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Cardiovascular , Gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143608/physical-activity-in-the-prevention-of-human-diseases-role-of-epigenetic-modifications
#1
REVIEW
Elisa Grazioli, Ivan Dimauro, Neri Mercatelli, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis, Luigi Di Luigi, Daniela Caporossi
Epigenetic modification refers to heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by alterations in the DNA sequence. The current literature clearly demonstrates that the epigenetic response is highly dynamic and influenced by different biological and environmental factors such as aging, nutrient availability and physical exercise. As such, it is well accepted that physical activity and exercise can modulate gene expression through epigenetic alternations although the type and duration of exercise eliciting specific epigenetic effects that can result in health benefits and prevent chronic diseases remains to be determined...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#2
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#3
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#4
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#5
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133875/heart-function-and-thoracic-aorta-gene-expression-profiling-studies-of-ginseng-combined-with-different-herbal-medicines-in-enos-knockout-mice
#6
Yuchen Qian, Pan Li, Bin Lv, Xiaoqing Jiang, Ting Wang, Han Zhang, Xiaoying Wang, Xiumei Gao
Ginseng, a popular herbal remedy, is often used in combination with other drugs to achieve the maximum therapeutic response. Shenfu (SFI) and Shenmai injection (SMI) have been widely used to treat cardiovascular disease in China. Our study explored the cardiovascular protection of SFI and SMI in eNOS knockout mice to investigate the differences and similarities of the two ginseng-combinations. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to evaluate the left ventricular structure and function at baseline and 3, 7, and 14 days after drug administration...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128401/h2s-protects-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-by-blocking-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transactivation-in-endothelial-cells
#7
Caitlyn Bourque, Yanjie Zhang, Ming Fu, Mélanie Racine, Adam Greasley, Yanxi Pei, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Guangdong Yang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gasotransmitter and acts as a multifunctional regulator in various cellular functions. Past studies have demonstrated a significant role of H2S and its generating enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major pathogenic factor, is known to initiate the inflammatory immune response. The cross talk between LPS-induced inflammation and the CSE/H2S system in vascular cells has not yet been elucidated in detail. Here we showed that LPS decreased CSE mRNA and protein expression in human endothelial cells and blocked H2S production in mouse aorta tissues...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127314/modulation-of-transcriptional-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity-by-casein-kinase-2
#8
Stefanie Ruhs, Nicole Strätz, Katja Quarch, Antonia Masch, Mike Schutkowski, Michael Gekle, Claudia Grossmann
The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is a multifunctional process in which the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, is involved as proven by numerous clinical studies. The development of pathophysiological MR actions depends on the existence of additional factors e.g. inflammatory cytokines and seems to involve posttranslational MR modifications e.g. phosphorylation. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that can be activated under inflammatory conditions as the MR...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123159/zinc-is-a-critical-regulator-of-placental-morphogenesis-and-maternal-hemodynamics-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#10
Rebecca L Wilson, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Zona Goh, Dale McAninch, Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Gabriela E Leghi, Jessica A Phillips, Katrina Mirabito Colafella, Cuong Tran, Sean O'Leary, Sam Buckberry, Stephen Pederson, Sarah A Robertson, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts
Zinc is an essential micronutrient in pregnancy and zinc deficiency impairs fetal growth. We used a mouse model of moderate zinc deficiency to investigate the physiological mechanisms by which zinc is important to placental morphogenesis and the maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy. A 26% reduction in circulating zinc (P = 0.005) was exhibited in mice fed a moderately zinc-deficient diet. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy resulted in an 8% reduction in both near term fetal and placental weights (both P < 0...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121940/plasma-irisin-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-is-associated-with-increased-e-selectin-levels
#11
Karan S Rana, Chathyan Pararasa, Islam Afzal, David A Nagel, Eric J Hill, Clifford J Bailey, Helen R Griffiths, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva, Srikanth Bellary, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121743/profiling-of-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease-associated-microrna-expression-in-umbilical-cord-blood-in-gestational-hypertension-preeclampsia-and-fetal-growth-restriction
#12
Ilona Hromadnikova, Katerina Kotlabova, Katarina Ivankova, Yulia Vedmetskaya, Ladislav Krofta
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Gene expression of 29 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease associated microRNAs was assessed in whole umbilical cord blood, compared between groups [47 gestational hypertension (GH), 56 preeclampsia (PE), 37 fetal growth restriction (FGR) and 44 normal pregnancies] and correlated with the severity of the disease with respect to clinical signs (mild PE vs. severe PE), delivery date (before and after 34weeks of gestation), and Doppler ultrasound parameters [pulsatility index (PI) in the umbilical artery, PI in the middle cerebral artery and the cerebroplacental ratio]...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117535/rescuing-infusion-of-mirna-1-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-heart-selective-mirna-deficient-mouse
#13
Shuilian Luo, Yuhang Chen, Rui He, Yujun Shi, Li Su
OBJECTIVE: The decreased expression of muscle-specific microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been found in many cardiovascular diseases and is considered to contribute to heart failure (HF). Here we investigated the role of miR-1 in myocardium protection by infusion of miR-1 in a cardiac global miRNA-deficient mouse. METHODS: We generated a cardiac-selective miRNA-deficient mouse by crossing Dicer(flox/flox) mice with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a mouse αMHC promoter...
November 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113418/role-of-growth-differentiation-factor-11-in-development-physiology-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Yonghui Zhang, Yong Wei, Dan Liu, Feng Liu, Xiaoshan Li, Lianhong Pan, Yi Pang, Dilong Chen
Growth differentiation factor (GDF11) is a member of TGF-β/BMP superfamily that activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways and regulates expression of its target nuclear genes. Since its discovery in 1999, studies have shown the involvement of GDF11 in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development and erythropoiesis, as well as in the pathophysiology of aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. In addition, there are contradictory reports regarding the role of GDF11 in aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteogenesis, skeletal muscle development, and neurogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113274/simvastatin-potentiates-doxorubicin-activity-against-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Benjaporn Buranrat, Wanwisa Suwannaloet, Jarinyaporn Naowaboot
Simvastatin is a low density lipoprotein-lowering drug that is widely used to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway. Simvastatin also exhibits inhibitory effects on a number of types of cancer. In the present study, the effects of simvastatin on the activity of doxorubicin in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line, and the mechanisms by which this interaction occurs were investigated. The effect of simvastatin and doxorubicin treatment, alone and in combination, on the growth of MCF-7 cells was evaluated by a sulforhodamine B and colony formation assay...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113111/the-mxl-3-sbp-1-axis-is-responsible-for-glucose-dependent-fat-accumulation-in-c-elegans
#16
Fanny Mejia-Martinez, Berenice Franco-Juarez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Alain Hernández-Vázquez, Marco Martinez-Avila, Saul Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Karla Carvajal, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar
Chronic exposure to elevated glucose levels leads to fatty acid accumulation, which promotes the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. MXL-3 is a conserved transcriptional factor that modulates the inhibition of lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the role of MXL-3 in lipid metabolism during nutrient excess remains unknown. We hypothesized that inhibition of MXL-3 prevents glucose-dependent fat accumulation. Nematodes from wild-type N2, MXL-3::GFP and sbp-1 or mxl-3 null strains were grown on standard, high glucose or high glucose plus metformin plates for 24 h...
November 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113088/oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-diseases-involvement-of-nrf2-antioxidant-redox-signaling-in-macrophage-foam-cells-formation
#17
REVIEW
Bee Kee Ooi, Bey Hing Goh, Wei Hsum Yap
Oxidative stress is an important risk factor contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress that results from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accounts for impaired endothelial function, a process which promotes atherosclerotic lesion or fatty streaks formation (foam cells). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Nrf2 is dissociated from its inhibitor Keap-1 and translocated into the nucleus, where it results in the transcriptional activation of cell defense genes...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113012/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-drives-day-night-variations-in-postprandial-triglyceride-uptake-into-skeletal-muscle-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#18
Sofía Moran-Ramos, Natali N Guerrero-Vargas, Rebeca Mendez-Hernandez, Maria Del Carmen Basualdo, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
What is the central question of this study? What are the factors influencing day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides? What is the main finding and its importance? Rats show low postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations early in the active period that are attributable to a higher uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. We show that these day-night variations in uptake are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, probably via a Rev-erbα-mediated mechanism and independent of locomotor activity...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112983/identification-of-viscum-album-l-mirnas-and-prediction-of-their-medicinal-values
#19
Wenyan Xie, Jacob Adolf, Matthias F Melzig
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approximately 22 nucleotides single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that play crucial roles in gene expression. It has been reported that the plant miRNAs might enter mammalian bloodstream and have a functional role in human metabolism, indicating that miRNAs might be one of the hidden bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, European mistletoe) has been widely used for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but its functional compounds have not been well characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112590/effect-of-andrographolide-on-gene-expression-profile-and-intracellular-calcium-in-primary-rat-myocardium-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Bo Feng, Qian Zhang, Xin Wang, Xiangwan Sun, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong
Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a diterpene lactone compound with extensive biological effects, such as antibacterial, antitumor and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Until now, studies on the pharmacological functions of ANDRO are still in progress. However, little is known about the gene expression profile and calcium response of endothelial cells to ANDRO. In this study, we used a microarray technology to investigate the gene expression responses in primary rat myocardium microvascular endothelial cells (RMMECs) treated with 10μg/mL ANDRO...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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