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theta delta epilepsy

Mina Amiri, Birgit Frauscher, Jean Gotman
The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Edoardo Mazzucchi, Catello Vollono, Anna Losurdo, Elisa Testani, Valentina Gnoni, Chiara Di Blasi, Nadia Mariagrazia Giannantoni, Leonardo Lapenta, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
INTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation is a commonly used electroencephalogram activation method. METHODS: We analyzed EEG recordings in 22 normal subjects and 22 patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause. We selected segments before (PRE), during (HYPER) and five minutes after (POST) hyperventilation. In order to analyze the neural generators of EEG signal, we used standard LOw Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA software). We then computed EEG lagged coherence, an index of functional connectivity, between 19 Regions Of Interest...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ye Sel Kim, Jihyung Park, Yoonkyung Park, KyoungJin Hwang, Dae Lim Koo, Daeyoung Kim, Dae-Won Seo
Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Jana Tchekalarova, Lidia Kortenska, Pencho Marinov, Kiril Boyanov
Recently, we have reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit higher susceptibility than Wistar rats in kainate (KA) model of epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to compare the baseline of EEG signals in SHRs and Wistar rats using Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) during the three phases of KA model (acute, latent and chronic). The SHRs showed higher baseline relative power of delta waves in the left frontal cortex and lower gamma-HF waves in the left frontal and left/right parietal cortex, respectively, compared to Wistar rats...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Xin Gao, Zhixian Yang, Jiao Xue, Taoyun Ji, Yao Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Ye Wu, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Yuwn Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in children. METHOD: Clinical data of 28 children diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis were retrospectively analyzed for EEG characteristics in different periods and severity of disease and outcome. RESULT: Among the 28 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 15 were males and 13 were females. Their age at disease onset ranged from 1 year 3 months to 12 years 4 months...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Max Fleck, Susanne Bartels, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Andreas Riedel, Emanuel Bubl, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Evgeniy Perlov, Dominique Endres
INTRODUCTION: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chany Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yong Seo Koo, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jangsup Moon, Dong Wook Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Sang-Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Epilepsy is a disease marked by hypersynchronous bursts of neuronal activity; therefore, identifying the network characteristics of the epileptic brain is important. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) represents a common, idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome, characterized by spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms. We compare herein the network properties of periods of SWD and baseline activity using graph theory. EEG data were obtained from 11 patients with JME. Functional cortical networks during SWD and baseline periods were estimated by calculating the coherence between all possible electrode pairs in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands...
December 23, 2015: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Masaaki Nishida, Maria M Zestos, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: To better understand 'when' and 'where' wideband electrophysiological signals are altered by sedation. METHODS: We generated animation movies showing electrocorticography (ECoG) amplitudes at eight spectral frequency bands across 1.0-116 Hz, every 0.1s, on three-dimensional surface images of 10 children who underwent epilepsy surgery. We measured the onset, intensity, and variance of each band amplitude change at given nonepileptic regions separately from those at affected regions...
February 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Fabio Rotondi, Silvana Franceschetti, Giuliano Avanzini, Ferruccio Panzica
OBJECTIVE: We investigated interictal EEG activity in patients with childhood absence seizures with the aim of detecting markers of network defects generating "idiopathic" hyperexcitability in this form of epilepsy. METHODS: We included 11 drug-naïve patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and 11 age matched controls (CTRL). We analyzed interictal EEG using partial directed coherence (PDC), a connectivity estimator in frequency domain based on autoregressive multivariate (MVAR) modeling giving the advantage of indicating the direction and strength of the interactions between multiple variables...
February 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, David Martín-López, Mojtaba A Masood, Richard P Selway, Antonio Valentín, Gonzalo Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of the second ictal pattern (SIP) that follows the first ictal pattern (FIP) seen at seizure onset in order to predict seizure control after epilepsy surgery. METHODS: SIPs were analysed in 344 electro-clinical and subclinical seizures recorded with intracranial electrodes in 63 patients. SIPs were classified as (a) electrodecremental event (EDE); (b) fast activity (FA); (c) runs of spikes; (d) spike-wave activity; (e) sharp waves; (f) alpha activity; (g) delta activity and (h) theta activity...
January 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Leyla Baysal-Kirac, Erdem Tuzun, Ebru Altindag, Esme Ekizoglu, Demet Kinay, Basar Bilgic, Pinar Tekturk, Betul Baykan
This study evaluated the EEG findings of patients whose seizures were associated with a possible autoimmune etiology. Our aim was to find clues to distinguish patients with antineuronal antibodies (Ab) through EEG studies. We reviewed our database and identified antineuronal Ab positive epilepsy patients with or without autoimmune encephalitis. These patients had Abs to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (n = 5), glycine receptor (GLY-R) (n = 5), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) (n = 4), uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antigens (n = 2), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (n = 2), Hu (n = 1), and amphiphysin (n = 1)...
July 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Wei-Ta Chen, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Chien Chen, Der-Jen Yen, Chun-Hing Yiu, Yang-Hsin Shih, Yung-Yang Lin
The electrophysiological signature of resting state oscillatory functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) during spike-free periods in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, this study investigated how the connectivity within the DMN was altered in TLE, and we examined the effect of lateralized TLE on functional connectivity. Sixteen medically intractable TLE patients and 22 controls participated in this study. Whole-scalp 306-channel MEG epochs without interictal spikes generated from both MEG and EEG data were analyzed using a minimum norm estimate (MNE) and source-based imaginary coherence analysis...
2015: PloS One
V R Funck, L R Ribeiro, L M Pereira, C V de Oliveira, J Grigoletto, I D Della-Pace, M R Fighera, L F F Royes, A F Furian, J W Larrick, M S Oliveira
Epilepsy is a life-shortening brain disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Most epilepsy patients are refractory to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity and probing for new AEDs is fundamental to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters...
July 9, 2015: Neuroscience
Max-Philipp Stenner, Vladimir Litvak, Robb B Rutledge, Tino Zaehle, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Raymond J Dolan
The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Aglaia Vignoli, Maria Paola Canevini, Stefano Meletti
Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is an underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly characterized by severe epilepsy, behavioral problems, and mild-to-moderate cognitive deficits. Since the cognitive and behavioral decline follows seizure onset, this syndrome has been proposed as an epileptic encephalopathy (EE). The recent overwhelming development of advanced neuroimaging techniques has opened a new era in the investigation of the brain networks subserving the EEs. In particular, functional neuroimaging tools are well suited to show alterations related to epileptiform discharges at the network level and to build hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the cognitive disruption observed in these conditions...
April 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nedim Durmus, Sefa Gültürk, Tijen Kaya, Tuncer Demir, Mesut Parlak, Ahmet Altun
OBJECTIVES: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12-16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Mirna Guirgis, Yotin Chinvarun, Martin Del Campo, Peter L Carlen, Berj L Bardakjian
OBJECTIVE: Clinicians identify seizure onset zones (SOZs) for resection in an attempt to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ), which is the cortical tissue that is indispensible for seizure generation. An automated system is proposed to objectively localize this EZ by identifying regions of interest (ROIs). METHODS: Intracranial electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from seven patients presenting with extratemporal lobe epilepsy and the interaction between neuronal rhythms in the form of phase-amplitude coupling was investigated...
April 2015: Journal of Neural Engineering
Franck Kalume, John C Oakley, Ruth E Westenbroek, Jennifer Gile, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Todd Scheuer, William A Catterall
Dravet Syndrome (DS) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Our mouse genetic model of DS recapitulates its severe seizures and premature death. Sleep disturbance is common in DS, but its mechanism is unknown. Electroencephalographic studies revealed abnormal sleep in DS mice, including reduced delta wave power, reduced sleep spindles, increased brief wakes, and numerous interictal spikes in Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep. Theta power was reduced in Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
P N Vlasov, A V Chervyakov, V V Gnezditskii
BACKGROUND: Déjà vu (DV, from French déjà vu - "already seen") is an aberration of psychic activity associated with transitory erroneous perception of novel circumstances, objects, or people as already known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to record the EEG pattern of déjà vu. METHODS: The subjects participated in a survey concerning déjà vu characteristics and underwent ambulatory EEG monitoring (12-16 h). RESULTS: In patients with epilepsy, DV episodes began with polyspike activity in the right temporal lobe region and, in some cases, ended with slow-wave theta-delta activity over the right hemisphere...
2013: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
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