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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441595/modelling-drivers-and-distribution-of-lead-and-zinc-concentrations-in-soils-of-an-urban-catchment-sydney-estuary-australia
#1
L E Johnson, T F A Bishop, G F Birch
The human population is increasing globally and land use is changing to accommodate for this growth. Soils within urban areas require closer attention as the higher population density increases the chance of human exposure to urban contaminants. One such example of an urban area undergoing an increase in population density is Sydney, Australia. The city also possesses a notable history of intense industrial activity. By integrating multiple soil surveys and covariates into a linear mixed model, it was possible to determine the main drivers and map the distribution of lead and zinc concentrations within the Sydney estuary catchment...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440928/microplastics-as-contaminants-in-commercially-important-seafood-species
#2
David Santillo, Kathryn Miller, Paul Johnston
The ingestion of microplastic fragments, spheres, and fibers by marine mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, including a number of commercially important species, appears to be a widespread and pervasive phenomenon. Evidence is also growing for direct impacts of microplastic ingestion on physiology, reproductive success and survival of exposed marine organisms, and transfer through food webs, although the ecological implications are not yet known. Concerns also remain over the capacity for microplastics to act as vectors for harmful chemical pollutants, including plastic additives and persistent organic pollutants, although their contribution must be evaluated alongside other known sources...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440858/treatment-with-disease-modifying-drugs-for-people-with-a-first-clinical-attack-suggestive-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Graziella Filippini, Cinzia Del Giovane, Marinella Clerico, Omid Beiki, Miriam Mattoscio, Federico Piazza, Sten Fredrikson, Irene Tramacere, Antonio Scalfari, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: The treatment of multiple sclerosis has changed over the last 20 years. The advent of disease-modifying drugs in the mid-1990s heralded a period of rapid progress in the understanding and management of multiple sclerosis. With the support of magnetic resonance imaging early diagnosis is possible, enabling treatment initiation at the time of the first clinical attack. As most of the disease-modifying drugs are associated with adverse events, patients and clinicians need to weigh the benefit and safety of the various early treatment options before taking informed decisions...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440103/british-association-for-psychopharmacology-consensus-guidance-on-the-use-of-psychotropic-medication-preconception-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum-2017
#4
R Hamish McAllister-Williams, David S Baldwin, Roch Cantwell, Abby Easter, Eilish Gilvarry, Vivette Glover, Lucian Green, Alain Gregoire, Louise M Howard, Ian Jones, Hind Khalifeh, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Elizabeth McDonald, Nadia Micali, Carmine M Pariante, Lesley Peters, Ann Roberts, Natalie C Smith, David Taylor, Angelika Wieck, Laura M Yates, Allan H Young
Decisions about the use of psychotropic medication in pregnancy are an ongoing challenge for clinicians and women with mental health problems, owing to the uncertainties around risks of the illness itself to mother and fetus/infant, effectiveness of medications in pregnancy and risks to the fetus/infant from in utero exposure or via breast milk. These consensus guidelines aim to provide pragmatic advice regarding these issues. They are divided into sections on risks of untreated illness in pregnancy; general principles of using drugs in the perinatal period; benefits and harms associated with individual drugs; and recommendations for the management of specific disorders...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439014/brain-networks-for-confidence-weighting-and-hierarchical-inference-during-probabilistic-learning
#5
Florent Meyniel, Stanislas Dehaene
Learning is difficult when the world fluctuates randomly and ceaselessly. Classical learning algorithms, such as the delta rule with constant learning rate, are not optimal. Mathematically, the optimal learning rule requires weighting prior knowledge and incoming evidence according to their respective reliabilities. This "confidence weighting" implies the maintenance of an accurate estimate of the reliability of what has been learned. Here, using fMRI and an ideal-observer analysis, we demonstrate that the brain's learning algorithm relies on confidence weighting...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438627/atypical-small-acinar-proliferation-and-high-grade-prostatic-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-the-era-of-multi-parametric-mri-a-contemporary-review
#6
REVIEW
Todd G Manning, Ernest Cheung, Marlon Perera, Daniel Christidis, Jonathan S O'Brien, Catherine Mitchell, Damien M Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) has added to the armamentarium for the diagnosis and surveillance for organ confined prostate cancer. Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are premalignant prostatic lesions. The management of such lesions remains contentious, and the addition of mpMRI introduces further uncertainty given its ability to pick up indolent lesions and its use in targeted biopsy. We aimed to perform a comprehensive review of current evidence regarding ASAP, HGPIN and mpMRI to ascertain a consensus for a current management algorithm...
April 21, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437186/leptospira-species-in-feral-cats-and-black-rats-from-western-australia-and-christmas-island
#7
Narelle A Dybing, Caroline Jacobson, Peter Irwin, David Algar, Peter J Adams
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
March 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435862/financialization-impedes-climate-change-mitigation-evidence-from-the-early-american-solar-industry
#8
Max Jerneck
The article investigates how financialization impedes climate change mitigation by examining its effects on the early history of one low-carbon industry, solar photovoltaics in the United States. The industry grew rapidly in the 1970s, as large financial conglomerates acquired independent firms. While providing needed financial support, conglomerates changed the focus from existing markets in consumer applications toward a future utility market that never materialized. Concentration of the industry also left it vulnerable to the corporate restructuring of the 1980s, when the conglomerates were dismantled and solar divisions were pared back or sold off to foreign firms...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432696/systematic-review-of-self-management-interventions-for-people-with-eczema
#9
REVIEW
M J Ridd, A J L King, E Le Roux, A Waldecker, A L Huntle
Eczema is a common, long-term condition but inadequate support and information can lead to poor adherence and treatment failure. We have reviewed the international literature of interventions designed to promote self-management in adults and children with eczema. MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, CINAHL and GREAT were searched from their inception to August 2016 for randomised controlled trials. Two authors independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed risk of bias for all included studies and extracted data...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432642/emerging-use-of-early-health-technology-assessment-in-medical-product-development-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Maarten J IJzerman, Hendrik Koffijberg, Elisabeth Fenwick, Murray Krahn
Early health technology assessment is increasingly being used to support health economic evidence development during early stages of clinical research. Such early models can be used to inform research and development about the design and management of new medical technologies to mitigate the risks, perceived by industry and the public sector, associated with market access and reimbursement. Over the past 25 years it has been suggested that health economic evaluation in the early stages may benefit the development and diffusion of medical products...
April 21, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432419/-driving-and-dementia-an-issue-for-general-practice
#11
REVIEW
Verena Leve, Katharina Ilse, Marie Ufert, Stefan Wilm, Michael Pentzek
BACKGROUND: With most forms of dementia, the risk of road traffic accidents increases with disease progression. Addressing the issue of fitness to drive at an early stage can help to reduce driving-related risks and simultaneously preserve mobility. General practitioners (GPs) are central contact persons for dementia patients and their relatives in medical and psychosocial matters, and also play a key role in addressing the issue of driving safety. OBJECTIVE: Identification of relevant aspects of managing fitness to drive in dementia, as well as of support requirements for German general practice...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432418/-because-we-feel-we-have-to-do-something-barriers-in-the-prevention-of-violence-and-key-areas-requiring-action-a%C3%A2-qualitative-interview-study-with-professional-nurses-and-managers-in-the-field-of-elderly-care
#12
Melanie Siegel, Yuliya Mazheika, Regina Mennicken, Stefanie Ritz-Timme, Hildegard Graß, Britta Gahr
BACKGROUND: In recent years, politics and society have shown an increasing interest in the prevention of violence. Despite the scientific studies and prevention programs that have been conducted over the past few years, there is no indication that the prevalence of violence in elderly care is falling. A high number of unreported cases may still be assumed. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the barriers in transferring research knowledge into practice. Furthermore, it dealt with the requirements of an interventional approach which is practical and which effectively addresses the barriers...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431138/cardiovascular-outcome-trials-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-challenges-associated-with-selection-of-patients-and-endpoints
#13
Patrick Rossignol, Rajiv Agarwal, Bernard Canaud, Alan Charney, Gilles Chatellier, Jonathan C Craig, William C Cushman, Ronald T Gansevoort, Bengt Fellström, Dahlia Garza, Nicolas Guzman, Frank A Holtkamp, Gerard M London, Ziad A Massy, Alexandre Mebazaa, Peter G M Mol, Marc A Pfeffer, Yves Rosenberg, Luis M Ruilope, Jonathan Seltzer, Amil M Shah, Salim Shah, Bhupinder Singh, Bergur V Stefánsson, Norman Stockbridge, Wendy Gattis Stough, Kristian Thygesen, Michael Walsh, Christoph Wanner, David G Warnock, Christopher S Wilcox, Janet Wittes, Bertram Pitt, Aliza Thompson, Faiez Zannad
Although cardiovascular disease is a major health burden for patients with chronic kidney disease, most cardiovascular outcome trials have excluded patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Moreover, the major cardiovascular outcome trials that have been conducted in patients with end-stage renal disease have not demonstrated a treatment benefit. Thus, clinicians have limited evidence to guide the management of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly those on dialysis...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425402/what-is-changing-in-indications-and-treatment-of-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-of-the-liver-is-there-any-place-for-surgery
#14
Aristotelis Perrakis, Nikolaos Vassos, Robert Grützmann, Roland S Croner
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a common benign liver tumor, which occurs in the vast majority of the cases in young women. FNH represents a polyclonal lesion characterized by local vascular abnormalities and is a truly benign lesion without any potential for malignant transformation. A retrospective single institution analysis of 227 FNH patients, treated from 1990 to 2016 and a review of studies reporting surgical therapy of overall 293 patients with FNH was performed. Indications for resection with a focus on diagnostic workup, patient selection, surgical mode and operative mortality and morbidity have been analysed...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424863/current-practice-regarding-timing-of-patent-processus-vaginalis-ligation-for-idiopathic-hydrocele-in-young-boys-a-survey-of-uk-surgeons
#15
Matthew Jobson, Nigel J Hall
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the current UK practice regarding timing of surgical repair of hydroceles in young boys. METHODS: Through a validated, online survey, participants were asked their preferred management option in five different clinical scenarios across five age ranges. RESULTS: 71 responses were included in the analysis. The most common age to offer surgical intervention for a congenital hydrocele that is stable or increasing in size, or a hydrocele of the cord is 24-36 months...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423459/breaks-in-modis-time-series-portend-vegetation-change-verification-using-long-term-data-in-an-arid-grassland-ecosystem
#16
Dawn M Browning, Jonathan J Maynard, Jason W Karl, Debra C Peters
Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of extreme events will be manifest in an ecosystem. In water-limited ecosystems with high inter-annual variability in rainfall, it is important to be able to distinguish responses that result from seasonal fluctuations in rainfall from long-term directional increases or decreases in precipitation...
April 19, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422278/decipher-test-impacts-decision-making-among-patients-considering-adjuvant-and-salvage-treatment-after-radical-prostatectomy-interim-results-from-the-multicenter-prospective-pro-impact-study
#17
John L Gore, Marguerite du Plessis, María Santiago-Jiménez, Kasra Yousefi, Darby J S Thompson, Lawrence Karsh, Brian R Lane, Michael Franks, David Y T Chen, Mark Bandyk, Fernando J Bianco, Gordon Brown, William Clark, Adam S Kibel, Hyung L Kim, William Lowrance, Murugesan Manoharan, Paul Maroni, Scott Perrapato, Paul Sieber, Edouard J Trabulsi, Robert Waterhouse, Elai Davicioni, Yair Lotan, Daniel W Lin
BACKGROUND: Patients with prostate cancer and their providers face uncertainty as they consider adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) or salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after undergoing radical prostatectomy. The authors prospectively evaluated the impact of the Decipher test, which predicts metastasis risk after radical prostatectomy, on decision making for ART and SRT. METHODS: A total of 150 patients who were considering ART and 115 who were considering SRT were enrolled. Providers submitted a management recommendation before processing the Decipher test and again at the time of receipt of the test results...
April 19, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419432/a-global-synthesis-of-managing-groundwater-dependent-ecosystems-under-sustainable-groundwater-policy
#18
Melissa M Rohde, Ray Froend, Jeanette Howard
Groundwater is a vital water supply worldwide for people and nature. However, species and ecosystems that depend on groundwater for some or all of their water needs, known as groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs), are increasingly becoming threatened worldwide due to growing human water demands. Over the past two decades, the protection and management of GDEs have been incorporated into several water management policy initiatives worldwide including jurisdictions within Australia, the European Union, South Africa, and the United States...
April 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419160/an-empirically-grounded-agent-based-model-for-modeling-directs-conflict-detection-and-resolution-operations-in-air-traffic-management
#19
Christian Bongiorno, Salvatore Miccichè, Rosario N Mantegna
We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419113/evaluation-of-harvest-and-information-needs-for-north-american-sea-ducks
#20
Mark D Koneff, Guthrie S Zimmerman, Chris P Dwyer, Kathleen K Fleming, Paul I Padding, Patrick K Devers, Fred A Johnson, Michael C Runge, Anthony J Roberts
Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini)...
2017: PloS One
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