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Rong Tan, Li Lan
Chronic oxidative stress is the major endogenous metabolic stress and contributes directly to telomere shortening and senescence. Understanding the dysfunction of telomeres under oxidative stress will greatly facilitate healthy aging and advance the treatment of aging-related diseases. Here, we describe the KR-TEL (KillerRed induced DNA damage at telomeres) system that induces site-specific oxidative damage at telomeres. We have developed the KR-TEL system by fusing killerred with the shelterin component TRF1 (KR-TRF1) or other shelterin proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
L B Bayu Aji, J B Wallace, S O Kucheyev
Effects of the collision cascade density on radiation damage in SiC remain poorly understood. Here, we study damage buildup and defect interaction dynamics in 3C-SiC bombarded at 100 °C with either continuous or pulsed beams of 500 keV Ne, Ar, Kr, or Xe ions. We find that bombardment with heavier ions, which create denser collision cascades, results in a decrease in the dynamic annealing efficiency and an increase in both the amorphization cross-section constant and the time constant of dynamic annealing...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joo Tae Hwang, Hyun-Jae Jang, Jin Han Kim, Chan Sun Park, Yesol Kim, Chi-Hwan Lim, Seung Woong Lee, Mun-Chual Rho
AIMS: The purpose of this study is to investigate IL-6/STAT3 inhibitory activity using lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Gajuknamu kimchi. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were isolated from Gajuknamu kimchi and identified through 16S rRNA sequencing. Among them, the culture broth of Lactococcus lactis KR-050L inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 luciferase activity. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extract of culture broth though column chromatography and preparative HPLC, and they were identified as 2,5-diketopipperazine structures by spectroscopic analyses (MS, (1) H- and (13) C-NMR)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
J S Eardley, N Warner, L Z Deng, D Carty, E Wrede
Magnetic trapping of SH radicals, produced via the photostop technique, has been demonstrated. H2S in a skimmed, supersonic molecular beam was photodissociated at 212.8 nm to produce SH inside a 330 mK deep static magnetic trap. The molecular-beam speed was controlled by the mixing ratio of H2S in Kr to match the recoil velocity of the SH photofragments such that some SH radicals were produced with near-zero laboratory-frame velocity. The density of SH radicals in the (2)Π3/2, v = 0, J = 3/2 state was followed by (2 + 1) REMPI over seven orders of magnitude of signal intensity...
March 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Qi Wang, Panos Markopoulos, Bin Yu, Wei Chen, Annick Timmermans
BACKGROUND: The development of interactive rehabilitation technologies which rely on wearable-sensing for upper body rehabilitation is attracting increasing research interest. This paper reviews related research with the aim: 1) To inventory and classify interactive wearable systems for movement and posture monitoring during upper body rehabilitation, regarding the sensing technology, system measurements and feedback conditions; 2) To gauge the wearability of the wearable systems; 3) To inventory the availability of clinical evidence supporting the effectiveness of related technologies...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Milan Kr Barman, Ashim Baishya, Sharanappa Nembenna
Magnesium amide complexes such as Mg{N(SiMe3)2}2 (1) (xyl)LMgN(SiMe3)2·THF (2) [(xyl)L = ArNC(N(i)Pr2)NAr; (Ar = 2,6-Me2-C6H3)] and (dipp)LMgN(SiMe3)2·THF (3) [(dipp)L = ArNC(N(i)Pr2)NAr; (Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3)] are reported as highly efficient pre-catalysts for the hydroboration of a wide range of esters using pinacolborane (HBpin) under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, we have shown compound 1 catalyzed chemoselective reduction of esters in the presence of other reducible functional groups such as alkene, alkyne and nitro...
March 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Lalita, Anirudh P Singh, Rajeev Kr Sharma
To develop pH responsive hydrogels, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) has been grafted on to chitosan by free radical initiation method using azoisobutrylnitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The optimum grafting conditions were worked out for grafting of NIPAM onto 1g of chitosan by varying one reaction parameter at a time and keeping all other parameters constant. Binary monomers were grafted for five different concentrations of comonomers acrylic acid (AAc), acrylamide (AAm) and acrylonitrile (AN) at optimum grafting conditions evaluated for GMA alone onto chitosan...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nadezhda N Kleshchina, Kseniia A Korchagina, Dmitry S Bezrukov, Alexei A Buchachenko
Structures and energies of the trapping sites of manganese atom and dimer in solid Ar, Kr, and Xe are investigated within the classical model, which balances local distortion and long-range crystal order of the host and provides a means to estimate the relative site stabilities. The model is implemented with the additive pairwise potential field based on the ab initio and best empirical interatomic potential functions. In agreement with experiment, Mn single substitution (SS) and tetrahedral vacancy (TV) occupation are identified as stable for Ar and Kr, whereas the SS site is only found for Xe...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jong Han Baek, Hyunju Seol, Kilwon Cho, Hoichang Yang, Jae Kyeong Jeong
ZnO-based oxide films are emerging as high-performance semiconductors for field-effect transistors (FETs) in optoelectronics. Carrier mobility and stability in these FETs are improved by introducing indium (In) and gallium (Ga) cations, respectively. However, the strong trade-off between the mobility and stability, which come from In or Ga incorporation, still limits the widespread use of metal oxide FETs in ultrahigh pixel density and device area-independent flat panel applications. We demonstrated that the incorporation of antimony (Sb) cations in amorphous zinc indium oxide (ZIO) simultaneously enhanced the field-effect mobility (μFET) and electrical stability of the resulting Sb-doped ZIO FETs...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Richard Knochenmuss, Surajit Maity, Géraldine Féraud, Samuel Leutwyler
The ground-state dissociation energy, D0(S0), of isolated intermolecular complexes in the gas phase is a fundamental measure of the interaction strength between the molecules. We have developed a three-laser, triply resonant pump-dump-probe technique to measure dissociation energies of jet-cooled M•S complexes, where M is an aromatic chromophore and S is a closed-shell 'solvent' molecule. Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) via the S0→S1 electronic transition is used to precisely 'warm' the complex by populating high vibrational levels v" of the S0 state...
February 22, 2017: Chimia
Megumi Nagano-Shoji, Yuma Hamamoto, Yuta Mizuno, Ayuka Yamada, Masaki Kikuchi, Mikako Shirouzu, Takashi Umehara, Minoru Yoshida, Makoto Nishiyama, Saori Kosono
Protein Nε-acylation is emerging as a ubiquitous post-translational modification. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is utilized for industrial production of L-glutamate, the levels of protein acetylation and succinylation change drastically under the conditions that induce glutamate overproduction. Here, we characterized the acylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), an anaplerotic enzyme that supplies oxaloacetate for glutamate overproduction. We showed that acetylation of PEPC at lysine 653 decreased enzymatic activity, leading to reduced glutamate production...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Roberta N Silva, Lilian C G Oliveira, Carolina B Parise, Juliana R Oliveira, Beatrice Severino, Angela Corvino, Paola di Vaio, Piero A Temussi, Giuseppe Caliendo, Vincenzo Santagada, Luiz Juliano, Maria A Juliano
Human kallikrein 6 (KLK6) is highly expressed in the central nervous system and with elevated level in demyelinating disease. KLK6 has a very restricted specificity for arginine (R) and hydrolyses myelin basic protein, protein activator receptors and human ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits. Here we report a previously unreported activity of KLK6 on peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids, as in synthetic fluorogenic peptidyl-Arg-7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (peptidyl-ACC) peptides and FRET peptides in the format of Abz-peptidyl-Q-EDDnp (where Abz=ortho-aminobenzoic acid and Q-EDDnp=glutaminyl-N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) ethylenediamine), in which pairs or sequences of basic amino acids (R or K) were introduced...
February 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael J Carter, Victoria Smith, Anthony N Carlsen, Diane M Ste-Marie
A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Research
Min Oh, Jaegyoon Ahn, Taekeon Lee, Giup Jang, Chihyun Park, Youngmi Yoon
BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm in understanding drug action focuses on the intended therapeutic effects and frequent adverse reactions. However, this approach may limit opportunities to grasp unintended drug actions, which can open up channels to repurpose existing drugs and identify rare adverse drug reactions. Advances in systems biology can be exploited to comprehensively understand pharmacodynamic actions, although proper frameworks to represent drug actions are still lacking. RESULTS: We suggest a novel platform to construct a drug-specific pathway in which a molecular-level mechanism of action is formulated based on pharmacologic, pharmacogenomic, transcriptomic, and phenotypic data related to drug response ( http://databio...
February 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Weixia Wang, Kailong Li, Pinjun Wan, Fengxiang Lai, Qiang Fu, Tingheng Zhu
Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development...
2017: PloS One
Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Kobina Assan Ampah, Amanda Ross, Prince Asare, Isaac Darko Otchere, Janet Fyfe, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ecology by analysing both clinical and environmental samples collected from ten communities along two major river basins (Offin and Densu) associated with Buruli ulcer (BU) at different seasons. We collected clinical samples from presumptive BU cases and environmental samples from ten communities. Following DNA extraction, clinical samples were confirmed by IS2404 PCR and environmental samples were confirmed by targeting MU-specific genes, IS2404, IS2606 and the ketoreductase (KR) using real-time PCR...
February 25, 2017: Microbial Ecology
K Khrustalev, V Yu Popov, Yu S Popov
We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes...
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Paulo R Bueno, David A Miranda
Molecular and supramolecular systems are essentially mesoscopic in character. The electron self-exchange, in the case of energy fluctuations, or electron transfer/transport, in the case of the presence of an externally driven electrochemical potential, between mesoscopic sites is energetically driven in such a manner where the electrochemical capacitance (C[small mu, Greek, macron]) is fundamental. Thus, the electron transfer/transport through channels connecting two distinct energetic (ΔE[small mu, Greek, macron]) and spatially separated mesoscopic sites is capacitively modulated...
February 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Manuela Buonanno, Brian Ponnaiya, David Welch, Milda Stanislauskas, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Lubomir Smilenov, Franklin D Lowy, David M Owens, David J Brenner
We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200-222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues...
February 22, 2017: Radiation Research
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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