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Mirna mitochondria

Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Li-Xi Liao, Ming-Bo Zhao, Xin Dong, Yong Jiang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Prolonged ischemia can result in apoptotic death of vascular endothelial cells and lead to ischemic vascular diseases including vascular dementia, arteriosclerosis and brain oedema. Finding protective strategies to prevent this is therefore an urgent mission. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can lead to imbalance of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to further damage of vascular cells under ischemic conditions. However, whether miRNAs can be used as a drug target for treating vascular diseases is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Di Gu, Xiangyu Zou, Guanqun Ju, Guangyuan Zhang, Erdun Bao, Yingjian Zhu
Background. The immoderation of mitochondrial fission is one of the main contributors in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived extracellular vesicles have been regarded as a potential therapy method. Here, we hypothesized that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human Wharton Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) ameliorate acute renal IRI by inhibiting mitochondrial fission through miR-30b/c/d. Methods. EVs isolated from the condition medium of MCS were injected intravenously in rats immediately after monolateral nephrectomy and renal pedicle occlusion for 45 minutes...
2016: Stem Cells International
Tatjana Harting, Mandy Stubbendorff, Saskia Willenbrock, Siegfried Wagner, Patrik Schadzek, Anaclet Ngezahayo, Hugo Murua Escobar, Ingo Nolte
The Warburg effect describes the ability of cancer cells to produce energy via aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate. This deviation in mitochondrial metabolism inhibits apoptosis, allowing increased proliferation under conditions of reduced oxygen levels. Dichloroacetate (DCA) was successfully used in several human cancer cell lines to reactivate oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was the characterization and response of canine cancer cell lines after DCA exposure...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Tanes I Lima, Hygor N Araujo, Eveline S Menezes, Carlos H Sponton, Michel B Araújo, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Madla A Passos, Thais Amaral E Sousa, Sandro M Hirabara, Amanda R Martins, Helena C L B Sampaio, Alice Rodrigues, Rui Curi, Everardo M Carneiro, Antônio C Boschero, Leonardo R Silveira
Mitochondria play a critical role in several cellular processes and cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrion dysfunction has been correlated with numerous metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism. The microRNAs act as central regulators of metabolic gene networks by leading to the degradation of their target messenger RNA or repression of protein translation. In addition, vesicular and non-vesicular circulating miRNAs exhibit a potential role as mediators of the cross-talk between the skeletal muscle and other tissues/organs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yangbai Sun, Nengbin He, Yang Dong, Chaoyin Jiang
Emerging evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators in the progression and chemoresistance of multiple tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we found that the level of miR-24 was increased in OS patients' serum, tumor tissues and OS cell lines. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of miR-24 by its specific inhibitors significantly increased the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on OS cell lines (MG-63 and HOS). Moreover, miR-24 inhibitors resensitized the doxorubicin-resistant MG-63 cells (MG-63/R) and HOS cells (HOS/R) to DOX...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xu Sun, Yongqing Li, Meizhu Zheng, Wenshu Zuo, Wenzhu Zheng
Drug resistance remains a significant challenge in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recent studies have demonstrated that this drug resistance is associated with a group of cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to determine the sensitivity of tumor cells to cancer treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play significant roles in normal and cancer cells. MiR-223 reportedly acts as a tumor suppressor in a range of cancers. However, the role of miR-223 in TNBC, especially in triple-negative breast cancer stem cells (TNBCSCs), remains unknown...
2016: PloS One
Julian Geiger, Louise T Dalgaard
Mitochondria are important organelles in cellular metabolism. Several crucial metabolic pathways such as the energy producing electron transport chain or the tricarboxylic acid cycle are hosted inside the mitochondria. The proper function of mitochondria depends on the import of proteins, which are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules with the ability to prevent messenger RNA (mRNA)-translation or to induce the degradation of mRNA-transcripts...
August 25, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Wen Lei, Shibing Wang, Chunmei Yang, Xianbo Huang, Zhenzhen Chen, Wei He, Jianping Shen, Xinyuan Liu, Wenbin Qian
Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Huaping Li, Xiaorong Zhang, Feng Wang, Ling Zhou, Zhongwei Yin, Jiahui Fan, Xiang Nie, Peihua Wang, Xiang-Dong Fu, Chen Chen, Dao Wen Wang
BACKGROUND: Excessive reactive oxygen species generated in mitochondria has been implicated as a causal event in hypertensive cardiomyopathy. Multiple recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to translocate to mitochondria to modulate mitochondrial activities, but the medical significance of such a new miRNA function has remained unclear. Here, we characterized spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) in comparison with Wistar rats, finding that micro RNA-21 (miR-21) was dramatically induced in SHRs relative to Wistar rats...
September 6, 2016: Circulation
Yi-Chia Lin, Ji-Fan Lin, Te-Fu Tsai, Kuang-Yu Chou, Hung-En Chen, Thomas I-Sheng Hwang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men, which emphasizes the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Targeting microRNA (miRNA) has been considered as a therapeutic strategy against cancers. Human miR-204-5p potentially targeting BCL2 has been reported to be downregulated in various cancers. We hypothesized that miR-204-5p overexpression induces cancer cell apoptosis by repressing BCL2 expression. METHODS: A vector harboring mature miR-204-5p was constructed and delivered into human PCa cells...
August 9, 2016: Asian Journal of Surgery
Dongkyun Kim, Jinsoo Song, Yeonho Kang, Sujung Park, Yong-Il Kim, Seongae Kwak, Dongkwon Lim, Raekil Park, Churl-Hong Chun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Eun-Jung Jin
: Cumulative evidence suggests the importance of organelle homeostasis in regulating metabolic functions in response to various cellular stresses. Particularly, the dynamism and health of the mitochondria-peroxisome network through fission and fusion are essential for cellular function; dysfunctional dynamism underlies the pathogenesis of several degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated the role of Fis1 in cartilage homeostasis and its relevance to osteoarthritis (OA)...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Guiqi Wang, Jingfeng Gu, Yingchao Gao
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) and metastasis associated in colon cancer (MACC1) protein promoted human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell metastasis and closely related to the patient's prognosis in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether CYR61 and MACC1 can serve as dual potential targets for gene therapy of human CRC. In this study, microRNA (miRNA) targeting for both CYR61 and MACC1 was used to investigate the mechanism and therapeutic effects for CRC cells and mice with CRC...
August 4, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Shruti Purohit, Devashree Jahagirdar, Azad Kumar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Breast cancer among women is one of the most common carcinoma worldwide. In comparison to developed country, the breast cancer cases reported in India are boosted rapidly that in near future, statistically will surpass USA. At the same time, alarming statistics indicate that ratio of mortality cases over the total incidences is significantly high in comparison to developed world (Global Heath Estimates, WHO 2015). In recent times, several oncogenic signaling pathways have shown convergent effects on various types of cancer cell metabolism including breast cancer leading to tumor development...
July 27, 2016: MicroRNA
Yingqin Li, Xinran Tang, Qingmei He, Xiaojing Yang, Xianyue Ren, Xin Wen, Jian Zhang, Yaqin Wang, Na Liu, Jun Ma
The therapeutic strategy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still challenging. It is an urgent need to uncover novel treatment targets for NPC. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying NPC tumorigenesis and progression is essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we showed that TP53-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis (TRIAP1) was aberrantly overexpressed and associated with poor survival in NPC patients. TRIAP1 overexpression promoted NPC cell proliferation and suppressed cell death in vitro and in vivo, whereas TRIAP1 knockdown inhibited cell tumorigenesis and enhanced apoptosis through the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation, membrane potential alteration and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
Julia A Makarova, Maxim U Shkurnikov, Daniel Wicklein, Tobias Lange, Timur R Samatov, Andrey A Turchinovich, Alexander G Tonevitsky
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small non-coding RNAs which mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by sequence-specific inhibition of target mRNAs translation and/or lowering their half-lives in the cytoplasm. Together with their binding partners, Argonaute (AGO) proteins, miRNAs form cores of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Despite a substantial progress in understanding RISC structure, until recently little was known about its localization in the cell. This review is aimed to provide an overview of the emerging picture of miRNA and RISC localization and function both in the intracellular space and outside of the cell...
June 25, 2016: Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
Felipe C G Reis, Jéssica L O Branquinho, Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Ismael D Silva, Andrea Frontini, Thomas Thomou, Loris Sartini, Saverio Cinti, C Ronald Kahn, William T Festuccia, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Marcelo A Mori
Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO...
June 2016: Aging
Jose Norberto S Vargas, Amar N Kar, Jeffrey A Kowalak, Jenna R Gale, Armaz Aschrafi, Cai-Yun Chen, Anthony E Gioio, Barry B Kaplan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) selectively localize to subcompartments of the neuron, such as dendrites, axons, and presynaptic terminals, where they regulate the local protein synthesis of their putative target genes. In addition to mature miRNAs, precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) have also been shown to localize to somatodendritic and axonal compartments. miRNA-338 (miR-338) regulates the local expression of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs within axons of sympathetic neurons. Previous work has shown that precursor miR-338 (pre-miR-338) introduced into the axon can locally be processed into mature miR-338, where it can regulate local ATP synthesis...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Jian-Kui Du, Bin-Hai Cong, Qing Yu, He Wang, Long Wang, Chang-Nan Wang, Xiao-Lu Tang, Jian-Qiang Lu, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Xin Ni
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is critically involved in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) has been predicted to potentially target sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), both of which are known to provide protection against mitochondrial oxidative injury. The present study aims to investigate whether miR-22 is involved in the regulation of cardiac I/R injury by regulation of mitochondrial function. We found that miR-22 level was significantly increased in rat hearts subjected to I/R injury, as compared with the sham group...
July 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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