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Hanna N Almeida, Guilherme Q Calixto, Bruna M E Chagas, Dulce M A Melo, Fabio M Resende, Marcus A F Melo, Renata Martins Braga
Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cong Liu, Yan Hao, Jihong Jiang, Weijie Liu
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are currently considered as a promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and high-value products. However, the efficient harvest of microalgal biomasses from their culture broth is a major challenge. The harvesting of algal biomass by flocculation combined with gravity sedimentation is more convenient and cost-effective than traditional methods such as centrifugation and filtration. Compared to inorganic and chemically synthetic flocculants, bioflocculants are a suitable choice for microalgal harvest due to their biodegradable and nontoxic properties...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Suleiman Dauda, Mathias Ahii Chia, Sunday Paul Bako
The broad application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2) in many consumer products has resulted in the release of substantial quantities into aquatic systems. While n-TiO2 have been shown to induce some unexpected toxic effects on aquatic organisms such as microalgae, the influence of changing nutrient conditions on the toxicity of the metal has not been investigated. We evaluated the toxicity of n-TiO2 to Chlorella vulgaris under varying nitrogen conditions. Limited nitrogen (2.2μM) decreased growth and biomass (dry weight and pigment content), while lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased...
March 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hao Song, Michel Lavoie, Xiaoji Fan, Hana Tan, Guangfu Liu, Pengfei Xu, Zhengwei Fu, Hans W Paerl, Haifeng Qian
The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
Can Peng, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Xiao He, Peng Zhang, Tu Lan, Dongqi Wang, Zhaohui Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO₃)₄ was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)₄ due to hydrolysis...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dayana Priyadharshini Stephen, Bakthavatsalam Kannappan Ayalur
The ability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater microalga, to degrade phenolic effluent of coal-based producer gas plant under ambient conditions was investigated. C. pyrenoidosa was able to grow in high-strength phenolic effluent. Major contaminant present in the effluent was phenol (C6H5OH). The effluent has 1475.3 ± 68 mg/L of initial total phenolic concentration. The effect of nutrients used for algal cultivation in phenol degradation was analyzed by inoculating four different concentrations, viz...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Garima Srivastava, Nishchal, Vaibhav V Goud
This work aimed to gain mechanistic insights into the salt stress mediated enhanced lipid accumulation in microalgae. Two freshwater microalgae were isolated from North Guwahati Assam, and were identified as Chlorella sorokiniana CG12(KR905186) and Desmodesmus GS12(KR905187). The effects of various salts such as NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 were investigated where CaCl2 exhibited the maximum effect on lipid enhancement up to 40.02% and 44.97% in CG12 and GS12, respectively. Furthermore, the substantial increase was observed in oleic acid content up to 64...
March 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Quang-Vu Bach, Wei-Hsin Chen, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Jo-Shu Chang
This study aims at investigating the gasification behavior and kinetics of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 before and after wet torrefaction. The raw and wet-torrefied microalgae were first gasified in a thermogravimetric analyzer under a continuous CO2 flow. Thereafter, the obtained thermogravimetric data were modeled for kinetic study, employing a seven-parallel-reaction mechanism. The decomposition of the microalgae in CO2 shows two reactive stages: devolatilization with two peaks and gasification with a peak accompanied by a shoulder, and the thermal decomposition of components in the samples can be clearly identified...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Priyanka Jain, Neha Arora, Juhi Mehtani, Vikas Pruthi, C B Majumder
In the present investigation, toxic algal bloom, a copious and low-cost nutrient source was deployed for cultivating Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Various pre-treatment methods using combinations of acid/alkali and autoclave/microwave were tested for preparing hydrolysates and compared with minimal media (BG-11). Acid autoclave treatment resulted in maximum carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous content which substantially boosted the growth of the microalgal cells (4.36g/L) as compared to rest of the media. The microalga grown in this media also showed enhanced lipid content (43...
March 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mehmet Ali Kucuker, Nils Wieczorek, Kerstin Kuchta, Nadim K Copty
In recent years, biosorption is being considered as an environmental friendly technology for the recovery of rare earth metals (REE). This study investigates the optimal conditions for the biosorption of neodymium (Nd) from an aqueous solution derived from hard drive disk magnets using green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris). The parameters considered include solution pH, temperature and biosorbent dosage. Best-fit equilibrium as well as kinetic biosorption models were also developed. At the optimal pH of 5, the maximum experimental Nd uptakes at 21, 35 and 50°C and an initial Nd concentration of 250 mg/L were 126...
2017: PloS One
Priti Raj Pandit, Madhusudan H Fulekar, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna
Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 49 and 43% in BG11 amended with 0.4 M NaCl. The microalgal strains C. vulgaris and A. obliquus grow better at 0.06 M NaCl concentration than control condition. At 0.06 M NaCl, improved dry biomass content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 0.92 and 0.68 gL(-1), respectively. Stress biomarkers like reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also lowest at 0...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vineeta Rai, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Mayuri N Gandhi, Debasish Das, Sanjeeva Srivastava
To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianbing Wu, Chunping Liu, Yanbin Lu
The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris is a well-known health food. It has been proven that the minor phytosterols, ergosterol and its analogue, are an important class of bioactive substances in C. vulgaris. In this work, a recycling counter-current chromatographic approach was proposed for preparative separation of two analogue sterols from crude extract of C. vulgaris. The separation unit was set up with a type-J instrument coupled with a column switching valve. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/dichloromethane/acetonitrile (10:3:7, v/v) was selected and optimized...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Juhi Mehtani, Neha Arora, Alok Patel, Priyanka Jain, Parul A Pruthi, Kirshna Mohan Poluri, Vikas Pruthi
The aim of this work was to generate high lipid accumulating mutants of Chlorella minutissima (CM) using ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS) as a random chemical mutagen. Amid the 5% surviving cells after exposure to EMS (2M), three fast growing mutants (CM2, CM5, CM7) were selected and compared with wild type for lipid productivity and biochemical composition. Among these mutants, CM7 showed the maximum biomass (2.4g/L) and lipid content (42%) as compared to wild type (1.5g/L; 27%). Further, the mutant showed high photosynthetic pigments with low starch content signifying the re-allocation of carbon flux to lipid...
March 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Shuhao Huo, Changhua Shang, Zhongming Wang, Weizheng Zhou, Fengjie Cui, Feifei Zhu, Zhenhong Yuan, Renjie Dong
Outdoor microalgae cultivation process is threatened by many issues, such as pest pollution and complex, changeable weather. Therefore, it is difficult to have identical growth rate for the microalgae cells and to keep their continuous growth. Outdoor cultivation requires the algae strains not only to have a strong ability to accumulate oil, but also to adapt to the complicated external environment. Using 18S rRNA technology, one wild strain Scenedesmus sp. FS was isolated and identified from the culture of Chlorella zofingiensis...
2017: BioMed Research International
Lei Wang, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Chi Sun Poon, Yong Sik Ok
Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Haiyan Pei, Liqun Jiang, Qingjie Hou, Ze Yu
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have used wastewater as substitutes to cultivate microalgae, most of them obtained weaker algal viability than standard media. Some studies demonstrated a promotion of phytohormones on algal growth in standard media. For exploiting a strategy to improve algal biomass accumulation in effluent from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste (ADE-KW), the agricultural phytohormones gibberellin, indole-3-acetic acid, and brassinolide (GIB) were applied to Chlorella SDEC-11 and Scenedesmus SDEC-13 at different stages of algal growth...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Erika S Chen, Thomas B Bridgeman
Algal blooms have become a pressing issue in inland freshwater systems on local and global scales. A plausible approach to reducing algae without the use of chemical/biological agents is through the use of UV-C radiation from lamps potentially powered by in situ solar panels to eliminate algae. Yet, the quantitative scientific base has not been established. Our objective is to conduct a controlled experiment to quantify the effectiveness of UV-C radiation on the reduction of Chlorella vulgaris, a common algal species in the Great Lakes region...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Research
Dujia Cheng, Dengjin Li, Yizhong Yuan, Lin Zhou, Xuyang Li, Tong Wu, Liang Wang, Quanyu Zhao, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are highly efficient cellular factories that capture CO2 and are also alternative feedstock for biofuel production. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are major biochemical components in microalgae. Carbohydrates or starch in microalgae are possible substrates in yeast fermentation for biofuel production. The carbon partitioning in microalgae could be regulated through environmental stresses, such as high concentration of CO2, high light intensity, and nitrogen starvation conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jessica Hartwig Duarte, Etiele Greque de Morais, Elisângela Martha Radmann, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
CO2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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