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Screening tests

Luke Donovan, Tyler M Miklovic, Mark A Feger
Currently, there is no clinical exam to evaluate ankle frontal plane kinematics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals identified as "lateral" landing during a video-recorded step-down task have differences in ankle inversion as measured with 3-dimensional motion capture during walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks compared to individuals identified as "non-lateral". Fifty-seven recreationally active adults completed the descriptive laboratory study. During walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks, participants had their ankle frontal plane kinematics measured using a 3-dimensional motion capture system...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Yiming Xu, Lichuan Wu, Haroon Ur Rashid, Dewang Jing, Xiaole Liang, Haodong Wang, Xu Liu, Jun Jiang, Lisheng Wang, Peng Xie
Based on the mechanism of action, novel scaffolds as Topo I inhibitors bearing indole and sophoridinine were designed. Preliminary docking study revealed that some molecules among the designed series possessed promising Topo I inhibitor properties. Subsequently, thirty new compounds were synthesized and characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and Mass spectral analyses. The compounds were then screened for their antiproliferative and enzymatic inhibitory activities. The results affirmed the consistency between docking and activities and the rationality of the design strategy...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Y X Fan, Z Wang, C F Ren, T W Ma, K P Deng, X Feng, F Z Li, F Wang, Y L Zhang
Nutritional intake and reproductive allocation are strongly associated and dietary energy restriction (ER) or surpluses can affect reproductive capacity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of energy levels on sheep testicular development. Three-month old Hu sheep were assigned to four groups, and fed diets containing different levels of energy (Control, maintenance energy; ER1, 85% maintenance energy; ER2, 70% maintenance energy; ER3, 55% maintenance energy). Two months later, half the sheep in each group were euthanized, whereas the remaining sheep were euthanized after a further 3 months feeding on a compensatory energy diet...
July 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Reyin Lien, Nan-Kai Wang, Chi-Chun Lai, Kuan-Jen Chen, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ciao-Ming Lin, Wei-Chi Wu, Kuang-Hung Hsu
Purpose: To investigate the 10-year epidemiology and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. Methods: All premature infants (n = 34,192) from 2002 to 2011 were screened, and those with length of stay (LOS) longer than 28 days who survived after the initial discharge were enrolled (n = 11,180). The annual incidence of ROP and the risk factors associated with it were analyzed. Results: A total of 4096 ROP infants, 36...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
S Orlando, I Triulzi, F Ciccacci, I Palla, L Palombi, M C Marazzi, M Giuliano, M Floridia, S Mancinelli, E Mutemba, G Turchetti
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) represents the ninth leading cause of death worldwide. In 2016 are estimated 1.3 million TB deaths among HIV negative people and an additional 374,000 deaths among HIV positive people. In 2016 are estimated 1.4 million new cases of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV), 74% of whom were living in Africa. In light of these data, the reduction of mortality caused by TB in PLHIV is strongly required specially in low-income countries as Mozambique. According to international guidelines, the initial TB screening in HIV+ patients should be done with the four symptoms screening (4SS: fever, current cough, night sweats and weight loss)...
2018: PloS One
Mariette Marano, Renee Stein, Wei Song, Deesha Patel, Nicole Taylor-Aidoo, Songli Xu, Lamont Scales
Identifying HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status, linking them to care, and reducing health disparities are important national HIV prevention goals (1). Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) accounted for 70% of HIV infection diagnoses in the United States in 2016, despite representing only 2% of the population (2,3). African American or black (black) MSM accounted for 38% of all new diagnoses of HIV infection among MSM (2)...
July 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Maria Salinas, Maite López-Garrigós, Emilio Flores, Javier Lugo, Carlos Leiva-Salinas
Background The clinical laboratory plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease. The quantitative measurement of urine albumin in a spot sample, expressed as ratio per creatinine (ACR) is the most frequently used biomarker for such a purpose. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performances of a strip for measuring ACR for differentiating patients who are candidates for subsequent albumin quantification, and to evaluate the economic effects of its implementation. Methods We systematically measured strip analysis when quantitative urinary albumin was requested...
July 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Inioluwa Oyindamola Akinboade, Yetunde Adebisi Aken'Ova
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are at risk of transmission transmissible viral hepatitis due to their constant need for blood transfusion. However, these patients could have been infected with HBV but may not know their status due to asymptomatic nature of the infection. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the burden of HBV markers of infection among SCD patients attending the hematology clinic at a tertiary health facility in Ibadan, Nigeria...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Julia L Marcus, Kenneth Levine, Chris Grasso, Douglas S Krakower, Victoria Powell, Kyle T Bernstein, Stephen Boswell, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
F W Ismail, S Abid, S Awan, F Lubna
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Food hypersensitivity (FH), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) have many overlapping symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, bloating, and altered bowel habits. We aimed to determine the frequency of FH in patients with IBS and functional FD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients of either gender diagnosed with IBS and/or FD as per the Rome III criteria were recruited. Patients underwent serological testing against 6 food allergens: beef, shrimp, egg white, milk, peanut, and soy-bean...
April 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Huixia Yang, Xinmiao Zhang, Zengping Hao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time optoelectronic device (TruScreen) for uterine cervical cancer screening. METHODS: On the basis of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (the PRISMA statement) we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, and WanFang Data using medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words. Title/abstract screening, full text check, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment (with the QUADAS-2 tool) were performed by 2 reviewers independently...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anthony Bryson, Rosemary Arthur, Chris Easton
Bryson, A, Arthur, R, and Easton, C. Prior knowledge of the grading criteria increases Functional Movement Screen scores in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-We sought to determine whether familiarity with the grading criteria of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) impacted the outcome score in elite youth soccer players. Thirty-two trained male youth soccer players (aged 17 ± 1 years) participated in a randomized control trial. Participants were randomly assigned to evenly sized control and experimental groups, who each completed the FMS on 2 separate occasions...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Laura D Scherer, K D Valentine, Niraj Patel, S Glenn Baker, Angela Fagerlin
Research that has explored public enthusiasm for cancer screening has suggested that the public may be overly enthusiastic about being screened with certain tests, and this has been attributed, in part, to lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits. In this article the authors considered the possibility that some people may be enthusiastic about screening even when they are informed and also accept that the test unquestionably does not save lives. Two studies were conducted, one that involved a nationally representative U...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Aleix Gimeno, Andrea Ardid-Ruiz, María José Ojeda-Montes, Sarah Tomás-Hernández, Adrià Cereto-Massagué, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Miquel Mulero, Cristina Valls, Gerard Aragonès, Manuel Suárez, Gerard Pujadas, Santiago Garcia-Vallvé
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a potential drug target for diabetes and obesity. However, designing PTP1B inhibitors that combine potency and bioavailability is a great challenge and new leads are needed to circumvent this problem. Virtual screening (VS) workflows can be used to find new PTP1B inhibitors with little chemical similarity to existing ones. Unfortunately, previous VS workflows for the identification of PTP1B inhibitors have several limitations, such as a small number of experimentally tested compounds and the low bioactivity of those compounds...
July 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
Turan Acar, Volkan Çakır, Nihan Acar, Kemal Atahan, Mehmet Hacıyanlı
Chronic visceral ischemia is described as postprandial abdominal pain caused by intestinal hypoperfusion. Chronic visceral ischemia arising from the stenosis of major mesenteric arteries can cause death. Chronic abdominal pain, weight loss, and sitophobia are the major symptoms. The main cause of chronic visceral ischemia is atherosclerosis; Doppler ultrasonography, tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography can be used for diagnosis. The gold standard method is mesenteric catheterized angiography...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Jiwei Yao, Yuan Wang, Yifan Dai, Chung Chiun Liu
Prostate cancer is prevalent among cancers in men. A simple method for screening of reliable biomarkers is pivotal for early detection of prostate cancer.  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been a commonly used biomarker for prostate cancer, in spite of its false-positive limitation. On the other hand, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a metabolic enzyme, has been proven to be a highly expressed biomarker in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, a method or tool, which can detect either PSA or AMACR or both simply, cost effectively, and with high sensitivity and selectivity is desirable...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Sanna Rauhamäki, Pekka A Postila, Sakari Lätti, Sanna Niinivehmas, Elina Multamäki, Klaus R Liedl, Olli T Pentikäinen
Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) has a vital role in the differentiation of T-helper 17 (TH17) cells. Potent and specific RORγt inverse agonists are sought for treating TH17-related diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Here, the aim was to discover novel RORγt ligands using both standard molecular docking and negative image-based screening. Interestingly, both of these in silico techniques put forward mostly the same compounds for experimental testing. In total, 11 of the 34 molecules purchased for testing were verified as RORγt inverse agonists, thus making the effective hit rate 32%...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Raquel Rodríguez-Pérez, Tomoyuki Miyao, Swarit Jasial, Martin Vogt, Jürgen Bajorath
Screening of compound libraries against panels of targets yields profiling matrices. Such matrices typically contain structurally diverse screening compounds, large numbers of inactives, and small numbers of hits per assay. As such, they represent interesting and challenging test cases for computational screening and activity predictions. In this work, modeling of large compound profiling matrices was attempted that were extracted from publicly available screening data. Different machine learning methods including deep learning were compared and different prediction strategies explored...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Martin Vogt, Swarit Jasial, Jürgen Bajorath
Compound profiling matrices record assay results for compound libraries tested against panels of targets. In addition to their relevance for exploring structure-activity relationships, such matrices are of considerable interest for chemoinformatic and chemogenomic applications. For example, profiling matrices provide a valuable data resource for the development and evaluation of machine learning approaches for multitask activity prediction. However, experimental compound profiling matrices are rare in the public domain...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
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