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Ahmed Mahdy, Ioannis A Fotidis, Enrico Mancini, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández, Irini Angelidaki
This study investigated the ability of an ammonia-acclimatized inoculum to digest efficiently protein-rich microalgae for continuous 3rd generation biogas production. Moreover, we investigated whether increased C/N ratio could alleviate ammonia toxicity. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of five different algae (Chlorella vulgaris)/manure (cattle) mixtures showed that the mixture of 80/20 (on VS basis) resulted in the highest BMP value (431mLCH4 gVS(-1)), while the BMP of microalgae alone (100/0) was 415mLCH4 gVS(-1)...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Lu Wang, Xiurong Chen, Hualin Wang, Yuying Zhang, Qingjie Tang, Jiahui Li
Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in different proportions of activated sludge extracts, which was from the treatment of the synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The nutrients, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were removed over 45% and 90%, respectively. The maximum reduction amount of ecotoxicity and total organic carbon (TOC) occurred in the 100% sludge group on the 8th day (68%; 86.2 mg L(-1)). The variations of Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) and TOC indicated that extracellular organic matters (EOM) produced by algae led to TOC increase in the medium...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Shiyan Zheng, Meilin He, Yangsui Sui, Temesgen Gebreluel, Shanmei Zou, Nyabuto Dorothy Kemuma, Changhai Wang
To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Richa Kothari, Vinayak V Pathak, Arya Pandey, Shamshad Ahmad, Chandni Srivastava, V V Tyagi
In this study, harvesting efficiency (HE) of bioflocculant (egg shell) was observed with variation in flocculent concentrations (0-100mgL(-1)), temperature (30°C, 35°C 40°C, 45°C and 50°C) and variable contact time (0-50min). It was found maximum (≈95.6%) with 100mgL(-1) bioflocculant concentration whereas influence of temperature was also observed with optimized concentration of bioflocculant (100mgL(-1)) at 40°C (≈98.1%) and 50°C (≈99.3%), in 30min of contact time. Significant changes in algal cell structures were also analyzed after exposure to various temperatures with microscopy, SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) images with and without bioflocculant...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Nils Schneider, Matthias Meier
Padlock probes are single-stranded DNA molecules that are circularized upon hybridization to their target sequence by a DNA ligase. In the following the circulated padlock probes are amplified and detected with fluorescently labeled probes complementary to the amplification product. The hallmark of padlock probe assays is a high detection specificity gained by the ligation reaction. Concomitantly, the ligation reaction is the largest drawback for a quantitative in situ detection of mRNAs due to the low affinities of common DNA or RNA ligases to RNA-DNA duplex strands...
November 22, 2016: RNA
Jian Sun, Bihai Cai, Wenjing Xu, Yu Huang, Yaping Zhang, Yenping Peng, Kenlin Chang, Jiahong Kuo, Kufan Chen, Xunan Ning, Guoguang Liu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Jingyong Liu
A novel anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate/MnOx-doped polypyrrole film (AQDS/Mn/PPy) electrode was prepared by one-step electropolymerization method and was used to improve performance of a reversible photo-bioelectrochemical cell (RPBEC). The RPBEC was operated in polarity reversion depended on dark/light reaction of alga Chlorella vulgaris by which sequential decolorization of azo dye and mineralization of decolorization products coupled with bioelectricity generation can be achieved. The results showed that formation of uniform AQDS/Mn/PPy film significantly enhanced electroactive surface area and electrocatalytic activity of carbon electrode...
November 10, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Sérgio F L Pereira, Ana L Gonçalves, Francisca C Moreira, Tânia F C V Silva, Vítor J P Vilar, José C M Pires
Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S T Gumbi, B M Majeke, A O Olaniran, T Mutanda
Exploring indigenous microalgae capable of producing significant amounts of neutral lipids through high-throughput screening is crucial for sustainable biodiesel production. In this study, 31 indigenous microalgal strains were isolated from diverse aquatic habitats in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Eight superior lipid-producing strains were selected for further analysis, based on Nile red fluorescence microscopy screening. The microalgal isolates were identified to belong to the genera Chlorella, Neochloris and Chlamydomonas via morpho-taxonomic and molecular approach by 18S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
H K Kang, S B Park, C H Kim
This study aimed to determine the effect of different dietary levels of a Chlorella by-product (CBP) on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicated pens consisting of 30 chicks. The basal diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of CBP to the basal diet...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Dongmei Xu, Xuesong Chen, Bo Shao
We studied the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on the chlorophyll content, cell permeability, and antioxidant defense systems of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed that the production of reactive oxygen species increased in a concentration-dependent manner after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was elevated after exposure to the lower concentrations and then decreased with higher concentrations. Malondialdehyde content was significantly higher than that of controls at the higher PFOS concentrations...
November 17, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jia Qi, Sang Moo Kim
Polysaccharides of green alga Chlorella ellipsoidea were extracted using hot water and fractionated using an anion-exchange chromatography to investigate their molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activities. The crude polysaccharide and two fractions (F1 and F2) consisted mainly of carbohydrate (68.1-89.7%) and protein (2.0-11.8%) with small amounts of sulfate (1.9-6.1%) and uronic acid (0.5-6.1%). Glucose (58.8-97.6%) was the major monosaccharide of these polysaccharides, with different levels of rhamnose (0...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kenneth Wei Min Tan, Huixin Lin, Hui Shen, Yuan Kun Lee
Certain species of microalgae are natural accumulators of lipids, while others are more inclined to store starch. However, what governs the preference to store lipids or starch is not well understood. In this study, the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta was used as a model to study the global gene expression profile regulating starch accumulation in microalgae. D. tertiolecta, when depleted of nitrogen, produced only 1% of dry cell weight (DCW) in neutral lipids, while starch was rapidly accumulated up to 46% DCW...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Basavaraj Palabhanvi, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Vikram Kumar, Mayurketan Mukherjee, Saumya Ahlawat, Debasish Das
A novel two-stage continuous heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was demonstrated for enhanced lipid productivity. Initially, effect of control variable e.g. dilution rate and feed stream substrate concentrations on biomass productivity was evaluated. This showed significant variation in biomass productivity from 2.4gL(-1)day(-1) to 11.2gL(-1)day(-1). Further, these control variables were optimized by using multi-nutrient mechanistic model for maximizing the biomass productivity. Finally, continuous production of lipid rich algal biomass was demonstrated in two sequential bioreactors for enhanced lipid productivity...
November 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jose Luis Sanz, Patricia Rojas, Ana Morato, Lara Mendez, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández
Microalgae biomasses are considered promising feedstocks for biofuel and methane productions. Two Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR), fed with fresh (CSTR-C) and heat pre-treated (CSTR-T) Chlorella biomass were run in parallel in order to determine methane productions. The methane yield was 1.5 times higher in CSTR-T with regard to CSTR-C. Aiming to understand the microorganism roles within of the reactors, the sludge used as an inoculum (I), plus raw (CSTR-C) and heat pre-treated (CSTR-T) samples were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Jinxing Ma, Zhiwei Wang, Junyao Zhang, T David Waite, Zhichao Wu
While microalgae have been suggested as a promising substitute to conventional fossil fuels, their cost effective cultivation and harvesting constitutes a major challenge. In the work described here, a novel photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) in which a stainless steel mesh with biofilm formed on it serves as both the cathode and filtration material has been developed. Results of this study reveal that, in addition to inducing oxygen reduction reactions under illumination, the biocathode is effective in preventing the washout of algae during continuous operation, resulting in retained biomass concentrations reaching 3...
November 4, 2016: Water Research
Jun Cheng, Qing Ye, Zongbo Yang, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
The response mechanisms of microalgal mutant Chlorella PY-ZU1 cells were investigated in their removal of antibiotic tilmicosin from wastewater under 15% CO2. Low concentrations (0.01-2mgL(-1)) of tilmicosin in wastewater stimulated the growth of microalgal cells, whereas high concentrations (5-50mgL(-1)) of tilmicosin significantly inhibited cell growth. When initial tilmicosin concentration increased from 0 to 50mgL(-1), fractal dimension of microalgal cells monotonically increased from 1.36 to 1.62 and cell size monotonically decreased from 4...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhao Zhang, Jim Junhui Huang, Dongzhe Sun, Yuankun Lee, Feng Chen
In the present study, high light and nitrogen starvation with glucose-fed to the culture was found efficient to induce astaxanthin accumulation in Chlorella zofingiensis. Therefore, a two-step cultivation strategy including high biomass yield fermentation and outdoor induction with an energy-free RFP was conducted. During the fermentation, the highest cell density of 98.4gL(-1) and astaxanthin yield of 73.3mgL(-1) were achieved, which were higher than those so far reported in C. zofingiensis. During the outdoor induction, astaxanthin content was further increased by 1...
October 28, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Cristian F Quispe, Ahmed Esmael, Olivia Sonderman, Michelle McQuinn, Irina Agarkova, Mohammed Battah, Garry A Duncan, David D Dunigan, Timothy P L Smith, Cristina De Castro, Immacolata Speciale, Fangrui Ma, James L Van Etten
A previous report indicated that prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 replicated in two Chlorella variabilis algal strains, NC64A and Syngen 2-3, that are ex-endosymbionts isolated from the protozoan Paramecium bursaria. Surprisingly, plaque-forming viruses on Syngen 2-3 lawns were often higher than on NC64A lawns from indigenous water samples. These differences led to the discovery of viruses that exclusively replicate in Syngen 2-3 cells, named Only Syngen (OSy) viruses. OSy-NE5, the prototype virus for the proposed new species, had a linear dsDNA genome of 327kb with 44-nucleotide-long, incompletely base-paired, covalently closed hairpin ends...
January 2017: Virology
Kejia Zhang, Zhang Luo, Tuqiao Zhang, Minmin Mao, Jie Fu
To explore the mechanisms and influence factors on the production of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in surface waters, the 2,4,6-TCA formation potential (FP) test was conducted by incubating the real lake water with the addition of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) precursor. Besides bacteria and fungi, two common cyanobacteria and algae species, i.e., Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena flos-aquae, have been proved to have strong capabilities to produce 2,4,6-TCA, which may contribute the high 2,4,6-TCA FP (152...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ewelina Orlowska, Alexander Roller, Marc Pignitter, Franz Jirsa, Regina Krachler, Wolfgang Kandioller, Bernhard K Keppler
A series of monomeric and dimeric Fe(III) complexes with O,O-; O,N-; O,S-coordination motifs has been prepared and characterized by standard analytical methods in order to elucidate their potential to act as model compounds for aquatic humic acids. Due to the postulated reduction of iron in humic acids and following uptake by microorganisms, the redox behavior of the models was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. Most of the investigated compounds showed iron reduction potentials accessible to biological reducing agents...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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