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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805067/the-lncrna-nespas-is-associated-with-osteoarthritis-progression-and-serves-as-a-potential-new-prognostic-biomarker
#1
Sujung Park, Myeungsoo Lee, Churl-Hong Chun, Eun-Jung Jin
INTRODUCTION: In this article, we explored the hypothesis that the long noncoding RNA, Nespas, promotes osteoarthritis (OA) by supporting abnormal lipid metabolism in human chondrocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes from osteoarthritis patients were used and expression level of Nespas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Introduction of Nespas and Nespas-associated genes/miRNAs were performed by using a lentiviral system...
August 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756616/parp-1-par-activity-in-cultured-human-lens-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-two-levels-of-uvb-light
#2
Caroline S Cencer, Shravan K Chintala, Tenira J Townsend, Daniel P Feldmann, Mirna A Awrow, Nahrain A Putris, Mason E Geno, Maria G Donovan, Frank J Giblin
This study investigated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation in cultured human lens epithelial cells exposed to two levels of UVB light (312 nm peak wavelength), 0.014 and 0.14 J/cm(2) ("low" and "high" dose, respectively). At the low dose, PARP-1 and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers acted to repair DNA strand breaks rapidly with no subsequent major effects on either cell morphology or viability. However, following the high UVB dose, there was a dramatic second phase of PARP-1 activation, 90 min later, which included a sudden reappearance of DNA strand breaks, bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation both within the mitochondria and nucleus, a translocation of PAR from the nucleus to the mitochondria, and an ultimate 70% loss of cell viability occurring after 24 hrs...
July 30, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740091/microrna-mediated-differential-expression-of-trmu-gtpbp3-and-mto1-in-cell-models-of-mitochondrial-dna-diseases
#3
Salvador Meseguer, Olga Boix, Carmen Navarro-González, Magda Villarroya, Rachid Boutoual, Sonia Emperador, Elena García-Arumí, Julio Montoya, M-Eugenia Armengod
Mitochondrial diseases due to mutations in the mitochondrial (mt) DNA are heterogeneous in clinical manifestations but usually include OXPHOS dysfunction. Mechanisms by which OXPHOS dysfunction contributes to the disease phenotype invoke, apart from cell energy deficit, maladaptive responses to mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling. Here we used five different cybrid models of mtDNA diseases to demonstrate that the expression of the nuclear-encoded mt-tRNA modification enzymes TRMU, GTPBP3 and MTO1 varies in response to specific pathological mtDNA mutations, thus altering the modification status of mt-tRNAs...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725638/isolation-of-f-novicida-containing-phagosome-from-infected-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#4
Valentina Marecic, Olga Shevchuk, Mateja Ozanic, Mirna Mihelcic, Michael Steinert, Antonija Jurak Begonja, Yousef Abu Kwaik, Marina Santic
Francisella is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes tularemia in humans and animals. A crucial step of Francisella infection is its invasion of macrophage cells. Biogenesis of the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP) is arrested for ~15 min at the endosomal stage, followed by gradual bacterial escape into the cytosol, where the microbe proliferates. The crucial step in pathogenesis of tularemia is short and transient presence of the bacterium within phagosome. Isolation of FCPs for further studies has been challenging due to the short period of time of bacterial residence in it and the characteristics of the FCP...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709769/exploring-the-mitochondrial-microrna-import-pathway-through-polynucleotide-phosphorylase-pnpase
#5
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Shruthi Sreekumar, Kristen M Hughes, Seth M Stine, Ivan Martinez, John M Hollander
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the diabetic condition, cardiovascular dysfunction can be partially attributed to molecular changes in the tissue, including alterations in microRNA (miRNA) interactions. MiRNAs have been reported in the mitochondrion and their presence may influence cellular bioenergetics, creating decrements in functional capacity. In this study, we examined the roles of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a protein associated with cytosolic and mitochondrial miRNAs, and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase), a protein found in the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion, to determine their role in mitochondrial miRNA import...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706939/chlamydia-and-mitochondria-an-unfragmented-relationship
#6
COMMENT
Suvagata R Chowdhury, Thomas Rudel
Presence of pathogens within a eukaryotic cell is apt to generate stress. Such stress eventually leads to host defense responses, which includes, but is not limited to, apoptosis induction and subsequent destruction of the host cell and the pathogen. Obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis are dependent on the survival of the host cell owing to their unique replication niche within a membrane-bound inclusion. Furthermore, being energy parasites, chlamydial development is strictly dependent on the host metabolism...
June 14, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701783/circulating-mir-323-3p-is-a-biomarker-for-cardiomyopathy-and-an-indicator-of-phenotypic-variability-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-patients
#7
M Seco-Cervera, D González-Rodríguez, J S Ibáñez-Cabellos, L Peiró-Chova, P González-Cabo, E García-López, J J Vílchez, I Sanz-Gallego, F V Pallardó, J L García-Giménez
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that contribute to gene expression modulation by regulating important cellular pathways. In this study, we used small RNA sequencing to identify a series of circulating miRNAs in blood samples taken from Friedreich's ataxia patients. We were thus able to develop a miRNA biomarker signature to differentiate Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients from healthy people. Most research on FDRA has focused on understanding the role of frataxin in the mitochondria, and a whole molecular view of pathological pathways underlying FRDA therefore remains to be elucidated...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676635/syncytiotrophoblast-derived-extracellular-vesicles-transfer-functional-placental-mirnas-to-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#8
Tina Cronqvist, Dionne Tannetta, Matthias Mörgelin, Mattias Belting, Ian Sargent, Mary Familari, Stefan R Hansson
During the pregnancy associated syndrome preeclampsia (PE), there is increased release of placental syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEVs) and free foetal haemoglobin (HbF) into the maternal circulation. In the present study we investigated the uptake of normal and PE STBEVs by primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and the effects of free HbF on this uptake. Our results show internalization of STBEVs into primary HCAEC, and transfer of placenta specific miRNAs from STBEVs into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of these recipient cells...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671672/deregulation-of-micrornas-mediated-control-of-carnitine-cycle-in-prostate-cancer-molecular-basis-and-pathophysiological-consequences
#9
A Valentino, A Calarco, A Di Salle, M Finicelli, S Crispi, R A Calogero, F Riccardo, A Sciarra, A Gentilucci, U Galderisi, S Margarucci, G Peluso
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain both viability and uncontrolled proliferation. Although an interplay between the genetic, epigenetic and metabolic rewiring in cancer is beginning to emerge, it remains unclear how this metabolic plasticity occurs. Here, we report that in prostate cancer cells (PCCs) microRNAs (miRNAs) greatly contribute to deregulation of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation via carnitine system modulation. We provide evidence that the downregulation of hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-129-5p and hsa-miR-378 induced an increase in both expression and activity of CPT1A, CACT and CrAT in malignant prostate cells...
July 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656219/induction-of-apoptosis-by-galectin-9-in-liver-metastatic-cancer-cells-in-vitro-study
#10
Tomoko Tadokoro, Shintaro Fujihara, Taiga Chiyo, Kyoko Oura, Eri Samukawa, Yoshimi Yamana, Koji Fujita, Shima Mimura, Teppei Sakamoto, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Takashi Himoto, Hisakazu Iwama, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
Liver metastasis from gastrointestinal cancer defines a patient's prognosis. Despite medical developments, pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis confers a very poor prognosis. Galectin-9 (Gal‑9) is a tandem-repeat-type galectin that has recently been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the apoptotic pathway of Gal‑9 in solid tumors is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Gal‑9 on human liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654264/phytol-promotes-the-formation-of-slow-twitch-muscle-fibers-through-pgc-1%C3%AE-mirna-but-not-mitochondria-oxidation
#11
Kelin Yang, Lina Wang, Gan Zhou, Xiajing Lin, Jianlong Peng, Leshan Wang, Lv Luo, Jianbin Wang, Gang Shu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Xiaotong Zhu, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang
Phytol is a side chain of chlorophyll belonging to the side-chain double terpenoid. When animals consume food rich in chlorophyll, phytol can be broken down to phytanic acid after digestion. It was reported that feeding animals with different varieties and levels of forage could significant improve pH and marbling score of steer and lamb carcasses, but the internal mechanism for this is still not reported. The marbling score and pH of muscle was mainly determined by skeletal muscle fiber type, which is due to expression of different myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646508/hepatic-stimulator-substance-resists-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-regulating-drp1-translocation-and-activation
#12
Chao Zhang, Jing Huang, Wei An
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), induced by abnormal mitochondrial fission related apoptosis, is a major concern in liver transplantation settings. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) is an anti-apoptotic effector and could protect liver from IRI. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we report that in vitro and in vivo HSS could regulate mitochondrial fission and hepatocyte apoptosis during liver IRI by orchestrating the translocation and activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#13
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551801/mitomirs-keep-the-heart-beating
#14
Samarjit Das, Hannah R Vasanthi, Ramesh Parjapath
In this chapter, we focus on the microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) that have been found in the mitochondrial compartment, and target either mitochondrial or nuclear encoded genes present in mitochondria, leading to an alteration of mitochondrial function. We term this subset of miRNAs as "MitomiRs".
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539410/leishmania-donovani-restricts-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-enhance-mirnp-stability-and-target-rna-repression-in-host-macrophages
#15
Yogaditya Chakrabarty, Suvendra N Bhattacharyya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the tiny regulatory RNAs, form complexes with Argonaute (Ago) proteins and inhibit gene expression in metazoan cells. While studying parasite-invaded macrophages, we identify a unique mode of gene regulation in which the parasite Leishmania donovani (Ld) causes mitochondrial depolarization, reduces mitochondrial dynamics, and restricts turnover of cellular microRNA ribonucleoprotein (miRNP) complexes in infected host cells. This leads to increased stability of miRNPs along with elevated levels of Ago2-bound cytokine mRNA in Ld-infected macrophages...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487205/mitochondrial-determinants-of-cancer-health-disparities
#16
REVIEW
Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are involved in the generation of energy, cell growth and differentiation, cellular signaling, cell cycle control, and cell death. To date, the mitochondrial basis of cancer disparities is unknown. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding and a framework of mitochondrial determinants that may contribute to cancer disparities in racially different populations. Mitochondria, which are multi-functional, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers in relation to metabolic alterations in transformed cells...
May 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467860/mitochondrial-mirnas-in-diabetes-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#17
Rohini Baradan, John M Hollander, Samarjit Das
Over the last two decades mi(cro)RNAs have emerged as one of the key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Most of the studies have highlighted that in the cytoplasm, miRNAs directly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of a mRNA. Conventional RISC (RNA Inducing Silencing Complex) formation results in the post-transcriptional inhibition. This process is known to contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Recent advancements with small RNA detection technologies have enabled us to identify miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment of the cells...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444389/smithrnas-could-mitochondria-bend-nuclear-regulation
#18
Andrea Pozzi, Federico Plazzi, Liliana Milani, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti
Typically, animal mitochondria have very compact genomes, with few short intergenic regions, and no introns. Hence, it may seem that there is little space for unknown functions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mtDNA can also operate through RNA interference, as small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) produced by mtDNA have already been proposed for humans. We sequenced sncRNA libraries from isolated mitochondria of Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca Bivalvia) gonads, a species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI), and identified several putative sncRNAs of mitochondrial origin...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419534/endocrine-imbalance-associated-with-proteome-changes-in-diabetes
#19
Ahmed Khairallah, Abo-Alela Farag, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
The dynamics of cellular metabolism involves rapid interactions between proteins and Nucleic acids, proteins and proteins, and signaling. These involve the interactions with respect to the sulfur bond, noncovalent electrostatic interactions, protein structure stabilization and protein-ligand binding, weak electrostatic interactions in proteins, oxygen radicals that initiate a change in conformation and a chain of events. We review a development in molecular medicine that is a very promising work in progress...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383996/nfe2l2-nrf2-activity-is-linked-to-mitochondria-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-cancers-through-mir-181c-mitochondria-encoded-cytochrome-c-oxidase-regulation
#20
Kyeong-Ah Jung, Sujin Lee, Mi-Kyoung Kwak
AIMS: The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2; NFE2L2/NRF2) pathway contributes to the environmental resistance of cancers by enhancing the antioxidant capacity. Here, we explored the potential connection between NFE2L2/NRF2 and mitochondrial function in cancers. RESULTS: Global miRNA expression analysis of HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells identified that NFE2L2/NRF2 silencing upregulated miR-181c through nuclear factor-κB signaling, and this increase was associated with the reduction in mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1 (MT-CO1), a catalytic core subunit of the complex IV of the electron transport chain (ETC)...
April 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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