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theta delta epilepsy

Raquel A Do Val-da Silva, Jose E Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Jana B De Ross, Ingrid Esteves, Bruno S De Martinis, Marcela N R Alves, Renata C Scandiuzzi, Jaime E C Hallak, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose A Crippa, Joao P Leite
The present study reports the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuropathological effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, in the intrahippocampal pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model. CBD was administered before pilocarpine-induced SE (group SE+CBDp) or before and after SE (group SE+CBDt), and compared to rats submitted only to SE (SE group), CBD, or vehicle (VH group). Groups were evaluated during SE (behavioral and electrophysiological analysis), as well as at days one and three post-SE (exploratory activity, electrophysiological analysis, neuron density, and neuron degeneration)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dominique Endres, Simon Maier, Bernd Feige, Nicole A Posielski, Kathrin Nickel, Dieter Ebert, Andreas Riedel, Alexandra Philipsen, Evgeniy Perlov, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with epilepsy. Previous studies have also shown increased rates of electroencephalographic (EEG) alteration in ASD patients without epilepsy. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA) events between high-functioning adult patients with ASD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Routine EEG records of 19 ASD patients and 19 matched controls were screened for IRDA/IRTA using a fully data driven analysis with fixed thresholds...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Lopez, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier P Quarato, Luigi Pavone, Roberta Morace, Andrea Soricelli, Giuseppe Noce, Vincenzo Esposito, Vittorio Gallese, Giovanni Mirabella
We have previously shown that in seven drug-resistant epilepsy patients, both reaching-grasping of objects and the mere observation of those actions did desynchronize subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-30) rhythms as a sign of cortical activation in primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Furthermore, that desynchronization was greater during action execution than during its observation. In the present exploratory study, we reanalyzed those ECoG data to evaluate the proof-of-concept that lagged linear connectivity (LLC) between primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas would be enhanced during the action execution compared to the mere observation due to a greater flow of visual and somatomotor information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jeremy D Slater, Mircea I Chelaru, Bryan J Hansen, Charles Beaman, Giridhar Kalamangalam, Nitin Tandon, Valentin Dragoi
Drowsiness may be defined as the progressive loss of cortical processing efficiency that occurs with time passing while awake. This loss of cortical processing efficiency is reflected in focal changes to the electroencephalogram, including islands of increased delta power concurrent with drop-offs in neuronal activity (i.e., focal cortical inactivity). The authors hypothesized that these focal changes are evidenced at individual electrodes by combination of increased instantaneous amplitude in delta band and decreased instantaneous frequency in theta-alpha band, permitting their categorization as "active" and "inactive...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Mina Amiri, Birgit Frauscher, Jean Gotman
The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Edoardo Mazzucchi, Catello Vollono, Anna Losurdo, Elisa Testani, Valentina Gnoni, Chiara Di Blasi, Nadia M Giannantoni, Leonardo Lapenta, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
PURPOSE: Hyperventilation (HV) is a commonly used electroencephalogram activation method. METHODS: We analyzed EEG recordings in 22 normal subjects and 22 patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause. We selected segments before (PRE), during (HYPER), and 5 minutes after (POST) HV. To analyze the neural generators of EEG signal, we used standard low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA software). We then computed EEG lagged coherence, an index of functional connectivity, between 19 regions of interest...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ye Sel Kim, Jihyung Park, Yoonkyung Park, KyoungJin Hwang, Dae Lim Koo, Daeyoung Kim, Dae-Won Seo
Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, Marjan Mansourian
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Jana Tchekalarova, Lidia Kortenska, Pencho Marinov, Kiril Boyanov
Recently, we have reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit higher susceptibility than Wistar rats in kainate (KA) model of epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to compare the baseline of EEG signals in SHRs and Wistar rats using Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) during the three phases of KA model (acute, latent and chronic). The SHRs showed higher baseline relative power of delta waves in the left frontal cortex and lower gamma-HF waves in the left frontal and left/right parietal cortex, respectively, compared to Wistar rats...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Xin Gao, Zhixian Yang, Jiao Xue, Taoyun Ji, Yao Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Ye Wu, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Yuwn Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in children. METHOD: Clinical data of 28 children diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis were retrospectively analyzed for EEG characteristics in different periods and severity of disease and outcome. RESULT: Among the 28 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 15 were males and 13 were females. Their age at disease onset ranged from 1 year 3 months to 12 years 4 months...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Max Fleck, Susanne Bartels, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Andreas Riedel, Emanuel Bubl, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Evgeniy Perlov, Dominique Endres
INTRODUCTION: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chany Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yong Seo Koo, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jangsup Moon, Dong Wook Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Sang-Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Epilepsy is a disease marked by hypersynchronous bursts of neuronal activity; therefore, identifying the network characteristics of the epileptic brain is important. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) represents a common, idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome, characterized by spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms. We compare herein the network properties of periods of SWD and baseline activity using graph theory. EEG data were obtained from 11 patients with JME. Functional cortical networks during SWD and baseline periods were estimated by calculating the coherence between all possible electrode pairs in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands...
March 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Masaaki Nishida, Maria M Zestos, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: To better understand 'when' and 'where' wideband electrophysiological signals are altered by sedation. METHODS: We generated animation movies showing electrocorticography (ECoG) amplitudes at eight spectral frequency bands across 1.0-116 Hz, every 0.1s, on three-dimensional surface images of 10 children who underwent epilepsy surgery. We measured the onset, intensity, and variance of each band amplitude change at given nonepileptic regions separately from those at affected regions...
February 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Fabio Rotondi, Silvana Franceschetti, Giuliano Avanzini, Ferruccio Panzica
OBJECTIVE: We investigated interictal EEG activity in patients with childhood absence seizures with the aim of detecting markers of network defects generating "idiopathic" hyperexcitability in this form of epilepsy. METHODS: We included 11 drug-naïve patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and 11 age matched controls (CTRL). We analyzed interictal EEG using partial directed coherence (PDC), a connectivity estimator in frequency domain based on autoregressive multivariate (MVAR) modeling giving the advantage of indicating the direction and strength of the interactions between multiple variables...
February 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, David Martín-López, Mojtaba A Masood, Richard P Selway, Antonio Valentín, Gonzalo Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of the second ictal pattern (SIP) that follows the first ictal pattern (FIP) seen at seizure onset in order to predict seizure control after epilepsy surgery. METHODS: SIPs were analysed in 344 electro-clinical and subclinical seizures recorded with intracranial electrodes in 63 patients. SIPs were classified as (a) electrodecremental event (EDE); (b) fast activity (FA); (c) runs of spikes; (d) spike-wave activity; (e) sharp waves; (f) alpha activity; (g) delta activity and (h) theta activity...
January 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Leyla Baysal-Kirac, Erdem Tuzun, Ebru Altindag, Esme Ekizoglu, Demet Kinay, Basar Bilgic, Pinar Tekturk, Betul Baykan
This study evaluated the EEG findings of patients whose seizures were associated with a possible autoimmune etiology. Our aim was to find clues to distinguish patients with antineuronal antibodies (Ab) through EEG studies. We reviewed our database and identified antineuronal Ab positive epilepsy patients with or without autoimmune encephalitis. These patients had Abs to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (n = 5), glycine receptor (GLY-R) (n = 5), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) (n = 4), uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antigens (n = 2), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (n = 2), Hu (n = 1), and amphiphysin (n = 1)...
July 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Wei-Ta Chen, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Chien Chen, Der-Jen Yen, Chun-Hing Yiu, Yang-Hsin Shih, Yung-Yang Lin
The electrophysiological signature of resting state oscillatory functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) during spike-free periods in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, this study investigated how the connectivity within the DMN was altered in TLE, and we examined the effect of lateralized TLE on functional connectivity. Sixteen medically intractable TLE patients and 22 controls participated in this study. Whole-scalp 306-channel MEG epochs without interictal spikes generated from both MEG and EEG data were analyzed using a minimum norm estimate (MNE) and source-based imaginary coherence analysis...
2015: PloS One
V R Funck, L R Ribeiro, L M Pereira, C V de Oliveira, J Grigoletto, I D Della-Pace, M R Fighera, L F F Royes, A F Furian, J W Larrick, M S Oliveira
Epilepsy is a life-shortening brain disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Most epilepsy patients are refractory to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity and probing for new AEDs is fundamental to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters...
July 9, 2015: Neuroscience
Max-Philipp Stenner, Vladimir Litvak, Robb B Rutledge, Tino Zaehle, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Raymond J Dolan
The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
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