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Cardiovascular , Gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535533/malat1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-downregulation-of-mir-145
#1
Yin Xiang, Yachen Zhang, Yong Tang, Qianhui Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays significant roles under various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. EndMT of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following cell therapy Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes metastasis and cancer. MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that has been reported to inhibit SMAD3-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534160/micrornas-new-therapeutic-targets-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Evan A Stein, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common inherited form of dyslipidemia and a major cause of premature cardiovascular disease. Management of FH mainly relies on the efficiency of treatments that reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been suggested as emerging regulators of plasma LDL-C concentrations. Notably, there is evidence showing that miRs can regulate the post-transcriptional expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of FH, including LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, and LDLRAP1...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528699/steps-toward-maturation-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-by-defined-physical-signals
#4
Nian Shen, Anne Knopf, Claas Westendorf, Udo Kraushaar, Julia Riedl, Hannah Bauer, Simone Pöschel, Shannon Lee Layland, Monika Holeiter, Stefan Knolle, Eva Brauchle, Ali Nsair, Svenja Hinderer, Katja Schenke-Layland
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) may offer significant advances in creating in vitro cardiac tissues for disease modeling, drug testing, and elucidating developmental processes; however, the induction of ESCs to a more adult-like CM phenotype remains challenging. In this study, we developed a bioreactor system to employ pulsatile flow (1.48 mL/min), cyclic strain (5%), and extended culture time to improve the maturation of murine and human ESC-CMs...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528204/a-novel-pleiotropic-effect-of-aspirin-beneficial-regulation-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms-in-microglial-cells
#5
Diana Kata, Imre Földesi, Liliana Z Feher, Laszlo Hackler, Laszlo G Puskas, Karoly Gulya
Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526951/pyrocincholic-acid-3%C3%AE-o-%C3%AE-d-quinovopyranosyl-28-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#6
Li Peng, Yanting Lu, Yuhui Xu, Jing Hu, Fang Wang, Yumei Zhang, Wenyong Xiong
Obesity is crucially involved in many metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Regulating the number or size of adipocytes has been suggested to be a potential treatment for obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyrocincholic acid 3β-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PAQG), a 27-nor-oleanolic acid saponin extracted from Metadina trichotoma, on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were incubated with vehicle or PAQG for 6 days in differentiation process...
May 19, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526404/airborne-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-trigger-human-skin-cells-aging-through-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#8
Yuan Qiao, Qiang Li, Hong-Yang Du, Qiao-Wei Wang, Ye Huang, Wei Liu
Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524645/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-inhibits-the-cholesterol-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-and-cell-dysfunction-by-activating-amp-dependent-kinase
#9
Qi Liu, Hui Zhang, Jiale Lin, Ruoxi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Wei Liu, Meng Sun, Wenjuan Du, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) switch to macrophage-like cells after cholesterol loading, and this change may play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and vascular function, particularly in regard to cardiovascular disease. The question of whether CTRP9 can protect VSMCs from cholesterol damage has not been addressed. In this study, the impact of CTRP9 on cholesterol-damaged VSMCs was observed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522163/lncrna-malat1-sponges-mir-204-to-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-of-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-through-up-regulating-smad4
#10
Xiaoxiong Xiao, Tingwen Zhou, Shichao Guo, Chao Guo, Qiao Zhang, Nianguo Dong, Yongjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. The lncRNA MALAT1, a highly abundant and conserved imprinted gene, has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. However, the function of MALAT1 in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. This study sought to document the function and underlying mechanism of MALAT1 in regulating CAVD. METHODS: Protein level was determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521874/sirna-mediated-inhibition-of-srebp-cleavage-activating-protein-reduces-dyslipidemia-in-spontaneously-dysmetabolic-rhesus-monkeys
#11
Beth Ann Murphy, Marija Tadin-Strapps, Kristian Jensen, Robin Mogg, Andy Liaw, Kithsiri Herath, Gowri Bhat, David G McLaren, Stephen F Previs, Shirly Pinto
BACKGROUND: SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a cholesterol binding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is required to activate SREBP transcription factors. SREBPs regulate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. They also influence lipid clearance by modulating the expression of LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Inhibiting SCAP decreases circulating PCSK9, triglycerides (TG), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520942/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#12
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#13
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518140/a-mirna-101-3p-bim-axis-as-a-determinant-of-serum-deprivation-induced-endothelial-cell-apoptosis
#14
Ji-Hee Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Joohwan Kim, Seunghwan Choi, Wonjin Park, Kwon-Soo Ha, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Serum deprivation or withdrawal induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial cell dysfunction that is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, there is still limited information on the role of miRNA in serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Here we found that serum deprivation increased caspase-dependent apoptosis through miRNA-101-3p downregulation, without altering expression of its host gene RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1, which was highly correlated with suppressed expression levels of Dicer and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), indicating that miR-101-3p is post-transcriptionally elevated in serum-deprived conditions...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516248/environmental-toxicants-incidence-of-degenerative-diseases-and-therapies-from-the-epigenetic-point-of-view
#15
REVIEW
Mahshid Hodjat, Soheila Rahmani, Fazlullah Khan, Kamal Niaz, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Solmaz Mohammadi Nejad, Mohammad Abdollahi
Epigenotoxicology is an emerging field of study that investigates the non-genotoxic epigenetic effects of environmental toxicants resulting in alteration of normal gene expression and disruption of cell function. Recent findings on the role of toxicant-induced epigenetic modifications in the development of degenerative diseases have opened up a promising research direction to explore epigenetic therapy approaches and related prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on epigenetic alterations identified in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, pulmonary conditions as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and bone disease...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514806/human-epicardial-fat-expresses-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-receptors-genes
#16
Gianluca Iacobellis, Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Gaofeng Wang
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an easily measurable visceral fat of the heart with unique anatomy, functionality, and transcriptome. EAT can serve as a therapeutic target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the fat. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 analogues are newer drugs showing beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Whether EAT expresses GLP- 1 and 2 receptors (GLP-1R and GLP-2R) is unknown. RNA-seq analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to evaluate the presence of GLP-1R and GLP-2R in EAT and subcutaneous fat (SAT) obtained from 8 subjects with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
May 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513807/the-nuclear-pore-protein-nup153-associates-with-chromatin-and-regulates-cardiac-gene-expression-in-dystrophic-mdx-hearts
#17
Simona Nanni, Agnese Re, Cristian Ripoli, Aoife Gowran, Patrizia Nigro, Domenico D'Amario, Antonio Amodeo, Filippo Crea, Claudio Grassi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Antonella Farsetti, Claudia Colussi
Aims: Beyond the control of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking nucleoporins regulate gene expression and are involved in cardiac diseases. Notably, a number of cardiovascular disorders have been linked to alterations in epigenetic mechanisms. Here we aimed to determine the contribution of Nup153 to the epigenetic alterations occurring in cardiomyopathy of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd mdx /J). Methods and results: Nup153 was lysine-acetylated and its expression was significantly increased at protein level in mdx hearts compared with controls...
November 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511681/chromosome-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-constitutive-production-of-salvianic-acid-a
#18
Liang Zhou, Qi Ding, Guo-Zhen Jiang, Zhen-Ning Liu, Hai-Yan Wang, Guang-Rong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salvianic acid A (SAA), a valuable natural product from herbal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, exhibits excellent antioxidant activities on food industries and efficacious therapeutic potential on cardiovascular diseases. Recently, production of SAA in engineered Escherichia coli was established via the artificial biosynthetic pathway of SAA on the multiple plasmids in our previous work. However, the plasmid-mediated system required to supplement expensive inducers and antibiotics during the fermentation process, restricting scale-up production of SAA...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#19
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508477/the-novel-intracellular-protein-creg-inhibits-hepatic-steatosis-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Quan-Yu Zhang, Ling-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Xiang Tian, Cheng-Hui Yan, Yang Li, Yan-Xia Liu, Pi-Xiao Wang, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Ya-Ling Han
Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG), a novel cellular glycoprotein, has been identified as a suppressor of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) because of its capacity to reduce hyperplasia, maintain vascular homeostasis, and promote endothelial restoration. However, the effects and mechanism of CREG in metabolic disorder and hepatic steatosis remain unknown. Here, we report that hepatocyte-specific CREG deletion dramatically exacerbates high fat diet (HFD) and leptin deficiency-induced (ob/ob) adverse effects such as obesity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic disorders, whereas a beneficial effect is conferred by CREG overexpression...
May 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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