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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487205/mitochondrial-determinants-of-cancer-health-disparities
#1
REVIEW
Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are involved in the generation of energy, cell growth and differentiation, cellular signaling, cell cycle control, and cell death. To date, the mitochondrial basis of cancer disparities is unknown. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding and a framework of mitochondrial determinants that may contribute to cancer disparities in racially different populations. Mitochondria, which are multi-functional, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers in relation to metabolic alterations in transformed cells...
May 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467860/mitochondrial-mirnas-in-diabetes-just-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#2
Rohini Baradan, John M Hollander, Samarjit Das
Over the last two decades mi(cro)RNAs have emerged as one of the key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Most of the studies have highlighted that in the cytoplasm, miRNAs directly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of a mRNA. Conventional RISC (RNA Inducing Silencing Complex) formation results in the post-transcriptional inhibition. This process is known to contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Recent advancements with small RNA detection technologies have enabled us to identify miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment of the cells...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444389/smithrnas-could-mitochondria-bend-nuclear-regulation
#3
Andrea Pozzi, Federico Plazzi, Liliana Milani, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti
Typically, animal mitochondria have very compact genomes, with few short intergenic regions, and no introns. Hence, it may seem that there is little space for unknown functions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mtDNA can also operate through RNA interference, as small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) produced by mtDNA have already been proposed for humans. We sequenced sncRNA libraries from isolated mitochondria of Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca Bivalvia) gonads, a species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI), and identified several putative sncRNAs of mitochondrial origin...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419534/endocrine-imbalance-associated-with-proteome-changes-in-diabetes
#4
Amr A Sayed, Ahmed M Alhawary, Aboalela Farag, Dina R Johar, Larry H Bernstein
The dynamics of cellular metabolism involves rapid interactions between proteins and nucleotides, proteins and proteins, proteins and mRNA, the action of miRNA, and signaling. These also involve the interactions with respect to the sulfur bond, oxygen radicals that initiate a change in conformation and a chain of events. We review a development in molecular medicine that is a very promising work in progress. We also review the current and future research methods involving mitochondria. Long-term effects of diabetes include glycation of proteins, e...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383996/nfe2l2-nrf2-activity-is-linked-to-mitochondria-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-cancers-through-mir-181c-mitochondria-encoded-cytochrome-c-oxidase-regulation
#5
Kyeong-Ah Jung, Sujin Lee, Mi-Kyoung Kwak
AIMS: The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2; NFE2L2/NRF2) pathway contributes to the environmental resistance of cancers by enhancing the antioxidant capacity. Here, we explored the potential connection between NFE2L2/NRF2 and mitochondrial function in cancers. RESULTS: Global miRNA expression analysis of HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells identified that NFE2L2/NRF2 silencing upregulated miR-181c through nuclear factor-κB signaling, and this increase was associated with the reduction in mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1 (MT-CO1), a catalytic core subunit of the complex IV of the electron transport chain (ETC)...
April 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358922/the-microrna-repertoire-of-tibetan-naked-carp-gymnocypris-przewalskii-a-case-study-in-schizothoracinae-fish-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#6
Chao Tong, Fei Tian, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
Tibetan naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii is an ideal model system to study highland adaptation of fish, because it evolved specific genetic and phenotypic characteristics to adapt to chronic cold and alkaline environments in Lake Qinghai. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally in a wide range of biological processes. In this study, we focus on the role of miRNAs in adaptation of G. przewalskii to extreme conditions in Lake Qinghai. We generate the first miRNAome of G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242633/divergent-effects-of-mir-181-family-members-on-myocardial-function-through-protective-cytosolic-and-detrimental-mitochondrial-microrna-targets
#7
Samarjit Das, Mark Kohr, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Dong I Lee, Djahida Bedja, Oliver A Kent, Anthony K L Leung, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Richard A Flavell, Charles Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of noncoding RNA that can repress the expression of target genes through posttranscriptional regulation. In addition to numerous physiologic roles for miRNAs, they play an important role in pathophysiologic processes affecting cardiovascular health. Previously, we reported that nuclear encoded microRNA (miR-181c) is present in heart mitochondria, and importantly, its overexpression affects mitochondrial function by regulating mitochondrial gene expression...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100310/growth-inhibition-of-fungus-phycomyces-blakesleeanus-by-anion-channel-inhibitors-anthracene-9-carboxylic-and-niflumic-acid-attained-through-decrease-in-cellular-respiration-and-energy-metabolites
#8
Marina Stanić, Strahinja Križak, Mirna Jovanović, Tanja Pajić, Ana Ćirić, Milan Žižić, Joanna Zakrzewska, Tijana Cvetić Antić, Nataša Todorović, Miroslav Živić
Increasing resistance of fungal strains to known fungicides has prompted identification of new candidates for fungicides among substances previously used for other purposes. We have tested the effects of known anion channel inhibitors anthracene-9-carboxylic (A9C) and niflumic acid (NFA) on growth, energy metabolism and anionic current of mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Both inhibitors significantly decreased growth and respiration of mycelium, but complete inhibition was only achieved by 100 or 500 µM NFA, for growth and respiration, respectively...
January 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008641/effects-of-mirnas-on-myocardial-apoptosis-by-modulating-mitochondria-related-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Yanhan Dong, Lei Zhang, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Myocardial apoptosis play a vital role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (mitochondrial apoptosis pathway) and abnormal mitochondrial fission and fusion have a detrimental effect on cells under a variety of intracellular stresses including hypoxia, oxidative stress, drug toxicity or DNA damage and contributes to the development of heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischaemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs, which target 3'-untranslated region of mRNA to switch off gene expression...
April 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004114/mir-20a-directed-regulation-of-bid-is-associated-with-the-trail-sensitivity-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Guanli Huang, Xiangjian Chen, Yefeng Cai, Xiaobo Wang, Chungen Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play important roles in cancer processes. Although miR-20a has been reported to be altered in a range of cancers, the role of miR-20a in colorectal cancer is not fully characterized, and the relationship between miR-20a dysregulation and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitivity is not defined. In the present study, we demonstrated significant upregulation of miR-20a in the serum of colorectal cancer patients, tumor tissues and cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR analysis...
January 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974319/microrna-30e-targets-bnip3l-to-protect-against-aldosterone-induced-podocyte-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Yan Guo, Xu Deng, Shuang Chen, Lingyun Yang, Jiajia Ni, Rong Wang, Jiajuan Lin, Mi Bai, Zhanjun Jia, Songming Huang, Aihua Zhang
MicroRNAs are essential for the maintenance of podocyte homeostasis. Emerging evidence has demonstrated a protective role of microRNA-30a (miR-30a), a member of the miR-30 family, in podocyte injury. However, the roles of other miR-30 family members in podocyte injury are unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of miR-30e to the pathogenesis of podocyte injury induced by aldosterone (Aldo), as well as the underlying mechanism. After Aldo treatment, miR-30e was reduced in a dose-and time-dependent manner...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941687/low-dose-methylmercury-induced-genes-regulate-mitochondrial-biogenesis-via-mir-25-in-immortalized-human-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells
#12
Xinjin Wang, Mengling Yan, Lina Zhao, Qing Wu, Chunhua Wu, Xiuli Chang, Zhijun Zhou
Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg) exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs) upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive cells...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929108/human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomal-mirnas-are-critical-factors-for-inducing-anti-proliferation-signalling-to-a2780-and-skov-3-ovarian-cancer-cells
#13
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Hideyo Yasuda, Jin-Hoi Kim
An enigmatic question exists concerning the pro- or anti-cancer status of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Despite growing interest, this question remains unanswered, and the debate became intensified with new evidences backing each side. Here, we showed that human adipose MSC (hAMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) exhibited inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by blocking the cell cycle, and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Explicitly, we demonstrated that exosomes, an important biological component of hAMSC-CM, could restrain proliferation, wound-repair and colony formation ability of A2780 and SKOV-3 cancer cells...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913682/translational-regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885275/tdb-protects-vascular-endothelial-cells-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-induced-injury-by-targeting-mir-34a-to-increase-bcl-2-expression
#15
Li-Xi Liao, Ming-Bo Zhao, Xin Dong, Yong Jiang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Prolonged ischemia can result in apoptotic death of vascular endothelial cells and lead to ischemic vascular diseases including vascular dementia, arteriosclerosis and brain oedema. Finding protective strategies to prevent this is therefore an urgent mission. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can lead to imbalance of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to further damage of vascular cells under ischemic conditions. However, whether miRNAs can be used as a drug target for treating vascular diseases is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799943/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-extracellular-vesicles-ameliorate-acute-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission-through-mir-30
#16
Di Gu, Xiangyu Zou, Guanqun Ju, Guangyuan Zhang, Erdun Bao, Yingjian Zhu
Background. The immoderation of mitochondrial fission is one of the main contributors in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived extracellular vesicles have been regarded as a potential therapy method. Here, we hypothesized that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human Wharton Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) ameliorate acute renal IRI by inhibiting mitochondrial fission through miR-30b/c/d. Methods. EVs isolated from the condition medium of MCS were injected intravenously in rats immediately after monolateral nephrectomy and renal pedicle occlusion for 45 minutes...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748833/the-effect-of-dichloroacetate-in-canine-prostate-adenocarcinomas-and-transitional-cell-carcinomas-in-vitro
#17
Tatjana Harting, Mandy Stubbendorff, Saskia Willenbrock, Siegfried Wagner, Patrik Schadzek, Anaclet Ngezahayo, Hugo Murua Escobar, Ingo Nolte
The Warburg effect describes the ability of cancer cells to produce energy via aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate. This deviation in mitochondrial metabolism inhibits apoptosis, allowing increased proliferation under conditions of reduced oxygen levels. Dichloroacetate (DCA) was successfully used in several human cancer cell lines to reactivate oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was the characterization and response of canine cancer cell lines after DCA exposure...
December 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742689/role-of-microrna-in-metabolic-shift-during-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an end point resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF, and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. microRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence posttranscriptional gene regulation. miRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome, and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736004/role-of-micrornas-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-insulin-signaling-in-skeletal-muscle
#19
REVIEW
Tanes I Lima, Hygor N Araujo, Eveline S Menezes, Carlos H Sponton, Michel B Araújo, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Madla A Passos, Thais Amaral E Sousa, Sandro M Hirabara, Amanda R Martins, Helena C L B Sampaio, Alice Rodrigues, Rui Curi, Everardo M Carneiro, Antônio C Boschero, Leonardo R Silveira
Mitochondria play a critical role in several cellular processes and cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrion dysfunction has been correlated with numerous metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism. The microRNAs act as central regulators of metabolic gene networks by leading to the degradation of their target messenger RNA or repression of protein translation. In addition, vesicular and non-vesicular circulating miRNAs exhibit a potential role as mediators of the cross-talk between the skeletal muscle and other tissues/organs...
May 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681638/mir-24-bim-smac-diablo-axis-controls-the-sensitivity-to-doxorubicin-treatment-in-osteosarcoma
#20
Yangbai Sun, Nengbin He, Yang Dong, Chaoyin Jiang
Emerging evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators in the progression and chemoresistance of multiple tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we found that the level of miR-24 was increased in OS patients' serum, tumor tissues and OS cell lines. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of miR-24 by its specific inhibitors significantly increased the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on OS cell lines (MG-63 and HOS). Moreover, miR-24 inhibitors resensitized the doxorubicin-resistant MG-63 cells (MG-63/R) and HOS cells (HOS/R) to DOX...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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