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Karl Philipp Kutzner, Joachim Pfeil
Bone- and soft-tissue sparing short stems are increasingly used in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there are a large variety of models of short stems, differing in design and function. Calcar-guided short stems provide an anatomical curvature in the medial calcar region, thus, positioning is done individually alongside the calcar in the "round-the-corner" technique. Depending on the level of the neck's osteotomy, stems can be aligned individually in a large bandwidth of varus- and valgus anatomies...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein
This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for patch clamp electrophysiology...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chiara Assunta Pilato, Ilaria Stadiotti, Angela Serena Maione, Valentina Saverio, Valentina Catto, Fabrizio Tundo, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Giulio Pompilio, Michela Casella, Elena Sommariva
A normal adult heart is composed of several different cell types, among which cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells represent an abundant population. The isolation of these cells offers the possibility of studying their involvement in cardiac diseases, and, in addition, provides a useful primary cell model to investigate biological mechanisms. Here, the method for the isolation of C-MSC from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients' bioptic samples is described. The endomyocardial biopsy sampling is guided in the right ventricular areas adjacent to the scar visualized by electro-anatomical mapping...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Tian, Wei Zhang, Van Phuc Nguyen, Xueding Wang, Yannis M Paulus
Photoacoustic ocular imaging is an emerging ophthalmic imaging technology that can noninvasively visualize ocular tissue by converting light energy into sound waves and is currently under intensive investigation. However, most reported work to date is focused on the imaging of the posterior segment of the eyes of small animals, such as rats and mice, which poses challenges for clinical human translation due to small eyeball sizes. This manuscript describes a novel photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) dual-modality system for posterior segment imaging of the eyes of larger animals, such as rabbits...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
M Verheij
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jennifer F Buckman, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Maria Fonoberova, Igor Mezić, Marsha E Bates
OBJECTIVE: It has been nearly 15 years since Kazdin and Nock published methodological and research recommendations for understanding mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy. Their arguments and enthusiasm for research on mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) resonated across disciplines and disorders, as it shined a light on the crucial importance of understanding how and for whom treatments instigate behavior change and how therapeutic mechanisms might be extended to "situations and settings of everyday life...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Alicia Arnott, Qinning Wang, Nathan Bachmann, Rosemarie Sadsad, Chayanika Biswas, Cristina Sotomayor, Peter Howard, Rebecca Rockett, Agnieszka Wiklendt, Jon R Iredell, Vitali Sintchenko
Multidrug- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- sequence type 34 is present in Europe and Asia. Using genomic surveillance, we determined that this sequence type is also endemic to Australia. Our findings highlight the public health benefits of genome sequencing-guided surveillance for monitoring the spread of multidrug-resistant mobile genes and isolates.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christian Baeumer, Martin Janson, Beate Timmermann, Jörg Wulff
AIM: To assess if apertures shall be mounted upstream or downstream of a range shifting block if these field-shaping devices are combined with the pencil-beam scanning delivery technique (PBS). The lateral dose fall-off served as a benchmark parameter. Both options realizing PBS-with-apertures were compared to the uniform scanning mode. We also evaluated the difference regarding the out-of-field dose caused by interactions of protons in beam-shaping devices.
 Methods: The potential benefit of the downstream configuration over the upstream configuration was estimated analytically...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Alexander Lee Houck, Sahba Seddighi, Jane Ann Driver
BACKGROUND: A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests that neurodegenerative diseases occur less frequently in cancer survivors, and vice versa. While unusual, this inverse comorbidity is biologically plausible and could be explained, in part, by the evolutionary tradeoffs made by neurons and cycling cells to optimize performance of their very different functions. The two cell types utilize the same proteins and pathways in different, and sometimes opposite, ways. However, cancer and neurodegeneration also share many pathophysiological features...
February 23, 2018: Current Aging Science
Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Antti S Rannikko, Marcelo Borghi, Valeria Panebianco, Lance A Mynderse, Markku H Vaarala, Alberto Briganti, Lars Budäus, Giles Hellawell, Richard G Hindley, Monique J Roobol, Scott Eggener, Maneesh Ghei, Arnauld Villers, Franck Bladou, Geert M Villeirs, Jaspal Virdi, Silvan Boxler, Grégoire Robert, Paras B Singh, Wulphert Venderink, Boris A Hadaschik, Alain Ruffion, Jim C Hu, Daniel Margolis, Sébastien Crouzet, Laurence Klotz, Samir S Taneja, Peter Pinto, Inderbir Gill, Clare Allen, Francesco Giganti, Alex Freeman, Stephen Morris, Shonit Punwani, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, Jonathan Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
Background Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy...
March 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Bente Wold, Maurice B Mittelmark
AIMS: This debate paper traces the development of innovative methods for undertaking health promotion research with a socialecological orientation, with a few examples drawn from 30 years of research on adolescent health promotion research at the University of Bergen. CONCLUSION: We aim to show how the social-ecological model is becoming more evident as a guide to research, using three cases that illustrate progress and potential. The first case is the Norwegian part of the European Network of Health Promoting Schools...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Johanna Tell, Ewy Olander, Peter Anderberg, Johan Sanmartin Berglund
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate child health-care coordinators' experiences of being a facilitator for the implementation of a new national child health-care programme in the form of a web-based national guide. METHODS: The study was based on eight remote, online focus groups, using Skype for Business. A qualitative content analysis was performed. RESULTS: The analysis generated three categories: adapt to a local context, transition challenges and led by strong incentives...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Justin K Lui, Lidia Spaho, Erik Holzwanger, Rosa Bui, Jennifer S Daly, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Scott E Kopec
Chronic liver disease has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction both before and after liver transplantation. Post-liver transplantation pulmonary complications can affect both morbidity and mortality often necessitating intensive care during the immediate postoperative period. The major pulmonary complications include pneumonia, pleural effusions, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Poor clinical outcomes have been known to be associated with age, severity of liver dysfunction, and preexisting lung disease as well as perioperative events related to fluid balance, particularly transfusion and fluid volumes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Ai-Hua Wang, Li-Man Ma, Shan-Shan Fan, Guang-Xue Liu, Feng Xu, Ming-Ying Shang, Shao-Qing Cai
This experiment was performed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents of Sinopodophylli Fructus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) column.The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid was used for gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min⁻¹. Electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry was applied for qualitative analysis under positive and negative ion modes. The results indicated that 54 compounds consisted of 18 lignans and 36 flavonoids from Xiaoyelian had been detected by their HRMS data, the information of literature and reference substance...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jun-Hua Zhang, You-Ping Li, Bo-Li Zhang
The introduction and popularization of evidence-based medicine has opened up a new research field of clinical efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), produced new research ideas and methods, and promoted the progress of clinical research of TCM. After about 20 years assiduous study and earnest practice, the evidence based evaluation method and technique, which conforms to the characteristics of TCM theory and practice, has been developing continuously. Evidence-based Chinese medicine (EBCM) has gradually formed and become an important branch of evidence-based medicine...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jie Sun, Jingang Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification using carbon nanoparticles in abdominal lymph node metastasis in elderly (>60 years old) patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Eighty patients admitted at Weihai Second Municipal Hospital affiliated to Qingdao University from November 2014 to February 2017 were selected and divided into the control group (n=40) and the observation group (n=40) using the random number method. The control group was treated with surgery, while the observation group was administered carbon nanoparticle tracer for intraoperative dye detection and positioning; the first to four black-stained lymph nodes were marked as SLN, then radical surgery for colorectal cancer was performed...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Melanie R Keats, Kelsey Shea, Louise Parker, Samuel A Stewart, Annette Flanders, Mark Bernstein
Despite support for the provision of a survivorship care plan (SCP) to every cancer survivor, there is a lack of understanding of the needs and preferences of key stakeholders. We examined perspectives of a novel personalized SCP for childhood cancer survivors (CCS), their family, and family physicians (FP). We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposefully selected sample of CCS, parents/guardians, and FPs. Data included responses to stakeholder cancer care information needs, concerns with or gaps in communication, the perceived role of the FP in the long-term management of CCS care, utility of the SCP, preferred format, and suggestions for improvement...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Sibel Guzel, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR)...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
Ava Yuan Xue, Antonella Di Pizio, Anat Levit, Tali Yarnitzky, Osnat Penn, Tal Pupko, Masha Y Niv
The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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