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Screening tests

C F Song, H Li, B Tian, S Chen, J B Miao, Y L Fu, B You, Q R Chen, T Li, X X Hu, W Q Zhang, B Hu
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after thoracic surgery and its characteristic. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. Patients undergoing major thoracic surgeries between July 2016 and March 2017 at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University were enrolled in this study. Besides the routine examination, all patients were screened for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by using noninvasive duplex lower-extremity ultrasonography after surgery...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Paola Mosconi, Cinzia Colombo, Anna Roberto, Giulia Candiani, Maria Teresa Greco, Roberto Satolli, Carlo Castellani
Background: Health technology assessment and ethical issues have to be dealt with in deciding on national carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF)-the most frequent severe autosomal recessive disease in Caucasian populations and several stakeholders need to be involved. A citizens' jury is one way to ask citizens to deliberate on controversial topics in the interests of a society. The aims of this project were to gather opinions about CF carrier screening through citizens' jury deliberations and to match them with the findings of a large online consultation survey open to the general population, people with CF and families and health professionals...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Humayun Pervez, Nazia Khan, Jamshed Iqbal, Sumera Zaib, Muhammad Yaqub, Muhammad Moazzam Naseer
A series of fifteen N4-benzyl substituted 5-chloroisatin-3-thiosemicarbazones 5a-o were synthesized and screened mainly for their antiurease and antiglycation effects. Lemna aequinocitalis growth and Artemia salina assays were carried out to determine their phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity potential. All the compounds proved to be extremely effective urease inhibitors, demonstrating enzyme inhibition much better than the reference inhibitor, thiourea (IC50 values 1.31 ± 0.06 to 3.24 ± 0.15 vs. 22.3 ± 1.12 μM)...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Mahdi Shahriari, Naser Honar, Ali Yousefi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by dietary gluten. The combination of serologic, genetic and histologic data has led to description of other categories of this disease. OBJECTIVE: There are a number of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) that do not respond to iron treatment and may be repeated for many times, Therefore, we aimed to investigate celiac disease in this group. METHODS: In this cross sectional transverse prospective study from August 2011 to February 2013, in a Pediatric care clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 184 children including 92 IDA patients who responded to treatment using iron supplement, 45 non-responding iron deficient patients, and 47 healthy individuals, with the maximum age of 18 years, with written consent from their parents, participated in serologic screening (with Anti-TTG antibody and anti-Endomysial antibody) for celiac disease...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Daniel Ianni Filho, Ilka de Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin, Ademar Yamanaka
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis are common structural hepatic change in patients with chronic hepatitis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the extent of liver fibrosis. Considering the technical difficulties and cost, improvements in non-invasive screening tools are greatly needed. Bioimpedance have been shown to be safe to evaluate tissue fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of using monofrequential bipolar bioimpedance for the detection of severity of liver fibrosis consistent with chronic viral hepatitis C infections...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Nafiz Öncü Can, Özgür Devrim Can, Derya Osmaniye, Ümide Demir Özkay
Novel thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized through the reaction of acetylated 2-aminothiadiazole and piperazine derivatives. The chemical structures of the compounds were clarified by Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (¹H-NMR),13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13 C-NMR) and Electronspray Ionisation Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods. Antidepressant-like activities were evaluated by the tail-suspension (TST) and modified forced swimming (MFST) methods...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Michelle Barbieri, Colleen Duncan, Albert L Harting, Kristy L Pabilonia, Thea C Johanos, Tracey Goldstein, Stacie J Robinson, Charles L Littnan
There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in the reproductive rates of Hawaiian monk seals (HMS; Neomonachus schauinslandi). Poor reproductive performance limits the recovery of this endangered species; however, causal factors are not fully understood. There is serologic evidence that HMS are exposed to pathogens that can impact reproductive success, but the prevalence of placental infections in HMS has not been evaluated. Placental tissues ( n=50), including tissues from 25% of known HMS births, were opportunistically collected in 2011 from six Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and three main Hawaiian Islands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Christoph Rudin, Hans H Hirsch, Rahel Spaelti, Sabine Schaedelin, Thomas Klimkait
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of prospective data there is an ongoing debate about the need for screening and prevention programs for congenital toxoplasmosis in Europe. Accordingly, individual countries have chosen different public health strategies. METHODS: A cord-blood screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis was established in 1982 in obstetric units of hospitals in North-Western Switzerland. Samples were tested for specific IgG and IgM, and after 1992 also for IgA antibodies...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mikkel S Andersen, Shulin Lu, Gregory J Lopez, Annmarie T Lassen, Nathan I Shapiro, Ionita C Ghiran
BACKGROUND: We have developed a novel, easily implementable methodology using magnetic levitation to quantify circulating leukocyte size, morphology, and magnetic properties, which may help in rapid, bed side screening for sepsis. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were 1) to describe our methodological approach to leukocyte assessment; and 2) to perform a pilot investigation to test the ability of magnetic levitation to identify and quantify changes in leukocyte size, shape, density and/or paramagnetic properties in healthy controls and septic patients...
March 20, 2018: Shock
Saer Samanipour, Malcolm Reid, Kine Bæk, Kevin V Thomas
Non-target analysis is considered one of the most comprehensive tools for identification of unknown compounds in a complex sample analyzed via liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Due to the complexity of the data generated via LC-HRMS, the data dependent acquisition mode, which produces the MS2 spectra of a limited number of the precursor ions, has been one of the most common approaches used during non-target screening. On the other hand, data independent acquisition mode produces highly complex spectra that require proper deconvolution and library search algorithms...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Stelliana Goutzamanis, Peter Higgs, Mike Richardson, Sarah MacLean
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indigenous people seeking residential alcohol and other drug (AOD) rehabilitation in Victoria are most frequently referred to the Ngwala Willumbong Co-operative (Ngwala). This study aimed to describe socio-demographic changes in clients of Ngwala's residential rehabilitation services between 2015 and 2016. DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-assessment surveys completed upon screening for rehabilitation between May 2015 and November 2016 (n = 117) were analysed for socio-demographic data, AOD use and mental health status...
March 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
A D Barth
Efficient and economical herd management depends a great deal on maintaining a short, well-defined calving season. This requires highly fertile females and bulls. Low pregnancy rates are very noticeable, however; potentially greater economic loss may be due to delayed conception. Many studies showed that approximately one of every five bulls had inadequate semen quality, physical soundness, or both, but when evaluation of serving capacity is included about one in four bulls is unsatisfactory. Due mainly to the time and expense that the market will bear, usually only physical soundness and semen quality are evaluated...
March 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M F Madhoun, H Bitar, P Parava, M H Bashir, H Zia
BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, we observed that patients who had previous colonoscopies were less likely to follow newly implemented split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) instructions. We investigated whether the indication for colonoscopy is an independent factor for achieving high quality bowel preparation among patients asked to follow SDBP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of data from 1478 patients who received outpatient colonoscopies in 2014 (the year of SDBP implementation) at our Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Geetika Dua, Ravibabu Mulaveesala
Active infrared thermography is a fast, painless, noncontact, and noninvasive imaging method, complementary to mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. This technique plays an important role in early detection of breast cancer to women of all ages, including pregnant or nursing women, with different sizes of breast, irrespective of either fatty or dense breast. This proposed complementary technique makes use of infrared emission emanating from the breast...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
Roger T Engeli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt
Androgen biosynthesis in males occurs to a large extent in testicular Leydig cells. This study focused on the evaluation of three murine Leydig cell lines as potential screening tool to test xenobiotics interfering with gonadal androgen synthesis. The final step of testosterone (T) production in Leydig cells is catalyzed by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-hsd3). The endogenous 17β-hsd3 mRNA expression and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) to T conversion were determined in the murine cell lines MA-10, BLTK1 and TM3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Ting Xin, Xintao Gao, Hongjun Yang, Pingjun Li, Qianqian Liang, Shaohua Hou, Xiukun Sui, Xiaoyu Guo, Weifeng Yuan, Hongfei Zhu, Jiabo Ding, Hong Jia
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is primarily caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis , which belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The airborne route is considered the most common for transmission of M. bovis , and more than 15% of cattle with bTB shed the Mycobacterium , which can be detect by nested PCR to amplify mycobacterial mpb 70 from a nasal swab from a cow. To screen for cytokines fostering early and accurate detection of bTB, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from naturally M...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jessica Scott Schwoerer, Nicoletta Drilias, Ashley Kuhl, Sean Mochal, Mei Baker
In the Plain Community, there is an increased frequency of genetic disorders including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. Common pathogenic variants have been observed due to founder effect and closed community. This study obtained genotypes of 12 Plain individuals with PAH deficiency, identified through newborn screen or diagnosed by symptomatic presentation, who are receiving medical care at the University of Wisconsin metabolic clinic. Genotype and phenotypic data were evaluated to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations...
June 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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