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Educational psychology

J M Colley, M Harris, P Hellyer, D R Radford
Dentistry is recognised as a stressful profession. A number of studies focusing on undergraduate education have shown high levels of stress in dental students. However, despite calls to do so, little has been published on methods to teach future dental professionals about stress and how to manage it on a personal level. Psychological stress which is uncontrolled may have an effect on general health. It is recognised, however, that stress can be beneficial if channelled appropriately. Techniques and ways to teach management of potential stresses of a career in dentistry have still not been widely reported in either dental undergraduate or postgraduate education...
March 16, 2018: British Dental Journal
Anita H Clayton, Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Stanley E Althof, Stephanie S Faubion, Brooke M Faught, Sharon J Parish, James A Simon, Linda Vignozzi, Kristin Christiansen, Susan R Davis, Murray A Freedman, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Paraskevi-Sofia Kirana, Lisa Larkin, Marita McCabe, Richard Sadovsky
The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health process of care (POC) for management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) algorithm was developed to provide evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HSDD in women by health care professionals. Affecting 10% of adult females, HSDD is associated with negative emotional and psychological states and medical conditions including depression. The algorithm was developed using a modified Delphi method to reach consensus among the 17 international panelists representing multiple disciplines...
March 9, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Claire de Brie, Emmanuelle Piet, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners...
March 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Fei Huang, Hongyu Li
To evaluate wellbeing and its determinants among older Chinese outpatients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), outpatients (aged ≥60 years) with NCDs between September 2012 and September 2014 were enrolled in the study by convenience sampling. Each subject completed an integrated wellbeing questionnaire for subjective, psychological and social dimensions of wellbeing. Statistical analyses were performed using t-test, ANOVA, Spearman rank correlation and multivariate regression analysis to identify correlates of wellbeing status...
March 16, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Mythily Subramaniam, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Edimansyah Abdin, Wei Yen Lim, Hwee Lin Wee, Siow Ann Chong, Rob Martinus van Dam
BACKGROUND: Measures of mental well-being and positive mental health (PMH) have been largely developed and used in Western populations, however, data on representative Asian communities are lacking. Using data from a population sample, this study sought to establish psychometric properties and norms of the PMH Instrument (PMH-I), a measure of positive mental health developed in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative survey among 1925 adults aged 18-79 years of Chinese, Malay, Indian or other ethnicity...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Gesine Meyer, Klaus Badenhoop
An adrenal crisis (Addisonian crisis) is an acute life-threatening complication of adrenal insufficiency. It occurs when hydrocortisone demand is not met by supplementation in the context of an infection - often gastrointestinal, fever, trauma, acute psychological or physical stress. Symptoms of weakness, nausea, muscle/joint pain and drowsiness may develop out of robust health within few hours. If overlooked, treated too late, with insufficient dose or route of application, there exists a considerable risk of mortality...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Bente T Jensen, Susanne V Lauridsen, Jørgen B Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whether prehabilitation in radical cystectomy adds to the effort of reducing postoperative morbidity and impairments in the survivorship phase has until recently received limited attention. This narrative review aims to summarize the current evidence base on prehabilitaion interventions focusing on the efficacy of procedure-specific interventions and the influence on postoperative outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the oncological risk, there is a relative short window to intervene and proactively optimize the patient before radical cystectomy...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Carl D Stevens
The sudden, dramatic collapse of the seven-year struggle in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act holds important lessons for all would-be reformers, including those advocating fundamental changes in medical education. In this Invited Commentary, the author draws parallels between reform initiatives in health policy and those in medical education, highlighting that, in both settings, stakeholders rarely support "repeal" in the absence of a superior replacement, even when they view the status quo as deeply flawed...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Andrés Pomi
BACKGROUND: One of the central challenges of third millennium medicine is the abatement of medical errors. Among the most frequent and hardiest causes of misdiagnosis are cognitive errors produced by faulty medical reasoning. These errors have been analyzed from the perspectives of cognitive psychology and empirical medical studies. We introduce a neurocognitive model of medical diagnosis to address this issue. METHODS: We construct a connectionist model based on the associative nature of human memory to explore the non-analytical, pattern-recognition mode of diagnosis...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Saadet Ufuk Yurdalan, Begüm Ünlü, Mine Seyyah, Batuhan Şenyıldız, Yunus Kubilay Çetin, Menekşe Çimen
BACKGROUND: Burns can cause life-threatening injuries and severe limitations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the structured home-based exercise program on depression status and quality of life in burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in the Wound and Burn Treatment Department of University of Health Sciences, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul. Thirty burn patients voluntarily participated in this study...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Inês A Trindade, Cláudia Ferreira, Margarida Borrego, Andreia Ponte, Carolina Carvalho, José Pinto-Gouveia
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of being able to receive compassion and affiliative signals from others. The main aim of the present study was to explore whether social support and fear of receiving compassion from others are predictors of depression symptoms in a sample of breast cancer patients. METHODS: The sample included 86 female patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Participants were recruited at a Radiotherapy Service in central Portugal and completed validated self-report instruments...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Yunxiao Chen, Xiaoou Li, Jingchen Liu, Zhiliang Ying
Item response theory (IRT) plays an important role in psychological and educational measurement. Unlike the classical testing theory, IRT models aggregate the item level information, yielding more accurate measurements. Most IRT models assume local independence, an assumption not likely to be satisfied in practice, especially when the number of items is large. Results in the literature and simulation studies in this paper reveal that misspecifying the local independence assumption may result in inaccurate measurements and differential item functioning...
March 12, 2018: Psychometrika
Arietta Spinou
Cough can be viewed as a continuum where extremes represent disease phenotypes. Under this unified concept, non-pharmacological treatment for the extremes of the cough spectrum includes both cough augmentation and cough control techniques. Supporting the cough motor output and exercising the cognitive control on coughing are the main directions of these techniques. Cough augmentation can be provided to patients who present low ability to generate adequate peak cough flows, with the aim to develop the sheering forces that are essential for effective airway clearance...
March 9, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Caroline Christie, Simon Wynn-Thomas, Bianca McKinnon
INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, 41% of general practitioners (GPs) intend to retire by 2025. Increasing workforce shortages and other stressors are putting doctors at risk of burnout, which in turn can put patients at risk of harm. Offering a range of resources can signal an organisation's commitment to physician wellness while improving patient safety and organisational stability. AIM To replace the current reactive approach to impaired doctors with a proactive system of monitoring performance with the goal of identifying problems early...
September 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Paul T Cirino, Yusra Ahmed, Jeremy Miciak, W Pat Taylor, Elyssa H Gerst, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) is a commonly used but difficult to operationalize construct. In this study, we considered EF and related components as they are commonly presented in the neuropsychological literature, as well as the literatures of developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology. These components have not previously been examined simultaneously, particularly with this level of comprehensiveness, and/or at this age range or with this sample size. We expected that the EF components would be separate but related, and that a bifactor model would best represent the data relative to alternative models...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Samiullah Samiullah, Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are among the most challenging conditions to diagnose and manage. FGIDs are a heterogeneous group of conditions with varying and sometimes vague symptomatology. The Rome IV classification is the most comprehensive resource on FGIDs. FGIDs are common and are associated with significant social and economic burdens. The patient perspective includes anxiety, emotional distress, and mistrust of health care. Psychological stressors and concomitant psychiatric illness are common but not always present...
March 2018: FP Essentials
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