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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768137/organic-amendments-beneficial-microbes-and-soil-microbiota-toward-a-unified-framework-for-disease-suppression
#1
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768136/the-genome-biology-of-effector-gene-evolution-in-filamentous-plant-pathogens
#2
Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E Hartmann, Jessica L Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll
Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768135/seeing-the-light-the-roles-of-red-and-blue-light-sensing-in-plant-microbes
#3
Gwyn A Beattie, Bridget M Hatfield, Haili Dong, Regina S McGrane
Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage)-domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppression of virulence, motility, and conjugation in some phytopathogens and light-regulated induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in a stem-nodulating symbiont...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607585/arabidopsis-thaliana-expressing-pbbsmt-a-gene-encoding-a-sabath-type-methyltransferase-from-the-plant-pathogenic-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-show-leaf-chlorosis-and-altered-host-susceptibility
#4
Simon Bulman, Franziska Richter, Sabine Marschollek, Freia Benade, Sabine Jülke, Jutta Ludwig-Müller
The plant pathogenic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae causes the clubroot disease of Brassicaceae. The biotrophic organism has the capacity to downregulate plant defence responses. The previously characterised P. brassicae PbBSMT methyltransferase has substrate specificity for salicylic, benzoic and anthranilic acids. We therefore propose a role for the methylation of SA in attenuating the plant's defence response in infected roots as a novel strategy for intracellular parasitism. To further elucidate the function of PbBSMT, we overexpressed the gene under the control of an inducible promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana and performed physiological, molecular and phytopathological analyses with these transgenic plants under control and induced conditions in comparison to wild type...
April 1, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522799/bioinformatical-analysis-and-prediction-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-phytophthora-parasitica-resistance
#5
Jing Yu, Gan Ai, Danyu Shen, Chunyue Chai, Yuling Jia, Wenjing Liu, Daolong Dou
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, one of the largest transcription factor groups in plants, regulates many critical developmental processes. However, their functions in plant defense have not been extensively studied in Nicotiana benthamiana, an important model plant species for phytopathology. Here, we identified N. benthamiana bHLH genes (NbbHLHs) using a whole-genome searching approach, and found that the NbbHLHs are highly enriched and some subfamilies are selectively expanded in N. benthamiana...
March 6, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520284/closing-the-yield-gap-of-sugar-beet-in-the-netherlands-a-joint-effort
#6
Bram Hanse, Frans G J Tijink, Jurgen Maassen, Noud van Swaaij
The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301954/exocyst-subunit-exo70h4-has-a-specific-role-in-callose-synthase-secretion-and-silica-accumulation
#7
Ivan Kulich, Zdeňka Vojtíková, Peter Sabol, Jitka Ortmannová, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Viktor Žárský
Biogenesis of the plant secondary cell wall involves many important aspects, such as phenolic compound deposition and often silica encrustation. Previously, we demonstrated the importance of the exocyst subunit EXO70H4 for biogenesis of the trichome secondary cell wall, namely for deposition of the autofluorescent and callose-rich cell wall layer. Here, we reveal that EXO70H4-driven cell wall biogenesis is constitutively active in the mature trichome, but also can be activated elsewhere upon pathogen attack, giving this study a broader significance with an overlap into phytopathology...
March 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299291/regional-patterns-of-increasing-swiss-needle-cast-impacts-on-douglas-fir-growth-with-warming-temperatures
#8
E Henry Lee, Peter A Beedlow, Ronald S Waschmann, David T Tingey, Steven Cline, Michael Bollman, Charlotte Wickham, Cailie Carlile
The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii , causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al., Plant Disease , 2000, 84 , 773; Rosso & Hansen, Phytopathology , 2003, 93 , 790; Shaw, et al., Journal of Forestry , 2011, 109 , 109). However, knowledge remains limited on the history and spatial distribution of SNC impacts in the PNW. We reconstructed the history of SNC impacts on mature Douglas-fir trees based on tree-ring width chronologies from western Oregon...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297963/matrix-approach-to-the-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-potato-pathogens-by-real-time-pcr
#9
M M Nikitin, N V Statsyuk, P A Frantsuzov, V G Dzhavakhiya, A G Golikov
AIM: Create a method for highly sensitive, selective, rapid and easy-to-use detection and identification of economically significant potato pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and oomycetes, be it single pathogen, or a range of various pathogens occurring simultaneously. METHODS AND RESULTS: Test-systems for real-time PCR, operating in the unified amplification regime, have been developed for Phytophthora infestans, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Dickeya dianthicola, Dickeya solani, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275504/aedes-albopictus-skuse-1895-diptera-culicidae-in-greece-13-years-of-living-with-the-asian-tiger-mosquito
#10
Ε Badieritakis, D Papachristos, D Latinopoulos, Α Stefopoulou, Α Kolimenakis, K Bithas, Ε Patsoula, S Beleri, D Maselou, G Balatsos, Α Michaelakis
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is an invasive mosquito species of public health significance, well established in many countries worldwide. In Greece, it was first recorded in Corfu and Thesprotia between 2003 and 2004. In the following years, further distribution and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Greece have been confirmed in many Regional Units of the country. In the current study, we report the invasion history of Ae. albopictus in Greece, until 2016...
February 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234337/community-profiling-of-fusarium-in-combination-with-other-plant-associated-fungi-in-different-crop-species-using-smrt-sequencing
#11
Florian Walder, Klaus Schlaeppi, Raphaël Wittwer, Alain Y Held, Susanne Vogelgsang, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium , is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227906/to-disinfect-or-not-to-disinfect-in-postharvest-research-on-the-fungal-decay-of-apple
#12
Matthias Naets, Mattias van Dael, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Wannes Keulemans, Annemie Geeraerd
Postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables can reach up to 30%, the main cause being microbial decay. For apple fruit, mostly fungal pathogens, such as Penicillium expansum, Colletotrichum spp., Neofabraea spp. and Botrytis cinerea, are important. As such losses are unsustainable in many ways, it is necessary that research is conducted to prevent them. Generally, for plants and fruit grown under non-sterile field conditions, disinfection is carried out prior to the start of a phytopathological experiment. The motivation for this practice is the removal of background contamination so that it will not affect the experimental outcome and its interpretation...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205105/epidemiology-past-present-and-future-impacts-on-understanding-disease-dynamics-and-improving-plant-disease-management-a-summary-of-focus-issue-articles
#13
P S Ojiambo, J Yuen, F van den Bosch, L V Madden
Epidemiology has made significant contributions to plant pathology by elucidating the general principles underlying the development of disease epidemics. This has resulted in a greatly improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the dynamics of disease epidemics in time and space, predictions of disease outbreaks or the need for disease control in real-time basis, and tactical and strategic solutions to disease problems. Availability of high-resolution experimental data at multiple temporal and spatial scales has now provided a platform to test and validate theories on the spread of diseases at a wide range of spatial scales ranging from the local to the landscape level...
October 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795660/systems-and-synthetic-biology-perspective-of-the-versatile-plant-pathogenic-and-polysaccharide-producing-bacterium-xanthomonas-campestris
#14
Sarah Schatschneider, Jessica Schneider, Jochen Blom, Fabien Létisse, Karsten Niehaus, Alexander Goesmann, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter
Bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are a major group of plant pathogens. They are hazardous to important crops and closely related to human pathogens. Being collectively a major focus of molecular phytopathology, an increasing number of diverse and intricate mechanisms are emerging by which they communicate, interfere with host signalling and keep competition at bay. Interestingly, they are also biotechnologically relevant polysaccharide producers. Systems biotechnology techniques have revealed their central metabolism and a growing number of remarkable features...
August 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755212/in-vitro-cryopreservation-of-date-palm-caulogenic-meristems
#15
Lotfi Fki, Olfa Chkir, Walid Kriaa, Ameni Nasri, Emna Baklouti, Raja B Masmoudi, Alain Rival, Noureddine Drira, Bart Panis
Cryopreservation is the technology of choice not only for plant genetic resource preservation but also for virus eradication and for the efficient management of large-scale micropropagation. In this chapter, we describe three cryopreservation protocols (standard vitrification, droplet vitrification, and encapsulation vitrification) for date palm highly proliferating meristems that are initiated from vitro-cultures using plant growth regulator-free MS medium. The positive impact of sucrose preculture and cold hardening treatments on survival rates is significant...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645233/adaptation-to-the-host-environment-by-plant-pathogenic-fungi
#16
REVIEW
H Charlotte van der Does, Martijn Rep
Many fungi can live both saprophytically and as endophyte or pathogen inside a living plant. In both environments, complex organic polymers are used as sources of nutrients. Propagation inside a living host also requires the ability to respond to immune responses of the host. We review current knowledge of how plant-pathogenic fungi do this. First, we look at how fungi change their global gene expression upon recognition of the host environment, leading to secretion of effectors, enzymes, and secondary metabolites; changes in metabolism; and defense against toxic compounds...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645232/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-the-plant-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Stéphane Hacquard, Stijn Spaepen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Paul Schulze-Lefert
The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645231/evolution-of-hormone-signaling-networks-in-plant-defense
#18
REVIEW
Matthias L Berens, Hannah M Berry, Akira Mine, Cristiana T Argueso, Kenichi Tsuda
Studies with model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that phytohormones are central regulators of plant defense. The intricate network of phytohormone signaling pathways enables plants to activate appropriate and effective defense responses against pathogens as well as to balance defense and growth. The timing of the evolution of most phytohormone signaling pathways seems to coincide with the colonization of land, a likely requirement for plant adaptations to the more variable terrestrial environments, which included the presence of pathogens...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637398/what-do-we-know-about-nod-like-receptors-in-plant-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Peter N Dodds, Maud Bernoux
The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. New discoveries in this expanding field of research provide new elements for our understanding of plant NLR function. But what do we know about plant NLR function today? Genetic, structural, and functional analyses have uncovered a number of commonalities and differences in pathogen recognition strategies as well as how NLRs are regulated and activate defense signaling, but many unknowns remain...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637378/surveillance-to-inform-control-of-emerging-plant-diseases-an-epidemiological-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Stephen Parnell, Frank van den Bosch, Tim Gottwald, Christopher A Gilligan
The rise in emerging pathogens and strains has led to increased calls for more effective surveillance in plant health. We show how epidemiological insights about the dynamics of disease spread can improve the targeting of when and where to sample. We outline some relatively simple but powerful statistical approaches to inform surveillance and describe how they can be adapted to include epidemiological information. This enables us to address questions such as: Following the first report of an invading pathogen, what is the likely incidence of disease? If no cases of disease have been found, how certain can we be that the disease was not simply missed by chance? We illustrate the use of spatially explicit stochastic models to optimize targeting of surveillance and control resources...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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