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Song Cao, Xu Zhou, Wenbiao Jin, Feng Wang, Renjie Tu, Songfang Han, Hongyi Chen, Chuan Chen, Guo-Jun Xie, Fang Ma
In this study, an efficient screening program was established with ARTP. Five strains from oleaginous microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa were screened from mutant library after mutagenizing by ARTP. Among them, the optimal mutant strain was named as II-H6. In the BG11 medium, the OD680 of II-H6 in stationary phase were increased by 32.08% than the original strain. Meanwhile, compared with the original strain, the dry weight and lipid productivity of II-H6 were increased by 22.07% and 16.85%, respectively. II-H6 showed a good genetic stability in BG11 medium and the optimum growth temperature and pH were 33°C and 9...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Himadri Saha, K S Wisdom, Asem Lembika Devi, Da-U-Ruhi Pde, Sukham Tuni Devi, Makamguang Kamei, Anamika Biswas, Ratan K Saha, Prasenjit Pal
The effects of water pH on life history parameters of Bosmina tripurae have been studied to determine the most suitable water pH desired for the maximum growth and development of this newly discovered cladoceran species. The study was carried out under the laboratory condition at 20 ± 2°C. Five pH ranges 5.0 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.2, 7.0 ± 0.2, 8.0 ± 0.2 and 9.0 ± 0.2 with six replicates for each pH consisting of one animal in each Petri dish (80 × 15 mm) were used for the study...
May 19, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fangfang Zhao, Qingqing Xiang, Ying Zhou, Xiao Xu, Xinyi Qiu, Yi Yu, Farooq Ahmad
Topramezone is a new, highly selective herbicide of pyrazole structure for the post-emergence control of broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. In this study, the effects of topramezone on C. vulgaris, especially in relation to the cell growth, oxidative stress, cell morphology and photosynthetic activity were assessed. Results showed that topramezone treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the 24-96h of exposure. The changes in cells pigments content and relative transcript of photosynthesis-related genes, which implies that topramezone disrupted the photosynthetic system...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Aran Incharoensakdi
The biochemical contents and biodiesel production ability of three microalgal strains grown under different sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate, and ferric ammonium citrate (iron) levels were investigated. The highest biomass and lipid contents were found in Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Chlamydomonas sp. when grown in normal BG-11 containing sodium carbonate concentration at 0.03 g · L(-1) , and in normal BG-11 containing iron concentration at 0.009 or 0.012 g · L(-1) . Increasing the sodium nitrate level increased the biomass content, but decreased the lipid content in all three microalgae...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Sayaka Himuro, Sugi Ueno, Naoto Noguchi, Takuya Uchikawa, Toshihiro Kanno, Akira Yasutake
The genus Chlorella contains unicellular green algae that have been used as food supplements. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the safety of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain CK-22 using powdered preparation (CK-22P) both by in vitro and in vivo assays. These included an experiment for cytotoxicity using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and a 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity trial using Wistar rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay of a hot water extract (Hw-Ex) and 80% ethanol extract (Et-Ex) of CK-22P, and no effect on cell viability was observed...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Heshan Zheng, Wanqian Guo, Shuo Li, Yidi Chen, Qinglian Wu, Xiaochi Feng, Renli Yin, Shih-Hsin Ho, Nanqi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
Biochars derived from three microalgal strains (namely, Chlorella sp. Cha-01, Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 and Coelastrum sp. Pte-15) were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb p-nitrophenols (PNP) using raw microalgal biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the control. The results show that BC-Cha-01 (biochar from Chlorella sp. Cha-01) exhibited a high PNP adsorption capacity of 204.8mgg(-1), which is 250% and 140% higher than that of its raw biomass and PAC, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium are well described with pseudo-second-order equation and Freundlich model, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Dong-Yeon Kim, Kyubock Lee, Jiye Lee, Young-Hee Lee, Jong-In Han, Ji-Yeon Park, You-Kwan Oh
Chemical flocculation is considered to be an overall low-cost and up-scalable process for harvesting of microalgae. In this study a new flocculation approach utilizing metal coagulant (Fe2(SO4)3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was introduced for harvesting of Chlorella sp. KR-1, which overcome two main issues of contamination and reuse of coagulant. Reduction of pH successfully released precipitates attached to the microalgae, and the remaining acidic solution containing recovered ferric ions could be reused for harvesting up to three times with high, better-than 98% efficiencies...
May 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yulin Hu, Shanghuan Feng, Zhongshun Yuan, Chunbao Charles Xu, Amarjeet Bassi
In this study, the aqueous phase obtained from catalytic/non-catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Chlorella vulgaris was recycled as the reaction medium with an aim to reduce water consumption and increase bio-crude oil yield. Although both Na2CO3 and HCOOH catalysts have been proven to be effective for promoting biomass conversion, the bio-crude oil yield obtained from HTL with Na2CO3 (11.5wt%) was lower than that obtained from the non-catalytic HTL in pure water at 275°C for 50min. While, the HCOOH led to almost the same bio-crude yield from HTL (29...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yi Li, Yanting Xu, Tianling Zheng, Hailei Wang
In this study, an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 with the ability to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass was used to investigate the flocculation mechanism. Streptomyces sp. hsn06 exhibited flocculation activity on algal cells through mycelial pellets with adding calcium. Calcium was determined to promote flocculation activity of mycelial pellets as a bridge binding with mycelial pellets and algal cells, which implied that calcium bridging is the main flocculation mechanism for mycelial pellets. Characteristics of flocculation activity confirmed proteins in mycelial pellets involved in flocculation procedure...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Kärin Nickelsen
Historians and philosophers of twentieth-century life sciences have demonstrated that the choice of experimental organism can profoundly influence research fields, in ways that sometimes undermined the scientists' original intentions. The present paper aims to enrich and broaden the scope of this literature by analysing the career of unicellular green algae of the genus Chlorella. They were introduced for the study of photosynthesis in 1919 by the German cell physiologist Otto H. Warburg, and they became the favourite research objects in this field up to the 1960s...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Ze Yu, Mingming Song, Haiyan Pei, Liqun Jiang, Qingjie Hou, Changliang Nie, Lijie Zhang
Applying phytohormones has been considered a promising way to increase lipid productivity of microalgae recently. Eight dosages of auxin phytohormones were tested to exploit the effects and mechanism of such stimulants on microalgae. The optimal one was 20mgL(-1), leading to an increase in biomass concentration of 59.3% for Scenedesmus sp. SDEC-8 and 76.6% for Chlorella sorokiniana SDEC-18, meanwhile the lipid content rose from 18.74% to 56.17% (SDEC-8) and from 19.69% to 55.76% (SDEC-18). Proton pumps were activated by the stimulants, causing excretion of H(+), which resulted in pH decline and a favorable condition for growth...
May 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ainur-Assyakirin Mohd-Sahib, Jun-Wei Lim, Man-Kee Lam, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Chii-Dong Ho, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty, Chung-Yiin Wong, Siti-Suhailah Rosli
The potential to grow attached microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in fluidized bed bioreactor was materialized in this study, targeting to ease the harvesting process prior to biodiesel production. The proposed thermodynamic mechanism and physical property assessment of various support materials verified polyurethane to be suitable material favouring the spontaneous adhesion by microalgae cells. The 1-L bioreactor packed with only 2.4% (v/v) of 1.00-mL polyurethane foam cubes could achieve the highest attached growth microalgae biomass and lipid weights of 812±122 and 376±37mg, respectively, in comparison with other cube sizes...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Taojing Chen, Quanyu Zhao, Liang Wang, Yunfeng Xu, Wei Wei
Co-culture of microalgae with many types of bacteria usually comes out with significant different treatment efficiencies for COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in wastewater remediation, compared with the single culture. In order to understand the mechanism behind, a comparative experiment was designed in this study, using the green microalgae species Chlorella sorokiniana in the single culture and a consortium with a bacterium, Pseudomonas H4, for nutrient removal. Comparative metabolome profile analysis was conducted to reveal the Chlorella cell responses to the synergistic growth with the bacteria, and possible relations between the metabolic regulation of microalgae and the nutrient degradation were discussed...
May 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zhi-Dong Zhang, Kai Liang, Kun Li, Guo-Quan Wang, Ke-Wei Zhang, Lei Cai, Shui-Ting Zhai, Kuo-Chen Chou
PURPOSE: Chlorella vulgaris(C. vulgaris), a unicellular green microalga, has been widely used as a food supplement and reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. The current study was designed to assess the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and DNA-damaging effects of C. vulgaris growth factor (CGF), hot water C. vulgaris extracts, in lung tumor A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines. METHODS: A549 cells, NCI-H460 cells, and normal human fibroblasts were treated with CGF at various concentrations (0-300 μg/ml) for 24 hr...
May 9, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Ruixin Guo, Yingxiang Du, Fengzhu Zheng, Jing Wang, Zhiliang Wang, Rong Ji, Jianqiu Chen
In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation and elimination of (14)C-labeled BPA by the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the subsequent transfer of (14)C-BPA residues from the contaminated alga to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. After 10 days of BPA exposure, the algal cells accumulated 15% of the initial radioactivity from the medium, with 71% of the accumulated radioactivity occurring in the form of non-extractable bound residues. An approximate steady state of the accumulation of the (14)C-BPA residues in the algae was reached after about 4 days of exposure...
May 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ghulam Mujtaba, Kisay Lee
The use of algal-bacterial symbiotic association establishes a sustainable and cost-effective strategy in wastewater treatment. Using municipal wastewater, the removal performances of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and organic pollutants were investigated by the co-culture system having different inoculum ratios (R) of suspended activated sludge to alginate-immobilized microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The co-culture reactors with lower R ratios obtained more removal of nitrogen than in pure culture of C...
May 1, 2017: Water Research
Dan Zhou, Baoquan Qiao, Gen Li, Song Xue, Jianzhong Yin
Raw material for biodiesel has been expanded from edible oil to non-edible oil. In this study, biodiesel continuous production for two kinds of microalgae Chrysophyta and Chlorella sp. was conducted. Coupling with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the oil of microalgae was extracted firstly, and then sent to the downstream production of biodiesel. The residue after decompression can be reused as the material for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. Results showed that the particle size of microalgae, temperature, pressure, molar ration of methanol to oil, flow of CO2 and n-hexane all have effects on the yield of biodiesel...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xiaowei Peng, Xiaoqian Ma, Yousheng Lin, Jingjing Wang, Xiaoyu Wei, Xinfei Chen
The kinetic behavior and evolution characteristics of gaseous products during the combustion of biocrude oil from solvolysis liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated by thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The results indicated the biocrude oil obtained from different ethanol/water mixed ratio had obvious difference with each other. The ignition temperature of biocrude oil from ethanol-water co-solvent was lower than that from pure water solvent, which promoted the comprehensive combustion index...
April 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Archana Dash, Rintu Banerjee
Algae-fungus co-culture was investigated as an alternative biodiesel feedstock. An oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori was co-cultured with Chlorella minutissima MCC 27 and Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2219, respectively in N11 medium furnished with different carbon and nitrogen sources. The biomass and lipid production potential of the two C. minutissima-A. awamori co-cultures was compared against the monocultures. A substantial enhancement in biomass and lipid accumulation was observed in both the co-cultures...
April 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Abdallah Oukarroum, Wassila Zaidi, Mahshid Samadani, David Dewez
A freshwater microalga strain of Chlorella vulgaris was used to investigate toxic effects induced by nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) in suspension. Algal cells were exposed during 96 h to 0-100 mg L(-1) of NiO-NPs and analyzed by flow cytometry. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles in tested media showed a soluble fraction (free Ni(2+)) of only 6.42% for 100 mg L(-1) of NiO-NPs, indicating the low solubility capacity of these NPs. Toxicity analysis showed cellular alterations which were related to NiO-NPs concentration, such as inhibition in cell division (relative cell size and granularity), deterioration of the photosynthetic apparatus (chlorophyll synthesis and photochemical reactions of photosynthesis), and oxidative stress (ROS production)...
2017: BioMed Research International
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