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Cardiovascular , Gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229250/role-of-mirnas-in-human-disease-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#1
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They are estimated to target ∼60% of all human protein-coding genes and are involved in regulating key physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways. They also exhibit tissue specificity, and their dysregulation is linked to the progression of pathology. Identifying disease associated miRNAs and their respective targets provides novel molecular insight into disease, enabling the design of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225026/blood-based-omic-profiling-supports-female-susceptibility-to-tobacco-smoke-induced-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Dennie G Hebels, Irene Liampa, Ioannis Valavanis, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Anders Johansson, Domenico Palli, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Alexandros P Siskos, Hector Keun, Maria Botsivali, Theo M C M de Kok, Almudena Espín Pérez, Jos C S Kleinjans, Paolo Vineis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos
We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223469/maternal-gestational-hypertension-induced-sensitization-of-angiotensin-ii-hypertension-is-reversed-by-renal-denervation-or-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-in-rat-offspring
#3
Baojian Xue, Haifeng Yin, Fang Guo, Terry G Beltz, Robert L Thunhorst, Alan Kim Johnson
Numerous findings demonstrate that there is a strong association between maternal health during pregnancy and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring. The purpose of the present study was to test whether maternal gestational hypertension modulates brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and proinflammatory cytokines that sensitizes angiotensin II-elicited hypertensive response in adult offspring. In addition, the role of renal nerves and the RAAS in the sensitization process was investigated. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of structures of the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus indicated upregulation of mRNA expression of several RAAS components and proinflammatory cytokines in 10-week-old male offspring of hypertensive dams...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223222/disrupting-the-key-circadian-regulator-clock-leads-to-age-dependent-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Faisal J Alibhai, Jonathan LaMarre, Cristine J Reitz, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz, Alex Shulman, Samantha Steinberg, Thomas P Burris, Gavin Y Oudit, Tami A Martino
The circadian mechanism underlies daily rhythms in cardiovascular physiology and rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for heart disease and worse outcomes. However, the role of circadian rhythms is generally clinically unappreciated. Clock is a core component of the circadian mechanism and here we examine the role of Clock as a vital determinant of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in aging. Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice develop age-dependent increases in heart weight, hypertrophy, dilation, impaired contractility, and reduced myogenic responsiveness...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219933/akt-signalling-as-a-mediator-of-cardiac-adaptation-to-low-birth-weight
#6
Kimberley Cw Wang, Kimberley J Botting, Song Zhang, Caroline McMillen, Doug A Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine insults, such as poor nutrition and placental insufficiency, can alter cardiomyocyte development and this can have significant long-term implications for heart health. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that low birth weight babies have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. In addition, intrauterine growth restriction can result in increased left ventricular hypertrophy, which is the strongest predictor for poor health outcomes in cardiac patients. The mechanisms responsible for these associations are not clear, but a suboptimal intrauterine environment can program alternative expression of genes such as cardiac IGF-2/H19, IGF-2R and AT1R through either an increase or decrease in DNA methylation or histone acetylation at specific loci...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219697/effect-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-extract-on-brain-acetylcholinesterase-and-butyrylcholinesterase-activities-their-mrna-levels-and-memory-evaluation-in-rats
#7
Marcin Ozarowski, Przemyslaw L Mikolajczak, Anna Piasecka, Radoslaw Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Michal Szulc, Ewa Kaminska, Malgorzata Kujawska, Agnieszka Gryszczynska, Piotr Kachlicki, Waldemar Buchwald, Andrzej Klejewski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Lamiaceae), one of the most important and popular plants of traditional medicine of Asia, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and in central nervous system disturbances. The main aim of this study was to assess the influence of subchronic (28-fold) administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza root extract (SE, 200mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioural activity and memory of rats and to evaluate the activities of cholinesterases (AChE and BuChE) and gene expression levels of AChE and BuChE as well as of beta-secretase (BACE1) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219664/effect-of-pioglitazone-on-cardiometabolic-risk-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Alice Liu, Fahim Abbasi, Sun H Kim, Danit Ariel, Cindy Lamendola, James Cardell, Shiming Xu, Shailja Patel, Vanessa Tomasso, Hafasa Mojaddidi, Kaylene Grove, Philip S Tsao, Clete A Kushida, Gerald M Reaven
Prevalence of insulin resistance is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Because insulin resistance is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this study was initiated to see if pioglitazone administration would improve insulin sensitivity and thereby decrease risk of CVD in overweight/obese, nondiabetic, insulin-resistant patients with untreated OSA. Patients (n = 30) were administered pioglitazone (45 mg/day) for 8 weeks, and measurements were made before and after intervention of insulin action (insulin-mediated glucose uptake by the insulin suppression test), C-reactive protein, lipid/lipoprotein profile, and gene expression profile of periumbilical subcutaneous fat tissue...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#9
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#10
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213570/blunted-transcriptional-response-to-skeletal-muscle-ischemia-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease-potential-role-for-impaired-ischemia-induced-angiogenesis
#11
Rafael U Heiss, Fabian Fahlbusch, Johannes Jacobi, Christoph Daniel, Arif B Ekici, Nada Cordasic, Kerstin Amann, Andrea Hartner, Karl F Hilgers
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies indicated an impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of rats with CKD. We performed a systematic comparison of early gene expression in response to ischemia in rats with or without CKD to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying impaired angiogenesis in CKD. CKD was induced in male rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX); control rats were sham operated (sham). Eight weeks later, ischemia of the right limb was induced by ligation and resection of the femoral artery...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213390/epigenetic-patterns-in-blood-associated-with-lipid-traits-predict-incident-coronary-heart-disease-events-and-are-enriched-for-results-from-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
Åsa K Hedman, Michael M Mendelson, Riccardo E Marioni, Stefan Gustafsson, Roby Joehanes, Marguerite R Irvin, Degui Zhi, Johanna K Sandling, Chen Yao, Chunyu Liu, Liming Liang, Tianxiao Huan, Allan F McRae, Serkalem Demissie, Sonia Shah, John M Starr, L Adrienne Cupples, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Johan Sundström, Ronald M Krauss, Donna K Arnett, Ian J Deary, Lars Lind, Daniel Levy, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified loci influencing circulating lipid concentrations in humans; further information on novel contributing genes, pathways, and biology may be gained through studies of epigenetic modifications. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify epigenetic changes associated with lipid concentrations, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood from 2306 individuals from 2 population-based cohorts, with replication of findings in 2025 additional individuals...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#13
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211642/biomechanical-strain-exacerbates-inflammation-on-a-progeria-on-a-chip-model
#14
João Ribas, Yu Shrike Zhang, Patrícia R Pitrez, Jeroen Leijten, Mario Miscuglio, Jeroen Rouwkema, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Xavier Nissan, Lino Ferreira, Ali Khademhosseini
Organ-on-a-chip platforms seek to recapitulate the complex microenvironment of human organs using miniaturized microfluidic devices. Besides modeling healthy organs, these devices have been used to model diseases, yielding new insights into pathophysiology. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease showing accelerated vascular aging, leading to the death of patients due to cardiovascular diseases. HGPS targets primarily vascular cells, which reside in mechanically active tissues...
February 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210621/circular-rnas-in-cardiovascular-disease-an-overview
#15
REVIEW
Ximin Fan, Xinyu Weng, Yifan Zhao, Wei Chen, Tianyi Gan, Dachun Xu
Circular RNA (circRNA), a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNA (ncRNA), has become a research hotspot in recent years. CircRNAs are abundant and stably exist in creatures, and they are found with covalently closed loop structures in which they are quite different from linear RNAs. Nowadays, an increasing number of scientists have demonstrated that circRNAs may have played an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, especially acting as miRNA sponges, and have described the potential mechanisms of several circRNAs in diseases, hinting at their clinical therapeutic values...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#16
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207997/chronically-elevated-bilirubin-protects-from-cardiac-reperfusion-injury-in-the-male-gunn-rat
#17
Bhavisha Bakrania, Eugene F Du Toit, Kevin J Ashton, Karl-Heinz Wagner, John P Headrick, Andrew C Bulmer
AIMS: Bilirubin is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, as evidenced in conditions of mild hyperbilirubinaemia (Gilbert's Syndrome). Little is known regarding myocardial stress-resistance in hyperbilirubinemic conditions or whether life-long exposure modifies cardiac function, which might contribute to protection from cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Hyperbilirubinemic rats and littermate controls underwent echocardiography at 3, 6 and 12 mo of age, with hearts subsequently assessed for resistance to 30 min of ischaemia...
February 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205634/circulating-mir-155-mir-145-and-let-7c-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-of-the-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Julien Faccini, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Pierre Cordelier, Frédéric Martins, Jean-José Maoret, Vanina Bongard, Jean Ferrières, Jérôme Roncalli, Meyer Elbaz, Cécile Vindis
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and the number of individuals at risk is increasing. To better manage cardiovascular diseases, improved tools for risk prediction including the identification of novel accurate biomarkers are needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) are essential post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression leading to mRNA suppression or translational repression. Specific expression profiles of circulating miRNA have emerged as potential noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers of diseases...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202546/identification-of-a-novel-series-of-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-phospholipid-oxidation-products-containing-cyclopentenone-moiety-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-in-atherosclerosis
#19
Jianhong Lu, Shuyuan Guo, Xinli Xue, Qun Chen, Jing Ge, Yujuan Zhuo, Huiqin Zhong, Buxing Chen, Mingming Zhao, Wei Han, Takashi Suzuki, Mingjiang Zhu, Lin Xia, Claus Schneider, Timothy S Blackwell, Ned A Porter, Lemin Zheng, Sotirios Tsimikas, Huiyong Yin
Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major contributing factors to atherosclerosis, a leading cause for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Oxidation of phospholipids on the surface of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles generated under oxidative stress has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. We identified a novel series of oxidation products containing cyclopentenone moiety, termed deoxy-A2/J2-isoprostanes-phosphocholine (deoxy-A2/J2-IsoP-PC), from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) in vivo using mass spectrometry and by comparison to a chemically synthesized standard...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202416/microarray-analysis-of-macrophage-response-to-infection-with-streptococcus-oralis-reveals-the-immunosuppressive-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#20
Hitomi Matsushima, Yutaro Kumagai, Alexis Vandenbon, Hideo Kataoka, Miki Kadena, Haruka Fukamachi, Takafumi Arimoto, Hirobumi Morisaki, Nagatoshi Fujiwara, Nobuo Okahashi, Hirotaka Kuwata
Oral streptococci including mitis group streptococci are commensal residents and are also the first to colonize the oral cavity. However, various species of these oral streptococci have the potential to invade the host and occasionally lead to severe infectious disease such as cardiovascular diseases. Oral streptococci have close interactions with the host immune system including macrophages at the oral mucosal surface. One notable common trait of oral streptococcus including Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis) is the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
February 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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