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Haim Treves, Omer Murik, Isaac Kedem, Doron Eisenstadt, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Jedrzej Szymanski, Nir Keren, Isabel Orf, Antonio F Tiburcio, Rubén Alcázar, Asaph Aharoni, Joachim Kopka, Aaron Kaplan
The factors rate-limiting growth of photosynthetic organisms under optimal conditions are controversial [1-8]. Adaptation to extreme environments is usually accompanied by reduced performance under optimal conditions [9, 10]. However, the green alga Chlorella ohadii, isolated from a harsh desert biological soil crust [11-17], does not obey this rule. In addition to resistance to photodamage [17, 18], it performs the fastest growth ever reported for photosynthetic eukaryotes. A multiphasic growth pattern (very fast growth [phase I], followed by growth retardation [phase II] and additional fast growth [phase III]) observed under constant illumination and temperature indicates synchronization of the algal population...
August 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Pramod Pandey, Jun Shi
The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California's dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cheng Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Lusheng Zhu, Jinhua Wang, Jun Wang, Tongtong Zhou
Given their increasingly widespread application, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) have become the subject of significant attention in recent years. Therefore, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Cnmim]NO3 (n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)) on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The sensitivity of the tested organism Daphnia magna and the investigated IL concentrations in water using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were also evaluated to demonstrate the reliability of the present study...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Luis C Fernández-Linares, Claudia Guerrero Barajas, Enrique Durán Páramo, Jesús A Badillo Corona
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of microalgae cultivation using secondary treated domestic wastewater. Two Chlorella vulgaris strains (CICESE and UTEX) and an indigenous consortium, were cultivated on treated wastewater enriched with and without the fertilizer Bayfolan®. Biomass production for C. vulgaris UTEX, CICESE and the indigenous consortium grown in treated wastewater was 1.167±0.057, 1.575±0.434 and 1.125±0.250g/L, with a total lipid content of 25.70±1.24, 23.35±3.01and 20...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Bo Wang, Yuanyuan Tao, Qisheng Liu, Na Liu, Zhong Jin, Xiaohua Xu
Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the present study, algicidal activity of naturally occurring bacillamides A-C, alkaloid (1), and neobacillamide A, as well as their synthetic analogues were investigated intensively. Bioassay results showed that, relative to natural bacillamide alkaloids, aniline-derived analogue (10d) exhibited higher algicidal potential against three freshwater harmful algae Mycrocyctis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, suggesting that it could be used as a promising lead compound to develop novel algicide for controlling harmful algal blooms...
August 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
B C B Freitas, M G Morais, J A V Costa
CO2 emissions and the large quantity of lignocellulosic waste generated by industrialized nations constitute problems that may affect human health as well as the global economy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of using CO2 and pentoses on the growth, protein profile, carbohydrate content and potential ethanol production by fermentation of Chlorella minutissima biomass. CO2 and pentose supplementation can induce changes in the microalgal protein profile. A biomass production of 1.84g.L(-1) and a CO2 biofixation rate of 274...
July 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhihua Chen, Jianshen Lei, Yunbei Li, Xianfa Su, Zhiquan Hu, Dabin Guo
The thermokinetics of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP) devolatilization were investigated based on iso-conversional model and different distributed activation energy models (DAEM). Iso-conversional process result showed that CP devolatilization roughly followed a single-step with mechanism function of f(α)=(1-α)(3), and kinetic parameters pair of E0=180.5kJ/mol and A0=1.5E+13s(-1). Logistic distribution was the most suitable activation energy distribution function for CP devolatilization. Although reaction order n=3...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Chiu-Mei Kuo, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Yi-Chun Yang, Wen-Xin Zhang, Jinn-Tsyy Lai, Hsi-Tien Wu, Jo-Shu Chang, Chih-Sheng Lin
An alkali-tolerant Chlorella sp. AT1 mutant strain was screened by NTG mutagenesis. The strain grew well in pH 6-11 media, and the optimal pH for growth was 10. The CO2 utilization efficiencies of Chlorella sp. AT1 cultured with intermittent 10% CO2 aeration for 10, 20 and 30min at 3-h intervals were approximately 80, 42 and 30%, respectively. In alkaline medium (pH=11) with intermittent 10% CO2 aeration for 30min at 3-, 6- and 12-h intervals, the medium pH gradually changed to 10, and the biomass productivities of Chlorella sp...
July 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
J González-Camejo, R Serna-García, A Viruela, M Pachés, F Durán, A Robles, M V Ruano, R Barat, A Seco
Microalgae cultivation appears to be a promising technology for treating nutrient-rich effluents from anaerobic membrane bioreactors, as microalgae are able to consume nutrients from sewage without an organic carbon source, although the sulphide formed during the anaerobic treatment does have negative effects on microalgae growth. Short and long-term experiments were carried out on the effects of sulphide on a mixed microalgae culture. The short-term experiments showed that the oxygen production rate (OPR) dropped as sulphide concentration increased: a concentration of 5mgSL(-1) reduced OPR by 43%, while a concentration of 50mgSL(-1) came close to completely inhibiting microalgae growth...
July 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Aijun Cai, Aiying Guo, Zichuan Ma
TiO₂ nanoparticles are immobilized on chlorella cells using the hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the prepared chlorella/TiO₂ composite are investigated by various methods. The chlorella/TiO₂ composite is found to exhibit larger average sizes and higher visible-light intensities. The sensitization of the photosynthesis pigment originating from chlorella cells provides the anatase TiO₂ with higher photocatalytic activities under the visible-light irradiation...
May 17, 2017: Materials
(no author information available yet)
Nutrient removal effectiveness from anaerobic digestion effluents (ADEs) by Chlorella sp. cultivation and microalgae biomass productivity were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the highest Chlorella sp. biomass productivities of 386.5±24.1 mg dry weight (DW)/L·d and 338.3±11.0 mg DW/L·d were respectively obtained with the anaerobically digested effluent of municipal wastewater sludge (WS) and effluent from a fermentation tank treating dairy wastewater (DW). Lower (p<0.05) microalgal growth was achieved with anaerobically digested effluents of maize silage and swine slurry (MS) and cattle manure (CM)...
July 11, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Virthie Bhola, Feroz Mahomed Swalaha, Mahmoud Nasr, Faizal Bux
A Chlorella sp. was cultivated in a photobioreactor under different experimental conditions to investigate its acclimation to high-CO2 exposures. When the microalgae was grown under controlled flue gas sparging and optimised nutrients, the biomass concentration increased to 3.415±0.145gL(-1) and the maximum protein yield was obtained (57.500±0.351% ww(-1)). However, when the culture was exposed to continuous flue gas, the lowest biomass growth (1.665±0.129gL(-1)) was noted. Under these conditions, high carbohydrate and lipid values were recorded (38...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Samadhan Yuvraj Bagul, Randhir K Bharti, Dolly Wattal Dhar
Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L(-1) with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Amy Christine Brown
BACKGROUND: No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. METHODS: Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nasireh Alavi, Mohammad-Taghi Golmakani
Antioxidant activity of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) was evaluated in virgin olive oil (VOO) at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w) under accelerated storage conditions. Antioxidant activity of Chlorella was compared with those of BHT and β-carotene. Chlorella samples significantly retarded the formation of primary, secondary, and total oxidation products in comparison with those of the control. The stability increased as concentrations of Chlorella increased. Samples containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yu Shen, Jingqing Gao, Linshuai Li
A symbiotic microalgal-bacterial system may be an optional technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, co-immobilized of a bacterium isolated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Pseudomonas putida) and a microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was used in the study of cell growth and nutrient removal during wastewater treatment under batch and continuous culture conditions. Under batch culture conditions, co-immobilization treatment significantly increased the cell density of C. vulgaris and P. putida compared with other treatments...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Gennady Ananyev, Colin Gates, Aaron Kaplan, G Charles Dismukes
The desert microalga Chlorella ohadii was reported to grow at extreme light intensities with minimal photoinhibition, tolerate frequent de/re-hydrations, yet minimally employs antenna-based non-photochemical quenching for photoprotection. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms by measuring Photosystem II charge separation yield (chlorophyll variable fluorescence, Fv/Fm) and flash-induced O2 yield to measure the contributions from both linear (PSII-LEF) and cyclic (PSII-CEF) electron flow within PSII. Cells grow increasingly faster at higher light intensities (μE/m(2)/s) from low (20) to high (200) to extreme (2000) by escalating photoprotection via shifting from PSII-LEF to PSII-CEF...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Brad M Angel, Stuart L Simpson, Ellissah Granger, Kathryn Goodwyn, Dianne F Jolley
Intermittent, fluctuating and pulsed contaminant discharges may result in organisms receiving highly variable contaminant exposures. This study investigated the effects of dissolved copper pulse concentration and exposure duration on the toxicity to two freshwater green algae species. The effects of single copper pulses of between 1 and 48 h duration and continuous exposures (72 h) on growth rate inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella sp. were compared on a time-averaged concentration (TAC) basis...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xue Wang, Keting Bao, Weixing Cao, Yongjun Zhao, Chang Wei Hu
The microalgae-based technology has been developed to reduce biogas slurry nutrients and upgrade biogas simultaneously. In this work, five microalgal strains named Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Nitzschia palea, and Anabaena spiroides under mono- and co-cultivation were used for biogas upgrading. Optimum biogas slurry nutrient reduction could be achieved by co-cultivating microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nitzschia palea) with fungi using the pelletization technology...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yang Peng, Aosong Deng, Xun Gong, Xiaomin Li, Yang Zhang
Considering the high concentration of mercury in industrial wastewater, such as coal-fired power plants and gold mining wastewater, this research study investigated the coupling process of lipid production and mercury bioremediation using microalgae cells. Chlorella vulgaris modified by biomimetic mineralization. The cultivation was divided in two stages: a natural cultivation for 7days and 5days of Hg(2+) addition (10-100μg/L) for cultivation at different pH values (4-7) after inoculation. Next, the harvested cells were eluted, and lipid was extracted...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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