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Transition medicine

Delphine Cappelle, Foon Yin Lai, Adrian Covaci, Annemie Vermassen, Cleo L Crunelle, Hugo Neels, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) are 2 non-oxidative and direct metabolites of ethanol. EtG is known to accumulate in hair and has proved to be a reliable biomarker for detection of chronic alcohol consumption. EtS has been analysed in blood and urine but has never been reported in hair. This article presents the first analytical assay based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of EtS in hair. Sample preparation, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric parameters, such as solid-phase extraction, column type, and transitions were optimised...
June 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Wei Zhang, Wenhui Chu, Qingxiu Liu, Dawn Coates, Yudong Shang, Chunyi Li
BACKGROUND: Deer antlers are the only known mammalian organ with vascularized cartilage that can completely regenerate. Antlers are of real significance as a model of mammalian stem cell-based regeneration with particular relevance to the fields of chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and regenerative medicine. Recent research found that thymosin beta 10 (TMSB10) is highly expressed in the growth centers of growing antlers. The present study reports here the expression, functions, and molecular interactions of deer TMSB10...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
B Chabrol, P Jacquin, L Francois, P Broué, D Dobbelaere, C Douillard, S Dubois, F Feillet, A Perrier, A Fouilhoux, F Labarthe, D Lamireau, K Mazodier, F Maillot, F Mochel, M Schiff, N Belmatoug
Inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) form a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that surface primarily during childhood and result in significant morbidity and mortality. A prevalence of 1 in 2500-5000 live births is often reported. The transfer of adolescents from pediatric care to adult health facilities is often difficult for patients and their families and can lead to a breakdown in medical follow-up and therefore serious complications. Existing recommendations for the successful transition of patients with chronic disorders do not specifically address patients with IMDs associated with dietary treatment...
June 15, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Victor Arana-Argáez, Julio Cesar Torres-Romero, Eyra Ramírez-Villanueva, Sabino Eduardo Pérez-Medina, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Mario Alberto Juárez-Méndez, Yessica Paola Infante-Barrios, Fidel Martínez-Gutiérrez, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Mario Alberto Isiordia-Espinoza, Andrés Flores-Santos
Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of EPE was evaluated using the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the acute toxicity test in mice, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jongjin Park, Yeonsung Son, Na Geum Lee, Kyungmin Lee, Dong Gwang Lee, Jinhoi Song, Jaemin Lee, Seokho Kim, Min Ji Cho, Ju-Hong Jang, Jangwook Lee, Jong-Gil Park, Yeon-Gu Kim, Jang-Seong Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Yee Sook Cho, Young-Jun Park, Baek Soo Han, Kwang-Hee Bae, Seungmin Han, Byunghoon Kang, Seungjoo Haam, Sang-Hyun Lee, Sang Chul Lee, Jeong-Ki Min
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent the most promising clinical source for regenerative medicine. However, given the cellular heterogeneity within cultivation and safety concerns, the development of specific and efficient tools to isolate a pure population and eliminate all residual undifferentiated PSCs from differentiated derivatives is a prerequisite for clinical applications. In this study, we raised a monoclonal antibody and identified its target antigen as desmoglein-2 (DSG2). DSG2 co-localized with human PSC (hPSC)-specific cell surface markers, and its expression was rapidly downregulated upon differentiation...
June 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
A Godfrey, V Hetherington, H Shum, P Bonato, N H Lovell, S Stuart
Wearable technology (WT) has become a viable means to provide low-cost clinically sensitive data for more informed patient assessment. The benefit of WT seems obvious: small, worn discreetly in any environment, personalised data and possible integration into communication networks, facilitating remote monitoring. Yet, WT remains poorly understood and technology innovation often exceeds pragmatic clinical demand and use. Here, we provide an overview of the common challenges facing WT if it is to transition from novel gadget to an efficient, valid and reliable clinical tool for modern medicine...
July 2018: Maturitas
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Stephanie K Mueller, Evan Shannon, Anuj Dalal, Jeffrey L Schnipper, Patricia Dykes
OBJECTIVES: Although existing data suggest marked variability in interhospital transfer (IHT), little is known about specific factors that may impact the quality and safety of this care transition. We aimed to explore transferred patients' and involved physicians' experience with IHT to better understand the components of the transfer continuum and identify potential targets for improvement. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study using individual interviews of adult patients recently transferred to cardiology, general medicine, and oncology services at a tertiary care academic medical center, as well as their transferring physician, accepting attending physician, and accepting/admitting resident physician...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Dan Jin, Yan Wu, Cuijie Shao, Yong Gao, Deqiang Wang, Jiwei Guo
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of all lung cancer cases, which are the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. The clinical efficacy of available therapies for NSCLC is often limited due to the development of resistance to anticancer drugs, particularly to cisplatin (DDP). Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of many types of cancer, to which patients do not develop resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential synergistic effects of NCTD and DPP on the viability of the the DDP‑resistant NSCLC cell line, A549/DDP...
June 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Dharmesh Gopalakrishnan, Vadim S Koshkin, Moshe C Ornstein, Athanasios Papatsoris, Petros Grivas
Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the US and most tumors have urothelial (transitional cell) histology. Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been the standard of care in advanced disease, but long-term outcomes have largely remained poor. Since the peak incidence of bladder cancer is in the eighth decade of life and beyond, medical comorbidities may often limit the use of chemotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors with their favorable toxicity profiles and notable antitumor activity have ushered in a new era in the treatment of advanced urothelial cancer (UC) with five agents targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway being recently approved by the US Food and Drug administration...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Allan Fong, Raj M Ratwani
BACKGROUND: Interruptions can adversely impact human performance, particularly in fast-paced and high-risk environments such as the emergency department (ED). Understanding physician behaviors before, during, and after interruptions is important to the design and promotion of safe and effective workflow solutions. However, traditional human factors based interruption models do not accurately reflect the complexities of real-world environments like the ED and may not capture multiple interruptions and multitasking...
June 11, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Samar Mahmood, Muqadus Tabraze
The issue of overprescribing laboratory investigations is an old one in the world of medical practice and it has unfortunately seen a tremendous increase with the digitalisation of medicine, in more recent times. Phrased usually as 'defensive medicine,' this kind of overmedicalisation steers medical practice away from the ethical, skill-refining fronts on the part of doctors and imposes an unnecessary financial burden on the patients' pockets, adding to their suffering. Pakistan has not been able to save itself either, from the impropriety that roots out of what is now almost a norm in medical practice...
April 8, 2018: Curēus
J A Brinckmann, W Luo, Q Xu, X He, J Wu, A B Cunningham
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Endemic to China, the distribution of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E.H.Wilson includes giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca David, 1869) habitats in forests of the Minshan and Qinling Mountains, both inside and outside conservation areas. The fruit is used in indigenous medicines of the Qiang, Tibetan and Yi ethnic minorities of Sichuan. Also used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), indications for use are prescribed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shangping Xing, Wenxia Yu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Yingyi Luo, Zhouxi Lei, Dandan Huang, Ji Lin, Yuechun Huang, Shaowei Huang, Feifei Nong, Chunhua Zhou, Gang Wei
Dendrobium officinale is a precious medicinal herb and health food, and its pharmacological actions have been studied and proved. However, the mechanisms by which its active flavonoid glycosides affect epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, such as HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells, have not been previously investigated. Therefore, we investigated whether isoviolanthin extracted from the leaves of Dendrobium officinale inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced EMT in HCC cells...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Herbert C Duber, Isabel A Barata, Eric Cioè-Peña, Stephen Y Liang, Eric Ketcham, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos, Shawn A Ryan, Mark Stavros, Lauren K Whiteside
Because of a soaring number of opioid-related deaths during the past decade, opioid use disorder has become a prominent issue in both the scientific literature and lay press. Although most of the focus within the emergency medicine community has been on opioid prescribing-specifically, on reducing the incidence of opioid prescribing and examining alternative pain treatment-interest is heightening in identifying and managing patients with opioid use disorder in an effective and evidence-based manner. In this clinical review article, we examine current strategies for identifying patients with opioid use disorder, the treatment of patients with acute opioid withdrawal syndrome, approaches to medication-assisted therapy, and the transition of patients with opioid use disorder from the emergency department to outpatient services...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Jane Ferguson, Liz Seston, Darren M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: Transition between care settings is a time of high risk for preventable medication errors. Poor communication about medication changes on discharge from hospital can result in adverse drug events and medicines-related readmissions. Refer-to-Pharmacy is a novel electronic referral system that allows hospital pharmacy staff to refer patients from their bedside to their community pharmacist for post-hospital discharge medication support. The aim of this study was to examine factors that promoted or inhibited the implementation of Refer-to-Pharmacy in hospital and community settings...
June 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
C Casas-Fernandez, H Alarcon-Martinez, E Martinez-Salcedo, S Ibanez-Mico
Paediatric care of a chronic process is limited by the moment when the clinical and therapeutic follow-up must be continued by a specialist from the area for adults. The delay in the transition from paediatrics to adult medicine can be due to causes attributable to the patient or his/her relatives, or the professional who diagnosed the disease. The former arises from the uncertainty of facing the unknown, which becomes more intense when the diagnosis and treatment have been difficult, as there is a fear of upsetting the stability of the patient...
June 5, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Mohammad S Razavi, Ebrahim Shirani, Ghassan S Kassab
The structure-function relation is one of the oldest hypotheses in biology and medicine; i.e., form serves function and function influences form. Here, we derive and validate form-function relations for volume, length, flow, and mean transit time in vascular trees and capillary numbers of various organs and species. We define a vessel segment as a "stem" and the vascular tree supplied by the stem as a "crown." We demonstrate form-function relations between the number of capillaries in a vascular network and the crown volume, crown length, and blood flow that perfuses the network...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hongming Zheng, Qiuju Huang, Suchao Huang, Xia Yang, Ting Zhu, Wensheng Wang, Haojia Wang, Shugui He, Liyan Ji, Ying Wang, Xiaoxiao Qi, Zhongqiu Liu, Linlin Lu
Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), predominant subclassfication of lung cancer, leads high incidence and mortality annually worldwide. During the premalignant transition from lung adenomas to LAC, cellular senescence is regard as a critical physiological barrier against tumor progression. Nevertheless, the role of senescence in tumorigenesis is controversial and few senescence inducers are extensively determined. In this study, we used two classical cell lines A549 and H1299 and two NSCLC xenograft models on Balb/c-nude mice to reveal the pro-senescence effects of shikonin and the corresponding underlying mechanism in LAC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alexander Mazein, Marek Ostaszewski, Inna Kuperstein, Steven Watterson, Nicolas Le Novère, Diane Lefaudeux, Bertrand De Meulder, Johann Pellet, Irina Balaur, Mansoor Saqi, Maria Manuela Nogueira, Feng He, Andrew Parton, Nathanaël Lemonnier, Piotr Gawron, Stephan Gebel, Pierre Hainaut, Markus Ollert, Ugur Dogrusoz, Emmanuel Barillot, Andrei Zinovyev, Reinhard Schneider, Rudi Balling, Charles Auffray
The development of computational approaches in systems biology has reached a state of maturity that allows their transition to systems medicine. Despite this progress, intuitive visualisation and context-dependent knowledge representation still present a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe the Disease Maps Project, an effort towards a community-driven computationally readable comprehensive representation of disease mechanisms. We outline the key principles and the framework required for the success of this initiative, including use of best practices, standards and protocols...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
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