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Educational psychology

Joseph Ciarrochi, Paul W B Atkins, Louise L Hayes, Baljinder K Sahdra, Philip Parker
There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people's inner experience (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Francisco M Morales Rodríguez, María V Trianes Torres, Jesús Miranda Páez, Cándido J Inglés
BACKGROUND: The study of coping strategies in children guarantees quality of life from childhood onwards. The present paper aims to determine the prevalence of coping strategies for three everyday problems in children, while examining sociodemographic variables, context variables, and teacher assessment. METHOD: The sample is composed of 7,058 school children aged between 8 and 13 years old. RESULTS: Results show a higher prevalence of the Active Solution strategy at home and in school contexts compared with the health area, where the Active Solutionis the least prevalent strategy, and Concealing the Problem the most widely used, followed by Passivity...
November 2016: Psicothema
Katja Krug, Katharina I Kraus, Kathrin Herrmann, Stefanie Joos
BACKGROUND: In Germany, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in primary health care is offered by general practitioners (GPs) and by natural health practitioners, so called 'Heilpraktiker' (HPs). Considering the steadily growing number of unregulated HPs, the aim of the study was to assess characteristics of patients consulting HPs in comparison to patients consulting GPs. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, patients of randomly selected GPs and HPs were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health care status, health care behavior, and symptoms rated on the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP-D)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Belinda Goodenough, Richard Fleming, Michael Young, Kim Burns, Cindy Jones, Fallon Forbes
Providing information about latest research via educational sessions to health professionals caring for people with dementia may be insufficient to drive change. This project explored self-reported impacts on practice change of adding information about knowledge translation (KT) to a national dementia education program. Six national workshop days were held. Each provided the option of participating in a Principles of KT and innovation implementation seminar in addition to a clinical topic update (sexualities and dementia, or managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia)...
October 24, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Avinadav Rubin, Tohar Dolev, Sigal Zilcha-Mano
: Approximately one in five patients drops out of treatment before its completion. Little is known about consistent predictors of dropout, and most studies focus on patients' demographic characteristics. A mass of information is collected daily at intake in clinical practice. Based on psychodynamic theoretical conceptualizations and accumulative clinical experience, this information may help predict dropout, and thereby expand the empirically based predictors of dropout. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at bridging between scientific research and clinical practice by investigating potential predictors of unilateral termination collected at intake, before therapy, in addition to predictors already identified in the literature...
October 24, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Adewumi Adediran, Modu Baba Kagu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko, Dapus Obadiah Damulak, Sunday Ocheni, Marcus Inyama Asuquo
Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee...
2016: Bone Marrow Research
Kiyotaka Yanagihara, Yoshiharu Kinugasa, Kinya Shirota, Yoshiaki Inoue, Hiroshige Ishii, Fumiyo Tsunoda, Masaaki Iwata, Shinobu Sugihara, Shinya Takeda, Masayuki Hirai, Asao Mimura, Masahiko Kato, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
AIMS: Inadequate self-care management is a leading cause of re-hospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF). Psychological factors such as some ego functions interfere with self-care behaviour modification, leading to poor outcomes in patients with several chronic diseases. However, characteristics of ego states in patients with repeated hospitalization for HF remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study enrolled 40 HF outpatients with previous history of HF hospitalization and receiving self-care management...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Sonia Johnson, Luke Sheridan Rains, Steven Marwaha, John Strang, Thomas Craig, Tim Weaver, Paul McCrone, Michael King, David Fowler, Stephen Pilling, Louise Marston, Rumana Z Omar, Meghan Craig, Mark Hinton
BACKGROUND: Around 35-45 % of people in contact with services for a first episode of psychosis are using cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with delays in remission, poorer clinical outcomes, significant increases in the risk of relapse, and lower engagement in work or education. While there is a clear need for effective interventions, so far only very limited benefits have been achieved from psychological interventions. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention in which specified desired behavioural change is reinforced through financial rewards...
October 22, 2016: Trials
Aideen Maguire, John Moriarty, Dermot O'Reilly, Mark McCann
PURPOSE: Educational attainment has been shown to be positively associated with mental health and a potential buffer to stressful events. One stressful life event likely to affect everyone in their lifetime is bereavement. This paper assesses the effect of educational attainment on mental health post-bereavement. METHODS: By utilising large administrative datasets, linking Census returns to death records and prescribed medication data, we analysed the bereavement exposure of 208,332 individuals aged 25-74 years...
October 21, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Michelle Hadjiconstantinou, Jo Byrne, Danielle H Bodicoat, Noelle Robertson, Helen Eborall, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
BACKGROUND: Poor diabetes self-care can have a negative impact on psychological well-being and quality of life. Given the scarcity of traditional psychological support and the barriers to uptake of and attendance at face-to-face education programs, Web-based interventions are becoming a popular approach to provide an additional platform for psychological support in long-term conditions. However, there is limited evidence to assess the effect of Web-based psychological support in people with type 2 diabetes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Katherine Picho, Lauren A Maggio, Anthony R Artino
Recent crises over the credibility of research in psychology and the biomedical sciences have highlighted the need for researchers to view and treat replication research as essential to the accumulation of knowledge. In this article, the authors make the case for the utility of replication in medical education research. Specifically, the authors contend that because research in medical education often adopts theories from other disciplines, replication is necessary to gauge the applicability of those theories to the specific medical education context...
October 20, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
José L Chamorro, Miquel Torregrosa, David Sánchez Oliva, Tomás García Calvo, Benito León
Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements...
October 20, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Daniel Drevon, Sophie R Fursa, Allura L Malcolm
Quantitative synthesis of data from single-case designs (SCDs) is becoming increasingly common in psychology and education journals. Because researchers do not ordinarily report numerical data in addition to graphical displays, reliance on plot digitizing tools is often a necessary component of this research. Intercoder reliability of data extraction is a commonly overlooked, but potentially important, step of this process. The purpose of this study was to examine the intercoder reliability and validity of WebPlotDigitizer (Rohatgi, 2015), a web-based plot digitizing tool for extracting data from a variety of plots, including XY coordinates of interrupted time-series data...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Camilla Callegari, Lorenza Bertù, Melissa Lucano, Marta Ielmini, Elena Braggio, Simone Vender
BACKGROUND: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot of scales measuring resilience have been developed and have been utilized in the western countries. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), by describing its validity and reliability. As agreed with the authors of the original English version of the RS-14, it was translated into Italian...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Yong Yang, Ana V Diez-Roux
PURPOSE: Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. SETTING: Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Eric Wong, Jasmine J Leslie, Judith A Soon, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Interprofessional Patients-Computer-Assisted Reproductive Health Education for Students (VIP-CARES) Project took place during the summers of 2010-2012 for eight weeks each year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Undergraduate health care students worked collaboratively to develop virtual patient case-based learning modules on the topic of family planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in perception towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among the participants, before and after the project...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Mark Haddad, Ahmed Waqas, Wahhaj Qayyum, Maryam Shams, Saad Malik
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Eun Sook Kim, Robert F Dedrick, Chunhua Cao, John M Ferron
We provide reporting guidelines for multilevel factor analysis (MFA) and use these guidelines to systematically review 72 MFA applications in journals across a range of disciplines (e.g., education, health/nursing, management, and psychology) published between 1994 and 2014. Results are organized in terms of the (a) characteristics of the MFA application (e.g., construct measured), (b) purpose (e.g., measurement validation), (c) data source (e.g., number of cases at Level 1 and Level 2), (d) statistical approach (e...
October 18, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Meghan K Cain, Zhiyong Zhang, Ke-Hai Yuan
Nonnormality of univariate data has been extensively examined previously (Blanca et al., Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(2), 78-84, 2013; Miceeri, Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 156, 1989). However, less is known of the potential nonnormality of multivariate data although multivariate analysis is commonly used in psychological and educational research. Using univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis as measures of nonnormality, this study examined 1,567 univariate distriubtions and 254 multivariate distributions collected from authors of articles published in Psychological Science and the American Education Research Journal...
October 17, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
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