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Cardiovascular , Gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345197/neonatal-hyperoxia-depletes-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes-in-adult-mice-via-mitochondrial-oxidation
#1
Min Yee, Ethan David Cohen, William Domm, George A Porter, Andrew N McDavid, Michael A O'Reilly
Supplemental oxygen given to preterm infants has been associated with permanently altering postnatal lung development. Now that these individuals are reaching adulthood, there is growing concern that early-life oxygen exposure may also promote cardiovascular disease through poorly understood mechanisms. We previously reported that adult mice exposed to 100% oxygen between postnatal days 0-4 develop pulmonary hypertension defined pathologically by capillary rarefaction, dilation of arterioles and veins, cardiac failure, and a reduced lifespan...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344960/association-of-genetic-variation-in-telomere-related-snp-and-telomerase-with-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Vinit Sawhney, Scott Brouilette, Niall Campbell, Steven Coppen, Victoria Baker, Ross Hunter, Mehul Dhinoja, Atholl Johnston, Mark Earley, Simon Sporton, Ken Suzuki, Richard Schilling
BACKGROUND: Telomeres are known to provide genomic stability and telomere length has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, a higher telomerase activity has been shown to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic variation in key telomere genes has an impact on telomerase activity. Each copy of the minor allele of SNP rs12696304, at a locus including TERC (telomerase) has been associated with ∼ 75 bp reduction in mean telomere length likely mediated by an effect on TERC expression...
January 17, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343610/cyp2j2-expression-in-adult-ventricular-myocytes-protects-against-external-and-drug-induced-ros-toxicity
#3
Eric A Evangelista, Rozenn Lemaitre, Nona Sotoodehnia, Sina Gharib, Rheem A Totah
CYP2J2 is a drug metabolizing enzyme that is highly expressed in adult ventricular myocytes. It is responsible for the bioactivation of arachidonic acid (AA) into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs are biologically active signaling compounds that protect against disease progression, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. As a drug-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2J2 is susceptible to drug interactions that could lead to cardiotoxicity. Previously, CYP2J2 has been shown to be resistant to induction by canonical CYP inducers such as phenytoin and rifampin...
January 17, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343525/lack-of-remuscularization-following-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-in-infarcted-nonhuman-primates
#4
Keyang Zhu, Qiang Wu, Cheng Ni, Peng Zhang, Zhiwei Zhong, Yan Wu, Yingchao Wang, Yinchuan Xu, Minjian Kong, Haifeng Cheng, Zhihua Tao, Qian Yang, He Liang, Yun Jiang, Qingju Li, Jing Zhao, Jijun Huang, Fengjiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Yi Li, Jinghai Chen, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Jianyi Zhang, Huang-Tian Yang, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Rationale: Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (hPSC-CVPCs) should be thoroughly investigated in large animal studies before testing in clinical trials. Objective: To clarify if hPSC-CVPCs can engraft for long time in the heart of primates after myo-cardial infarction (MI) and compare the effectiveness and safety of immunosuppression with cy-closporine alone or multiple-drug regimen (MDR) containing cyclosporine, methylprednisolone, and Simulect in cynomolgous monkeys that had received intramyocardial injections of 1×107 EGFP-expressing hPSC-CVPCs after MI...
January 17, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343271/p66shc-gene-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-progression-of-diabetic-complications
#5
Gian Paolo Fadini, Mattia Albiero, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Nicol Poncina, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Angelo Avogaro
BACKGROUND: The risk of diabetic complications is modified by genetic and epigenetic factors. p66Shc drives the hyperglycaemic cell damage and its deletion prevents experimental diabetic complications. We herein tested whether p66Shc expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) predicts adverse outcomes in people with diabetes. METHODS: In a cohort of 100 patients with diabetes (16 type 1 and 84 type 2), we quantified baseline p66Shc expression in PBMCs by quantitative PCR...
January 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342503/the-molecular-basis-for-dysregulated-activation-of-nkx2-5-in-vascular-remodelling-of-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Athina Dritsoula, Ioannis Papaioannou, Sandra G Guerra, Carmen Fonseca, Javier Martin, Ariane L Herrick, David J Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Markella Ponticos
OBJECTIVE: NKX2-5 is a homeobox transcription factor required for the formation of the heart and vessels during development, with significant postnatal downregulation and reactivation in disease states characterised by vascular remodelling. In this study, we sought to investigate mechanisms that activate NKX2-5 expression in diseased vessels, such as scleroderma associated pulmonary hypertension (SSc-PH), and identify genetic variability that potentially underlies susceptibility to specific vascular complications...
January 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342453/fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-the-expression-of-micrornas-and-circulating-cytokines-relevant-to-inflammation-coagulation-and-vasoconstriction
#7
Renjie Chen, Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Cuicui Wang, Zhijing Lin, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Zhuohui Zhao, Weihua Li, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a key factor in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but miRNA responses to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and their potential contribution to cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential influence of PM2.5 on the expression of selected cytokines relevant to systemic inflammation, coagulation, and vasoconstriction, and on miRNAs that may regulate their expression. METHODS: We designed a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which true and sham air purifiers were used to expose 55 healthy young adult students in Shanghai, China, to reduced or ambient levels of indoor PM2...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337067/the-impact-of-growth-factors-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#8
Marianne E Yassa, Iman A Mansour, Nadia I Sewelam, Hala Hamza, Taghrid Gaafar
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) act as a promising therapeutic alternative for cardiovascular diseases. They yield a large number of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from autologous cell sources without ethical or immunological problems. However, significant limitations still remain in terms of line-to-line variability in CM yield and reproducibility. AIM: To efficiently enhance NP0040 hiPSCs differentiation into CMs. MAIN METHODS: Following a standard cardiac differentiation protocol using small molecules targeting the canonical Wnt signaling, growth factors (BMP4 and FGF2) and ascorbic acid were added further in order to increase the cardiac differentiation efficiency...
January 11, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336478/apelin-13-treatment-enhances-the-stability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#9
Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva, Hugo Seeman, Fabrizio Montecucco, Analina Raquel da Silva, Fabienne Burger, Fabiana Pereira Costa-Fraga, Léa Anguenot, François Mach, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
BACKGROUND: Apelin is an endogenous peptidergic system which modulates cardiovascular function. Recent studies pointed out a fundamental contribution of apelin on atherosclerosis development; however, such reports revealed contradictory data, and to date, it is difficult to accurately define a beneficial or deleterious role. To better understand apelin function on atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate apelin-13 treatment effects on atherosclerotic plaques composition. DESIGN: Apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice were fed on Western-type diet for 11 weeks...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#10
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#11
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334504/bradykinin-receptors-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-nondiabetic-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Maria E Marketou, George Kochiadakis, Joanna Kontaraki, Evangelos Zacharis, Emmanouel Kanoupakis, Emmanouel Kallergis, Hercules Mavrakis, Panagiotis Tsiverdis, Dimitris Lempidakis, John Konstantinou, Konstantinos Fragkiadakis, Gregory Chlouverakis, Panos Vardas, Fragiskos Parthenakis
OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue plays a key role in cardiovascular physiology. Kinin receptors are important determinant of the effect of adiposity on endothelial function and cardiovascular function. We examined the gene expression levels of kinin receptors in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) of nondiabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 21 patients with CAD (13 men, age: 68±8 years) and 23 patients without CAD (15 men, age: 66±5 years) who underwent catheterization through the femoral route...
January 12, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333090/gene-and-protein-expression-profiles-in-a-mouse-model-of-collagen-induced-arthritis
#13
Sun-Yeong Gwon, Ki-Jong Rhee, Ho Joong Sung
The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, in the elderly population increases along with that of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Identifying specific biomarkers for RA can clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and can aid diagnosis and patient care. To this end, the present study investigated the genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in RA using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We performed gene microarray and proteome array analyses using blood samples from the mice and found that 50 genes and 24 proteins were upregulated and 48 genes were downregulated by more than 2-fold in the CIA model relative to the control...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#14
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330663/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-mir-ul112-contributes-to-hcmv-mediated-vascular-diseases-by-inducing-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#15
Kai Shen, Liyun Xu, Dongdong Chen, Weiguo Tang, Yanyan Huang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathy by inducing dysfunction of vascular cells such as endothelial cells. Hcmv-miR-UL112 is the most well-characterized HCMV-encoded microRNA occurring in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, while the specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are yet to be defined. The current study investigated the effect of hcmv-miR-UL112 on the growth and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); it might also be associated with signaling pathways...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329649/hppr-encodes-the-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-reductase-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-hydrophilic-phenolic-acids-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#16
Guo-Quan Wang, Jun-Feng Chen, Bo Yi, He-Xin Tan, Lei Zhang, Wan-Sheng Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hydrophilic phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic acid B (LAB), are its primary medicinal ingredients. However, the biosynthetic pathway of RA and LAB in S. miltiorrhiza is still poorly understood. In the present study, we accomplished the isolation and characterization of a novel S. miltiorrhiza Hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (HPPR) gene, SmHPPR, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of RA...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329538/peripheral-blood-gene-expression-signatures-which-reflect-smoking-and-aspirin-exposure-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-events
#17
James A Wingrove, Karen Fitch, Brian Rhees, Steven Rosenberg, Deepak Voora
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and its sequelae are major causes of global mortality, and better methods are needed to identify patients at risk for future cardiovascular events. Gene expression analysis can inform on the molecular underpinnings of risk factors for cardiovascular events. Smoking and aspirin have known opposing effects on platelet reactivity and MACE, however their effects on each other and on MACE are not well described. METHODS: We measured peripheral blood gene expression levels of ITGA2B, which is upregulated by aspirin and correlates with platelet reactivity on aspirin, and a 5 gene validated smoking gene expression score (sGES) where higher expression correlates with smoking status, in participants from the previously reported PREDICT trial (NCT 00500617)...
January 12, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323265/redox-dependent-bmi1-activity-drives-in-vivo-adult-cardiac-progenitor-cell-differentiation
#18
Diego Herrero, María Tomé, Susana Cañón, Francisco M Cruz, Rosa María Carmona, Encarna Fuster, Enrique Roche, Antonio Bernad
Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with several cardiovascular pathologies and with cell cycle exit by neonanatal cardiomyocytes, a key limiting factor in the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian heart. The polycomb complex component BMI1 is linked to adult progenitors and is an important partner in DNA repair and redox regulation. We found that high BMI1 expression is associated with an adult Sca1+ cardiac progenitor sub-population with low ROS levels. In homeostasis, BMI1 repressed cell fate genes, including a cardiogenic differentiation program...
January 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322004/thoughts-modulate-the-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-and-may-improve-the-coronary-blood-flow-in-patients-after-a-myocardial-infarction
#19
Carlo Dal Lin, Mariela Marinova, Giorgio Rubino, Elisabetta Gola, Alessandra Brocca, Giorgia Pantano, Laura Brugnolo, Cristiano Sarais, Umberto Cucchini, Biancarosa Volpe, Chiara Cavalli, Maura Bellio, Emilia Fiorello, Sofia Scali, Mario Plebani, Sabino Iliceto, Francesco Tona
Background: Mental stress is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Meditation and music listening are two techniques that are able to counteract it through the activation of specific brain areas, eliciting the so-called Relaxing Response (RR). Epidemiological evidence reveals that the RR practice has a beneficial prognostic impact on patients after myocardial infarction. We aimed to study the possible molecular mechanisms of RR underlying these findings. Methods: We enrolled 30 consecutive patients after myocardial infarction and 10 healthy controls...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321393/-n-3-fatty-acids-and-the-maintenance-of-neuronal-functions
#20
Michio Hashimoto
The functions of n-3 fatty acids are known to be diverse, and they play roles in cardiovascular and neuronal systems and in lipid metabolism. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is the most abundant n-3 fatty acid in the brain, is essential for the maintenance of brain functions throughout the human lifespan. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that reduced n-3 fatty acid intake is closely associated with the onset of mental and neurological diseases such as brain developmental disorders, depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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