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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918078/assessment-of-environmental-impacts-and-operational-costs-of-the-implementation-of-an-innovative-source-separated-urine-treatment
#1
Elorri Igos, Mathilde Besson, Tomás Navarrete Gutiérrez, Ana Barbara Bisinella de Faria, Enrico Benetto, Ligia Barna, Aras Ahmadi, Mathieu Spérandio
Innovative treatment technologies and management methods are necessary to valorise the constituents of wastewater, in particular nutrients from urine (highly concentrated and can have significant impacts related to artificial fertilizer production). The FP7 project, ValuefromUrine, proposed a new two-step process (called VFU) based on struvite precipitation and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to recover ammonia, which is further transformed into ammonium sulphate. The environmental and economic impacts of its prospective implementation in the Netherlands were evaluated based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and operational costs...
September 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917178/adaptive-management-in-the-context-of-barriers-in-european-freshwater-ecosystems
#2
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Jeroen S Tummers, Martyn C Lucas, Kim Aarestrup
Many natural habitats have been modified to accommodate for the presence of humans and their needs. Infrastructures - such as hydroelectric dams, weirs, culverts and bridges - are now a common occurrence in streams and rivers across the world. As a result, freshwater ecosystems have been altered extensively, affecting both biological and geomorphological components of the habitats. Many fish species rely on these freshwater ecosystems to complete their lifecycles, and the presence of barriers has been shown to reduce their ability to migrate and sustain healthy populations...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914115/knowledge-attitudes-and-perspective-on-adverse-drug-reaction-reporting-in-a-public-sector-hospital-in-south-africa-baseline-analysis
#3
Antionette Terblanche, Johanna Catharina Meyer, Brian Godman, Robert Stanley Summers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause significant harm in patients; however, ADRs are under-reported in many countries, including South Africa, where evidence of a pharmacovigilance (PV) system to monitor and manage ADRs is a requirement for compliance with norms and standards for quality healthcare delivery. We conducted an analysis amongst health care professionals (HCPs) at Sebokeng Hospital to assess the situation there. METHODS: Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire, targeting all medical practitioners, nurses, pharmacists and pharmacist assistants in the hospital...
September 15, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910996/think-adult-think-child-why-should-staff-caring-for-dying-adults-ask-what-the-death-means-for-children-in-the-family
#4
Sir Al Aynsley-Green
Introduction: Bereaved children and young people in the UK are 'hidden mourners'. Sources of data: Review of primary and secondary evidence on childhood bereavement. Area of agreement: Children experience grief that varies according to the circumstance of death and their cognitive ability. Voluntary organizations can be supportive, but provision is patchy and vulnerable to austerity. Areas of concern: Adult-centric denial of the importance and long-term consequences of childhood grief; uncertainty in how best to relate to bereaved children in faiths and in schools...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905677/ethical-tensions-a-qualitative-systematic-review-of-new-graduate-perceptions
#5
Tori Hazelwood, Carolyn M Murray, Amy Baker, Mandy Stanley
BACKGROUND: New graduate transition into the workforce is challenging and can involve managing ethical tensions. Ethical tensions cause new graduates to doubt their capabilities due to their lack of experience. To support new graduates, we need to know what these ethical tensions are. OBJECTIVES: To explore the ethical tensions perceived to occur in practice for new graduate health professionals. RESEARCH DESIGN: This qualitative systematic review involved a search of five databases (Medline, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Scopus) which resulted in the retrieval of 3554 papers...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905390/validation-of-the-gatortail-method-for-accurate-sizing-of-pulmonary-vessels-from-3d-medical-images
#6
Walter G O'Dell, Anne K Gormaley, David A Prida
PURPOSE: Detailed characterization of changes in vessel size is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Because clinical measurement of vessel size is typically dependent on the radiologist's subjective interpretation of the vessel borders, it is often prone to high inter- and intra-user variability. Automatic methods of vessel sizing have been developed for two-dimensional images but a fully three-dimensional (3D) method suitable for vessel sizing from volumetric X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging has heretofore not been demonstrated and validated robustly...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905362/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-tens-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
William Gibson, Benedict M Wand, Neil E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904783/making-the-most-of-survey-data-incorporating-age-uncertainty-when-fitting-growth-parameters
#8
Michael A Spence, Alan J Turtle
Individual growth is an important parameter and is linked to a number of other biological processes. It is commonly modeled using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF), which is regularly fitted to age data where the ages of the animals are not known exactly but are binned into yearly age groups, such as fish survey data. Current methods of fitting the VBGF to these data treat all the binned ages as the actual ages. We present a new VBGF model that combines data from multiple surveys and allows the actual age of an animal to be inferred...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898419/a-block-matching-based-approach-with-multiple-simultaneous-templates-for-the-real-time-2d-ultrasound-tracking-of-liver-vessels
#10
Andrew J Shepard, Bo Wang, Thomas K F Foo, Bryan P Bednarz
PURPOSE: The implementation of motion management techniques in radiation therapy can aid in mitigating uncertainties and reducing margins. For motion management to be effective, it is necessary to track key structures both accurately and at a real-time speed. Therefore, the focus of this work was to develop a 2D algorithm for the real-time tracking of ultrasound features to aid in radiation therapy motion management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The developed algorithm utilized a similarity measure-based block matching algorithm incorporating training methods and multiple simultaneous templates...
September 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895271/multi-model-comparison-highlights-consistency-in-predicted-effect-of-warming-on-a-semi-arid-shrub
#11
Katherine M Renwick, Caroline Curtis, Andrew R Kleinhesselink, Daniel Schlaepfer, Bethany A Bradley, Cameron L Aldridge, Benjamin Poulter, Peter B Adler
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species...
September 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892857/a-risk-based-approach-to-cumulative-effect-assessments-for-marine-management
#12
REVIEW
Vanessa Stelzenmüller, Marta Coll, Antonios D Mazaris, Sylvaine Giakoumi, Stelios Katsanevakis, Michelle E Portman, Renate Degen, Peter Mackelworth, Antje Gimpel, Paolo G Albano, Vasiliki Almpanidou, Joachim Claudet, Franz Essl, Thanasis Evagelopoulos, Johanna J Heymans, Tilen Genov, Salit Kark, Fiorenza Micheli, Maria Grazia Pennino, Gil Rilov, Bob Rumes, Jeroen Steenbeek, Henn Ojaveer
Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the cumulative effects of multiple human pressures. Cumulative effect assessments (CEAs) are needed to inform environmental policy and guide ecosystem-based management. Yet, CEAs are inherently complex and seldom linked to real-world management processes. Therefore we propose entrenching CEAs in a risk management process, comprising the steps of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. We provide guidance to operationalize a risk-based approach to CEAs by describing for each step guiding principles and desired outcomes, scientific challenges and practical solutions...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891235/financial-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#13
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Elizabeth Paulsen, Simon Lewin, Agustín Ciapponi, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Gabriel Rada, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries...
September 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884836/a-probabilistic-approach-to-assess-external-doses-to-the-public-considering-spatial-variability-of-radioactive-contamination-and-interpopulation-differences-in-behavior-pattern
#14
Shogo Takahara, Masashi Iijima, Minoru Yoneda, Yoko Shimada
Dose assessment is an important issue from the viewpoints of protecting people from radiation exposure and managing postaccident situations adequately. However, the radiation doses received by people cannot be determined with complete accuracy because of the uncertainties and the variability associated with any process of defining individual characteristics and in the dose assessment process itself. In this study, a dose assessment model was developed based on measurements and surveys of individual doses and relevant contributors (i...
September 8, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883747/proton-beam-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-state-of-the-art
#15
REVIEW
Hideyuki Harada, Shigeyuki Murayama
This review summarizes the past and present status of proton beam therapy (PBT) for lung cancer. PBT has a unique characteristic called the Bragg peak that enables a reduction in the dose of normal tissue around the tumor, but is sensitive to the uncertainties of density changes. The heterogeneity in electron density for thoracic lesions, such as those in the lung and mediastinum, and tumor movement according to respiration necessitates respiratory management for PBT to be applied in lung cancer patients. There are two types of PBT - a passively scattered approach and a scanning approach...
2017: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882750/grey-areas-new-zealand-ambulance-personnel-s-experiences-of-challenging-resuscitation-decision-making
#16
Natalie Elizabeth Anderson, Merryn Gott, Julia Slark
INTRODUCTION: When faced with a patient in cardiac arrest, ambulance personnel must rapidly make complex decisions with limited information. Much of the research examining decisions to commence, continue, withhold or terminate resuscitation has used retrospective audits of registry data and clinical documentation. This study offers a provider-perspective which characterises uncertainty and highlights clinical, cognitive, emotional and physical demands associated with decision-making in the cardiac arrest context...
September 4, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882578/managing-ulcerative-colitis-patients-with-endoscopically-invisible-low-grade-dysplasia
#17
Ben Parker, James Buchanan, Sarah Wordsworth, Satish Keshav, Bruce George, James E East
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is uncertainty regarding the optimal management of endoscopically invisible ("flat") low grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. Such a finding does not currently provide an automatic indication for colectomy; however, a recommendation of surveillance instead of surgery is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of colonoscopic surveillance versus colectomy for endoscopically invisible low-grade dysplasia of the colon in ulcerative colitis...
September 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881409/an-emerging-new-risk-analysis-science-foundations-and-implications
#18
Terje Aven
To solve real-life problems-such as those related to technology, health, security, or climate change-and make suitable decisions, risk is nearly always a main issue. Different types of sciences are often supporting the work, for example, statistics, natural sciences, and social sciences. Risk analysis approaches and methods are also commonly used, but risk analysis is not broadly accepted as a science in itself. A key problem is the lack of explanatory power and large uncertainties when assessing risk. This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community...
September 7, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881307/using-spatial-stream-network-models-and-long-term-data-to-understand-and-predict-dynamics-of-faecal-contamination-in-a-mixed-land-use-catchment
#19
Aaron James Neill, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Norval James Colin Strachan, Rupert Lloyd Hough, Lisa Marie Avery, Helen Watson, Chris Soulsby
An 11year dataset of concentrations of E. coli at 10 spatially-distributed sites in a mixed land-use catchment in NE Scotland (52km(2)) revealed that concentrations were not clearly associated with flow or season. The lack of a clear flow-concentration relationship may have been due to greater water fluxes from less-contaminated headwaters during high flows diluting downstream concentrations, the importance of persistent point sources of E. coli both anthropogenic and agricultural, and possibly the temporal resolution of the dataset...
September 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881249/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-pet-ct-guided-management-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
A F Smith, P S Hall, C T Hulme, J A Dunn, C C McConkey, J K Rahman, C McCabe, H Mehanna
BACKGROUND: A recent large United Kingdom (UK) clinical trial demonstrated that positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-guided administration of neck dissection (ND) in patients with advanced head and neck cancer after primary chemo-radiotherapy treatment produces similar survival outcomes to planned ND (standard care) and is cost-effective over a short-term horizon. Further assessment of long-term outcomes is required to inform a robust adoption decision. Here we present results of a lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management from a UK secondary care perspective...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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