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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340468/the-prevalence-of-hiv-among-women-with-high-grade-cervical-smear-abnormalities-in-birmingham-united-kingdom-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Najum S Qureshi, K Manavi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was twofold: 1. To assess the acceptance for HIV screening in women attending Colposcopy clinic 2. To determine the prevalence of HIV in women presenting with high-grade cervical smear abnormalities. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Colposcopy clinic, Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK. POPULATION: Patients attending colposcopy clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To determine acceptance of HIV testing and prevalence in colposcopy patients with High-grade cervical smear abnormalities...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340393/when-public-health-intervention-is-not-successful-cost-sharing-crowd-out-and-selection-in-korea-s-national-cancer-screening-program
#2
Hyuncheol Bryant Kim, Sun-Mi Lee
This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340235/polymerase-chain-reaction-human-papillomavirus-hpv-detection-and-hpv-genotyping-in-invasive-cervical-cancers-with-prior-negative-hc2-test-results
#3
Xiang Tao, Baowen Zheng, Fufen Yin, Zhengyu Zeng, Zaibo Li, Christopher C Griffith, Bing Luo, Xiangdong Ding, Xianrong Zhou, Chengquan Zhao
Objectives: Recently, three large Chinese cohort studies showed that 7.5% to 15.5% of patients with cervical carcinoma had negative high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test results on prior cytology specimens. These studies raise the question as to whether these negative hrHPV results represent truly hrHPV-negative carcinomas or false-negative hrHPV test results due to limitations in the testing of cytology specimens. This is increasingly an important question with increasing push to use hrHPV testing alone to screen for cervical cancer...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340215/development-of-enzyme-immunoassays-elisa-and-western-blot-for-the-serological-diagnosis-of-dermatophytosis-in-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-cats
#4
Aline Elisa Santana, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Julia So Severo, Glauce Mary Gomes Rittner, Julian Esteban Muñoz, Carlos Eduardo Larsson, Carlos Eduardo Larsson
Dermatophytosis is the most common fungal infection in cats worldwide and plays an important role in both animal and human health due to their high zoonotic potential. Effective screening is a strong preventive measure and the fungal culture is quite useful but requires full laboratorial experience and it takes a long time to obtain the result. A rapid and accurate screening test for dermatophytosis in cats is crucial for the effective control of disease outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of enzyme immunoassays (ELISA and Western blot [WB]) for the rapid and precise diagnosis of dermatophytosis in cats...
March 11, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340175/funresdb-a-web-resource-for-genotypic-susceptibility-testing-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Michael Weber, Jonas Schaer, Grit Walther, Kerstin Kaerger, Jörg Steinmann, Peter-Michael Rath, Birgit Spiess, Dieter Buchheidt, Axel Hamprecht, Oliver Kurzai
Therapy of invasive aspergillosis is becoming more difficult due to the emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. A majority of resistant strains carries mutations in the CYP51A gene. Due to a lack of sensitivity of culture-based methods, molecular detection of A. fumigatus has become an important diagnostic tool. We set up the database FunResDB (www.nrz-myk.de/funresdb) to gather all available information about CYP51A-dependent azole resistance from published literature. In summary, the screening resulted in 79 CYP51A variants, which are linked to 59 nonsynonymous mutations...
March 11, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339870/discordance-between-functional-screening-and-genetic-confirmatory-diagnostic-tests-a-retrospective-analysis-of-activated-protein-c-resistance-and-factor-5-leiden-testing-over-a-5-year-period
#6
Ezra Baraban, Alexa Siddon, Christopher Tormey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339845/expanded-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-egypt
#7
D A El-Shazly, S A Nasef, F F Mahmoud, Daniel Jonas
Throughout the world, expanded spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, both in humans and animals. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data on ESBL or Ampicillin class C β-lactamase (AmpC) in Egypt, although antimicrobial consumption is high in this developing country. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanisms to expanded spectrum cephalosporins among resistant veterinary Escherichia coli isolates in Egypt. We investigated 50 clinical multi-resistant E...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339692/decrease-in-unnecessary-vitamin-d-testing-using-clinical-decision-support-tools-making-it-harder-to-do-the-wrong-thing
#8
Andrew H Felcher, Rachel Gold, David M Mosen, Ashley B Stoneburner
Objective: To evaluate the impact of clinical decision support (CDS) tools on rates of vitamin D testing. Screening for vitamin D deficiency has increased in recent years, spurred by studies suggesting vitamin D's clinical benefits. Such screening, however, is often unsupported by evidence and can incur unnecessary costs. Materials and Methods: We evaluated how rates of vitamin D screening changed after we implemented 3 CDS tools in the electronic health record (EHR) of a large health plan: (1) a new vitamin D screening guideline, (2) an alert that requires clinician acknowledgement of current guidelines to continue ordering the test (a "hard stop"), and (3) a modification of laboratory ordering preference lists that eliminates shortcuts...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339688/an-activity-staining-method-on-filtration-paper-enables-high-throughput-screening-of-temperature-sensitive-and-inactive-mutations-of-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-for-improvement-of-rice-grain-quality
#9
Hiromoto Yamakawa, Rieko Hirai-Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi
α-Amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme (EC 3.2.1.1) indispensable for germination of cereal seeds, but it is also expressed during the ripening stage. Previous studies demonstrated that the enzyme is activated in developing rice seeds under extremely hot weather and triggers a loss of grain quality by hindering the accumulation of storage starch in the endosperm. Since inactive or, preferably, heat-labile α-amylases are preferable for breeding premium rice, we developed a method for rapid screening of inactive and temperature-sensitive mutants of the enzyme by combining the random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and an on-filter activity test of the recombinant enzyme expressed by Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339619/relationship-of-neuropeptide-ff-receptors-with-pubertal-maturation-of-gilts%C3%A2
#10
Jennifer F Thorson, Neely L Heidorn, Vitaly Ryu, Krzysztof Czaja, Danny J Nonneman, C Richard Barb, Gary J Hausman, Gary A Rohrer, Ligia D Prezotto, Richard B McCosh, Elane C Wright, Brett R White, Bradley A Freking, William T Oliver, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents
Mechanisms governing the timing of puberty in pigs are poorly understood. A genome-wide association study for age at first estrus in pigs identified candidate genes including neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which is a putative receptor for RFamide-related peptides (RFRP). RFRP has been shown to negatively regulate secretion of reproductive hormones from hypothalamic and pituitary tissue of pigs in culture. Here, the porcine NPFFR2 gene was further screened and four potentially functional variants were identified to be associated with age at first estrus in pigs (1,288 gilts)...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339510/3d-dentofacial-photogrammetry-reference-values-a-novel-approach-to-orthodontic-diagnosis
#11
Mohamed I Masoud, Neetu Bansal, Jose C Castillo, Amornrut Manosudprasit, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Arshan Haghi, Hannah C Hawkins, Erik Otárola-Castillo
Background: Orthodontic diagnostic standards generally use the cranial base as a reference and rely on samples selected by orthodontists. Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide male and female standards for a novel non-radiographic approach for orthodontic diagnosis that utilizes 3D dentofacial photogrammetry using the eyes and natural head orientation as references instead of the cranial base. Methods: One hundred and eighty females and 200 males between the ages of 18 and 35 years from 2 modeling agencies were orthodontically screened for near ideal occlusion...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339227/cosmic-tsunamis-in-modified-gravity-disruption-of-screening-mechanisms-from-scalar-waves
#12
R Hagala, C Llinares, D F Mota
Extending general relativity by adding extra degrees of freedom is a popular approach for explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe and to build high energy completions of the theory of gravity. The presence of such new degrees of freedom is, however, tightly constrained from several observations and experiments that aim to test general relativity in a wide range of scales. The viability of a given modified theory of gravity, therefore, strongly depends on the existence of a screening mechanism that suppresses the extra degrees of freedom...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335571/3-substituted-n-benzylpyrazine-2-carboxamide-derivatives-synthesis-antimycobacterial-and-antibacterial-evaluation
#13
Lucia Semelková, Ondřej Janďourek, Klára Konečná, Pavla Paterová, Lucie Navrátilová, František Trejtnar, Vladimír Kubíček, Jiří Kuneš, Martin Doležal, Jan Zitko
A series of substituted N-benzyl-3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamides were prepared as positional isomers of 5-chloro and 6-chloro derivatives, prepared previously. During the aminolysis of the acyl chloride, the simultaneous substitution of chlorine with benzylamino moiety gave rise to N-benzyl-3-(benzylamino)pyrazine-2-carboxamides as side products, in some cases. Although not initially planned, the reaction conditions were modified to populate this double substituted series. The final compounds were tested against four mycobacterial strains...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335565/an-eco-safety-assessment-of-glyoxal-containing-cellulose-ether-on-freeze-dried-microbial-strain-cyanobacteria-daphnia-and-zebrafish
#14
Chang-Beom Park, Min Ju Song, Nak Woon Choi, Sunghoon Kim, Hyun Pyo Jeon, Sanghun Kim, Youngjun Kim
The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether on 11 different microbial strains, Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos were designed as an initial stage of toxicity screening and performed in accordance with standardized toxicity test guidelines...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335390/a-simple-metallothionein-based-biosensor-for-enhanced-detection-of-arsenic-and-mercury
#15
Gordon W Irvine, Swee Ngin Tan, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As(3+) and Hg(2+). A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs)...
March 13, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334841/oral-fluid-testing-for-cocaine-analytical-evaluation-of-two-point-of-collection-drug-screening-devices
#16
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Taís Regina Fiorentin, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa, Renata Pereira Limberger, Flavio Pechansky
The use of point-of-collection testing (POCT) devices for drugs of abuse in oral fluid (OF) is an advantageous tool that has been used for different purposes-particularly traffic enforcement. However, even with the widespread report of cocaine consumption, the reliability of POCT devices has been reported in different magnitudes. This study evaluated the reliability of two POCT devices for the detection of cocaine in OF samples of 110 cocaine users: (i) the DDS2™ (cutoff = 30 ng/mL) and (ii) the Multi-Drugs Multi-Line-Twist Screen Test Device™ (MDML) (cutoff = 20 ng/mL)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334789/comparative-evaluation-of-norovirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-by-rapid-immunochromatographic-test-rt-pcr-and-real-time-rt-pcr
#17
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Wilaiporn Saikruang, Kanittapon Supadej, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Immunochromatographic (IC) test for norovirus detection is a rapid and simple detection method. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a recent version of R-Biopharm RIDA®QUICK Norovirus IC assay for norovirus detection in fecal specimens from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Fecal specimens were tested by IC kit in comparison with gold standard reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. The IC kit showed high sensitivity and specificity comparable with PCR-based methods...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334753/alcohol-screening-among-young-people-a-prospective-study-from-the-swiss-sentinel-surveillance-system-sentinella-of-physicians-a-priori-opinions
#18
Coralie Wenger-Bonny, Adjua Alexandra N'goran, Jérôme Pasquier, Charles Dvorak, Dagmar M Haller, Lilli Herzig
Background.: Systematic screening for excessive alcohol use among young people is recommended but rarely implemented. Family practitioners tend to select patients for screening, based on their preliminary subjective opinions, which may be biased. Objective.: To evaluate the ability of family practitioners to identify excessive alcohol use among young people prior to screening them. Methods.: This prospective study was conducted through Sentinella, an epidemiological network involving 150 family practitioners across Switzerland...
February 22, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334521/organocatalyzed-synthesis-of-oleochemical-carbonates-from-co2-and-renewables
#19
Hendrik Büttner, Johannes Steinbauer, Christoph Wulf, Mehmet Dindaroglu, Hans-Günther Schmalz, Thomas Werner
Bifunctional phosphorus-based organocatalysts proved to be highly efficient for the atom-economic reaction of CO2 and epoxidized oleochemicals. Notably, those products are obtained from CO2 and renewable feedstocks only. Structure-activity relationships have been deduced from a screening of 22 organocatalysts in a test reaction. Bifunctional catalysts based on a phosphonium salt bearing a simple phenolic moiety proved to be extraordinarily active under comparatively mild and solvent-free reaction conditions...
March 22, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334425/risk-reducing-salpingectomy-let-us-be-opportunistic
#20
REVIEW
Kara C Long Roche, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Mlica Nourmoussavi, Oliver Zivanovic
Because there is no screening test for ovarian cancer, effective prevention strategies may be the best way to reduce the mortality of this most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that the fallopian tube is the site of origin for the vast majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Our growing understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease offers a rare opportunity to explore new preventive measures, such as bilateral salpingectomy, which may provide great benefit without compromising ovarian function...
March 23, 2017: Cancer
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