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theta delta epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#1
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948998/bimodal-coupling-of-ripples-and-slower-oscillations-during-sleep-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#2
Inkyung Song, Iren Orosz, Inna Chervoneva, Zachary J Waldman, Itzhak Fried, Chengyuan Wu, Ashwini Sharan, Noriko Salamon, Richard Gorniak, Sandra Dewar, Anatol Bragin, Jerome Engel, Michael R Sperling, Richard Staba, Shennan A Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Differentiating pathologic and physiologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) is challenging. In patients with focal epilepsy, HFOs occur during the transitional periods between the up and down state of slow waves. The preferred phase angles of this form of phase-event amplitude coupling are bimodally distributed, and the ripples (80-150 Hz) that occur during the up-down transition more often occur in the seizure-onset zone (SOZ). We investigated if bimodal ripple coupling was also evident for faster sleep oscillations, and could identify the SOZ...
September 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919388/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-induced-by-physical-exercise-may-improve-neuropsychological-functions-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy
#3
Gyan Raj Koirala, Dongpyo Lee, Soyong Eom, Nam-Young Kim, Heung Dong Kim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate alteration in functional connectivity (FC) in patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) as induced by physical exercise therapy and their correlation to the neuropsychological (NP) functions. METHODS: We analyzed 115 artifact- and spike-free 2-second epochs extracted from resting state EEG recordings before and after 5weeks of physical exercise in eight patients with BECTS. The exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (eLORETA) was used for source reconstruction...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762469/impairment-of-gabaergic-system-contributes-to-epileptogenesis-in-glutaric-acidemia-type-i
#4
Mayara Vendramin Pasquetti, Letícia Meier, Samanta Loureiro, Marcelo Ganzella, Bernardo Junges, Letícia Barbieri Caus, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, David M Koeller, Stephen Goodman, Michael Woontner, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto
OBJECTIVES: Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and characterized by increased levels of glutaric, 3-OH-glutaric, and glutaconic acids in the brain parenchyma. The increment of these organic acids inhibits glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and consequently lowers the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis. Untreated patients exhibit severe neurologic deficits during development, including epilepsy, especially following an acute encephalopathy outbreak...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706561/automatic-detection-of-epilepsy-and-seizure-using-multiclass-sparse-extreme-learning-machine-classification
#5
Yuanfa Wang, Zunchao Li, Lichen Feng, Chuang Zheng, Wenhao Zhang
An automatic detection system for distinguishing normal, ictal, and interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is of great help in clinical practice. This paper presents a three-class classification system based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the nonlinear sparse extreme learning machine (SELM) for epilepsy and epileptic seizure detection. Three-level lifting DWT using Daubechies order 4 wavelet is introduced to decompose EEG signals into delta, theta, alpha, and beta subbands. Considering classification accuracy and computational complexity, the maximum and standard deviation values of each subband are computed to create an eight-dimensional feature vector...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601605/rapid-focal-cooling-attenuates-cortical-seizures-in-a-primate-epilepsy-model
#6
Guoping Ren, Jiaqing Yan, Guoxian Tao, Yunmeng Gan, Donghong Li, Xi Yan, Yongjuan Fu, Leiming Wang, Weimin Wang, Zhiming Zhang, Feng Yue, Xiaofeng Yang
Rapid focal cooling is an attractive nondestructive strategy to control and possibly prevent focal seizures. However, the temperature threshold necessary to abort seizures in primates is still unknown. Here, we explored this issue in a primate epilepsy model and observed the effect of rapid cooling on different electroencephalogram frequency bands, aiming at providing necessary experimental data for future clinical translational studies and exploring the mechanism of focal cooling in terminating seizures. We induced focal neocortical seizures using microinjection of 4-aminopyridine into premotor cortex in five anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574952/the-hippocampus-and-cortex-together-generate-the-scalp-eeg-ictal-discharge-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
David G Vossler, Diana L Kraemer, Anthony J Bell
PURPOSE: The scalp EEG ictal discharge in temporal lobe epilepsy is reportedly visible only after the intracranial discharge becomes well synchronized and present over 10 to 30 cm of cortex. We investigated the role of the hippocampal formation in the generation of the scalp EEG ictal discharge. METHODS: Intracranial EEG video monitors were recorded using simultaneous scalp, stereotaxic depth, and subdural strip electrodes in 19 subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480502/enriched-environment-attenuates-behavioral-seizures%C3%A2-and-depression-in-chronic%C3%A2-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466144/comparative-analysis-of-background-eeg-activity-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-during-valproate-treatment-a-standardized-low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography-sloreta-study
#9
Jung-Hyun Shin, Tae-Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
Valproate (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) used for initial monotherapy in treating childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG might be an alternative approach to explore the effects of AEDs on the central nervous system. We performed a comparative analysis of background EEG activity during VPA treatment by using standardized, low-resolution, brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to explore the effect of VPA in patients with CAE. In 17 children with CAE, non-parametric statistical analyses using sLORETA were performed to compare the current density distribution of four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) between the untreated and treated condition...
July 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367124/protective-effects-of-cannabidiol-against-seizures-and-neuronal-death-in-a-rat-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Raquel A Do Val-da Silva, Jose E Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Jana B De Ross, Ingrid Esteves, Bruno S De Martinis, Marcela N R Alves, Renata C Scandiuzzi, Jaime E C Hallak, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose A Crippa, Joao P Leite
The present study reports the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuropathological effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, in the intrahippocampal pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model. CBD was administered before pilocarpine-induced SE (group SE+CBDp) or before and after SE (group SE+CBDt), and compared to rats submitted only to SE (SE group), CBD, or vehicle (VH group). Groups were evaluated during SE (behavioral and electrophysiological analysis), as well as at days one and three post-SE (exploratory activity, electrophysiological analysis, neuron density, and neuron degeneration)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265243/altered-intermittent-rhythmic-delta-and-theta-activity-in-the-electroencephalographies-of-high-functioning-adult-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Dominique Endres, Simon Maier, Bernd Feige, Nicole A Posielski, Kathrin Nickel, Dieter Ebert, Andreas Riedel, Alexandra Philipsen, Evgeniy Perlov, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with epilepsy. Previous studies have also shown increased rates of electroencephalographic (EEG) alteration in ASD patients without epilepsy. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA) events between high-functioning adult patients with ASD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Routine EEG records of 19 ASD patients and 19 matched controls were screened for IRDA/IRTA using a fully data driven analysis with fixed thresholds...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223926/frontal-functional-connectivity-of-electrocorticographic-delta-and-theta-rhythms-during-action-execution-versus-action-observation-in-humans
#12
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Lopez, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier P Quarato, Luigi Pavone, Roberta Morace, Andrea Soricelli, Giuseppe Noce, Vincenzo Esposito, Vittorio Gallese, Giovanni Mirabella
We have previously shown that in seven drug-resistant epilepsy patients, both reaching-grasping of objects and the mere observation of those actions did desynchronize subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-30) rhythms as a sign of cortical activation in primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Furthermore, that desynchronization was greater during action execution than during its observation. In the present exploratory study, we reanalyzed those ECoG data to evaluate the proof-of-concept that lagged linear connectivity (LLC) between primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas would be enhanced during the action execution compared to the mere observation due to a greater flow of visual and somatomotor information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121257/focal-changes-to-human-electrocorticography-with-drowsiness-a-novel-measure-of-local-sleep
#13
Jeremy D Slater, Mircea I Chelaru, Bryan J Hansen, Charles Beaman, Giridhar Kalamangalam, Nitin Tandon, Valentin Dragoi
Drowsiness may be defined as the progressive loss of cortical processing efficiency that occurs with time passing while awake. This loss of cortical processing efficiency is reflected in focal changes to the electroencephalogram, including islands of increased delta power concurrent with drop-offs in neuronal activity (i.e., focal cortical inactivity). The authors hypothesized that these focal changes are evidenced at individual electrodes by combination of increased instantaneous amplitude in delta band and decreased instantaneous frequency in theta-alpha band, permitting their categorization as "active" and "inactive...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#14
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536227/phase-amplitude-coupling-is-elevated-in-deep-sleep-and-in-the-onset-zone-of-focal-epileptic-seizures
#15
Mina Amiri, Birgit Frauscher, Jean Gotman
The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490325/hyperventilation-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-electromagnetic-tomography-functional-connectivity-and-graph-theory-a-possible-tool-in-epilepsy-diagnosis
#16
Edoardo Mazzucchi, Catello Vollono, Anna Losurdo, Elisa Testani, Valentina Gnoni, Chiara Di Blasi, Nadia M Giannantoni, Leonardo Lapenta, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
PURPOSE: Hyperventilation (HV) is a commonly used electroencephalogram activation method. METHODS: We analyzed EEG recordings in 22 normal subjects and 22 patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause. We selected segments before (PRE), during (HYPER), and 5 minutes after (POST) HV. To analyze the neural generators of EEG signal, we used standard low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA software). We then computed EEG lagged coherence, an index of functional connectivity, between 19 regions of interest...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390678/intracranial-cortical-calcifications-in-a-focal-epilepsy-patient-with-pseudohypoparathyroidism
#17
Ye Sel Kim, Jihyung Park, Yoonkyung Park, KyoungJin Hwang, Dae Lim Koo, Daeyoung Kim, Dae-Won Seo
Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303609/neurofeedback-a-comprehensive-review-on-system-design-methodology-and-clinical-applications
#18
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040713/comparative-power-spectrum-analysis-of-eeg-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-and-wistar-rats-in-kainate-model-of-temporal-model-of-epilepsy
#19
Jana Tchekalarova, Lidia Kortenska, Pencho Marinov, Kiril Boyanov
Recently, we have reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit higher susceptibility than Wistar rats in kainate (KA) model of epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to compare the baseline of EEG signals in SHRs and Wistar rats using Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) during the three phases of KA model (acute, latent and chronic). The SHRs showed higher baseline relative power of delta waves in the left frontal cortex and lower gamma-HF waves in the left frontal and left/right parietal cortex, respectively, compared to Wistar rats...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957064/-electroencephalographic-features-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children
#20
Xin Gao, Zhixian Yang, Jiao Xue, Taoyun Ji, Yao Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Ye Wu, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Yuwn Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in children. METHOD: Clinical data of 28 children diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis were retrospectively analyzed for EEG characteristics in different periods and severity of disease and outcome. RESULT: Among the 28 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 15 were males and 13 were females. Their age at disease onset ranged from 1 year 3 months to 12 years 4 months...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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