer. Epithelial monolayers are treated as thin layers of a viscous fluid that exert active traction forces on the substrate. The model is exactly solvable and shows a broad range of applicabilities for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of force microscopy data of monolayers from a variety of experiments and cell lines...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096447/pbp1b-glycosyltransferase-and-transpeptidase-activities-play-different-essential-roles-during-the-de-novo-regeneration-of-rod-shaped-morphology-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Dev K Ranjit, Matthew A Jorgenson, Kevin D Young
: Peptidoglycan is a vital component of nearly all cell wall-bearing bacteria and is a valuable target for antibacterial therapy. However, despite decades of work, there remain important gaps in understanding how this macromolecule is synthesized and molded into a three-dimensional structure that imparts specific morphologies to individual cells. Here, we investigate the particularly enigmatic area of how peptidoglycan is synthesized and shaped during the first stages of creating cell shape de novo, that is, in the absence of a pre-existing template...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095649/the-effect-of-mechanical-stress-on-the-proliferation-adipogenic-differentiation-and-gene-expression-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
Nora E Paul, Bernd Denecke, Bong-Sung Kim, Alice Dreser, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua
To allow for a better implementation of external volume expansion to clinical applications for soft tissue regeneration, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying mechanisms. Since human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) play a crucial role in soft tissue enlargement, we investigated the impact of cyclic stretch on gene expression, proliferation rate, and adipogenic differentiation of these cells. After cyclic stretching, RNA was extracted and subjected to DNA microarray analysis and RT-qPCR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095625/potentiation-of-biological-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ischemic-conditions-by-melatonin-via-upregulation-of-cellular-prion-protein-expression
#6
Jun Hee Lee, Yong-Seok Han, Sang Hun Lee
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell-based therapy in ischemic diseases. However, ischemic injury induces pathophysiological conditions, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, which diminish therapeutic efficacy of MSC-based therapy by reducing survival and functionality of transplanted MSCs. To overcome this problem, we explored the effects of melatonin on the proliferation, resistance to oxidative stress, and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Treatment with melatonin enhanced MSC proliferation and self-renewal via upregulation of cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) expression...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095524/combination-of-collagen-barrier-membrane-with-enamel-matrix-derivative-liquid-improves-osteoblast-adhesion-and-differentiation
#7
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Daniel Buser, Yufeng Zhang, Dieter D Bosshardt, Anton Sculean
PURPOSE: Collagen barrier membranes were first introduced to regenerative periodontal and oral surgery to prevent fast ingrowing soft tissues (ie, epithelium and connective tissue) into the defect space. More recent attempts have aimed at combining collagen membranes with various biologics/growth factors to speed up the healing process and improve the quality of regenerated tissues. Recently, a new formulation of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system (Osteogain) has demonstrated improved physico-chemical properties for the adsorption of enamel matrix derivative to facilitate protein adsorption to biomaterials...
January 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094986/improving-internal-cell-colonization-of-porous-scaffolds-with-chemical-gradients-produced-by-plasma-assisted-approaches
#8
Eloisa Sardella, Rania A Salama, Gihan H Waly, A Nour Habib, Pietro Favia, Roberto Gristina
Cell colonization of the surrounding environment is a very significant process in both physiological and pathological events. In order to understand the tissue regeneration process and thereby provide guidance principles for designing new biomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study the cell colonization in the presence of physical, chemical and biological cues. Flat "gradient" materials are generally used with this purpose. Three dimensional (3D) gradient scaffolds mimicking more precisely the situation in vivo, are somewhat more complex to fabricate and characterize...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094206/hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-physiology-and-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Ryu Imamura, Kunio Matsumoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093364/fabrication-of-nanofibrous-electrospun-scaffolds-from-a-heterogeneous-library-of-co-and-self-assembling-peptides
#10
Mahboubeh Maleki, Antonino Natalello, Raffaele Pugliese, Fabrizio Gelain
: Self-assembling (SAPs) and co-assembling peptides (CAPs) are driving increasing enthusiasm as synthetic but biologically inspired biomaterials amenable of easy functionalization for regenerative medicine. On the other hand, electrospinning (ES) is a versatile technique useful for tailoring the nanostructures of various biomaterials into scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrices found in organs and tissues. The synergistic merging of these two approaches is a long-awaited advance in nanomedicine that has not been deeply documented so far...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091529/long-non-coding-rna-linc-ram-enhances-myogenic-differentiation-by-interacting-with-myod
#11
Xiaohua Yu, Yong Zhang, Tingting Li, Zhao Ma, Haixue Jia, Qian Chen, Yixia Zhao, Lili Zhai, Ran Zhong, Changyin Li, Xiaoting Zou, Jiao Meng, Antony K Chen, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Meihong Chen, Dahai Zhu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological processes. Here we report on functional identification and characterization of a novel long intergenic non-coding RNA with MyoD-regulated and skeletal muscle-restricted expression that promotes the activation of the myogenic program, and is therefore termed Linc-RAM (Linc-RNA Activator of Myogenesis). Linc-RAM is transcribed from an intergenic region of myogenic cells and its expression is upregulated during myogenesis. Notably, in vivo functional studies show that Linc-RAM knockout mice display impaired muscle regeneration due to the differentiation defect of satellite cells...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#12
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087294/bioactive-metabolites-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#13
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid that is recognized as a beneficial dietary constituent and as a source of the anti-inflammatory specialized proresolving mediators (SPM): resolvins, protectins and maresins. Apart from SPMs, other metabolites of DHA also exert potent biological effects. This article summarizes current knowledge on the metabolic pathways involved in generation of DHA metabolites. Over 70 biologically active metabolites have been described, but are often discussed separately within specific research areas...
January 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086788/comprehensive-circrna-expression-profile-and-selection-of-key-circrnas-during-priming-phase-of-rat-liver-regeneration
#14
Lifei Li, Jianlin Guo, Yanhui Chen, Cuifang Chang, Cunshuan Xu
BACKGROUND: Rat liver regeneration (LR) proceeds along a process of highly organized and ordered tissue growth in response to the loss or injury of liver tissue, during which many physiological processes may play important roles. The molecular mechanism of hepatocyte proliferation, energy metabolism and substance metabolism during rat LR had been elucidated. Further, the correlation of circular RNA (circRNA) abundance with proliferation has recently been clarified. However, the regulatory capacity of circRNA in rat LR remains a fascinating topic...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075444/the-role-of-lncrna-malat1-in-the-regulation-of-hepatocyte-proliferation-during-liver-regeneration
#15
Cuicui Li, Lei Chang, Zhiquan Chen, Zhongzhong Liu, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye
Exploring the biological functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has come to the foreground in recent years. Studies have indicated that the lncRNA metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) not only regulates tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma, but also controls cell cycle progression in hematopoietic cells. The present study was designed to investigate the biological role of lncRNA MALAT1 in liver regeneration. We carried out a series of assays during liver regeneration following 2/3 partial hepatectomy in mice...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070858/exosome-and-microvesicle-enriched-fractions-isolated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gradient-separation-showed-different-molecular-signatures-and-functions-on-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#16
Federica Collino, Margherita Pomatto, Stefania Bruno, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Marta Tapparo, Wen Sicheng, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Several studies have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may mediate MSC paracrine action on kidney regeneration. This activity has been, at least in part, ascribed to the transfer of proteins/transcription factors and different RNA species. Information on the RNA/protein content of different MSC EV subpopulations and the correlation with their biological activity is currently incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular composition and the functional properties on renal target cells of MSC EV sub-populations separated by gradient floatation...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070691/biological-characteristic-effects-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-on-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-biphasic-calcium-phosphate-fabricated-scaffolds-using-modified-melt-stretching-and-multilayer-deposition
#17
Natkrita Wongsupa, Thongchai Nuntanaranont, Suttatip Kamolmattayakul, Nuttawut Thuaksuban
Craniofacial bone defects such as alveolar cleft affect the esthetics and functions that need bone reconstruction. The advanced techniques of biomaterials combined with stem cells have been a challenging role for maxillofacial surgeons and scientists. PCL-coated biphasic calcium phosphate (PCL-BCP) scaffolds were created with the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition (mMSMD) technique and merged with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to fulfill the component of tissue engineering for bone substitution...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#18
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
: Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068481/micrornas-and-periodontal-homeostasis
#19
X Luan, X Zhou, J Trombetta-eSilva, M Francis, A K Gaharwar, P Atsawasuwan, T G H Diekwisch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065655/precision-optogenetic-tool-for-selective-single-and-multiple-cell-ablation-in-a-live-animal-model-system
#20
Kalpana Makhijani, Tsz-Leung To, Rubén Ruiz-González, Céline Lafaye, Antoine Royant, Xiaokun Shu
Cell ablation is a strategy to study cell lineage and function during development. Optogenetic methods are an important cell-ablation approach, and we have previously developed a mini singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG) tool that works in the living Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use directed evolution to generate miniSOG2, an improved tool for cell ablation via photogenerated reactive oxygen species. We apply miniSOG2 to a far more complex model animal system, Drosophila melanogaster, and demonstrate that it can be used to kill a single neuron in a Drosophila larva...
December 28, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
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