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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708595/limited-near-and-far-transfer-effects-of-jungle-memory-working-memory-training-on-learning-mathematics-in-children-with-attentional-and-mathematical-difficulties
#1
Michel Nelwan, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64) with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1) JM first, followed by MT, (2) MT first, followed by JM, and (3) a control group that received MT only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476549/effectiveness-of-pedalling-retraining-in-reducing-bilateral-pedal-force-asymmetries
#2
Rodrigo R Bini, Tiago C Jacques, Felipe P Carpes, Marco A Vaz
Previous studies have been limited to describe asymmetries during pedalling and suggest possible repercussion on performance and/or injury risks. However, few studies have presented strategies to mitigate asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a pedalling retraining intervention to reduce bilateral pedal force asymmetries. Twenty cyclists were assessed and 10 enrolled in a pedalling retraining method receiving visual and verbal feedback of pedal forces. The asymmetry index was computed for comparison of bilateral peak pedal forces and used during retraining (12 trials at 70% of peak power)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324833/feedback-and-motor-skill-acquisition-using-a-haptic-dental-simulator
#3
L M Al-Saud, F Mushtaq, M J Allsop, P C Culmer, I Mirghani, E Yates, A Keeling, M A Mon-Williams, M Manogue
AIM: To investigate the effect of qualitatively different types of pedagogical feedback (FB) on the training, transfer and retention of basic manual dexterity dental skills using a virtual reality (VR) haptic dental simulator. METHODS: Sixty-three participants (M = 22.7 years; SD = 3.4 years), with no previous dental training, were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n = 21 each). Group 1 received device-only feedback during the training phase, that is the visual display of the simulator (DFB); Group 2 received verbal feedback from a qualified dental instructor (IFB); and Group 3 received a combination of instructor and device feedback (IDFB)...
June 21, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280151/visuomotor-learning-generalizes-around-the-intended-movement
#4
Kevin A Day, Ryan T Roemmich, Jordan A Taylor, Amy J Bastian
Human motor learning is useful if it generalizes beyond the trained task. Here, we introduce a new idea about how human visuomotor learning generalizes. We show that learned reaching movements generalize around where a person intends to move (i.e., aiming direction) as opposed to where they actually move. We used a visual rotation paradigm that allowed us to disentangle whether generalization is centered on where people aim to move, where they actually move, or where visual feedback indicates they moved. Participants reached to a visual target with their arm occluded from view...
March 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177424/short-structured-feedback-training-is-equivalent-to-a-mechanical-feedback-device-in-two-rescuer-bls-a-randomised-simulation-study
#5
Noemi Pavo, Georg Goliasch, Franz Josef Nierscher, Dominik Stumpf, Moritz Haugk, Jan Breckwoldt, Kurt Ruetzler, Robert Greif, Henrik Fischer
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation guidelines encourage the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) feedback devices implying better outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. Whether effective continuous feedback could also be given verbally by a second rescuer ("human feedback") has not been investigated yet. We, therefore, compared the effect of human feedback to a CPR feedback device. METHODS: In an open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we compared CPR performance of three groups of medical students in a two-rescuer scenario...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167401/social-cognition-as-reinforcement-learning-feedback-modulates-emotion-inference
#6
Jamil Zaki, Seth Kallman, G Elliott Wimmer, Kevin Ochsner, Daphna Shohamy
Neuroscientific studies of social cognition typically employ paradigms in which perceivers draw single-shot inferences about the internal states of strangers. Real-world social inference features much different parameters: People often encounter and learn about particular social targets (e.g., friends) over time and receive feedback about whether their inferences are correct or incorrect. Here, we examined this process and, more broadly, the intersection between social cognition and reinforcement learning. Perceivers were scanned using fMRI while repeatedly encountering three social targets who produced conflicting visual and verbal emotional cues...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155985/motor-memory-deficits-contribute-to-motor-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kristina A Neely, Suman Mohanty, Lauren M Schmitt, Zheng Wang, John A Sweeney, Matthew W Mosconi
Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the processes underlying these deficits remain unclear. This study examined force production with and without visual feedback to determine if individuals with ASD can utilize internal representations to guide sustained force. Individuals with ASD showed a faster rate of force decay in the absence of visual feedback. Comparison of force output and tests of social and verbal abilities demonstrated a link between motor memory impairment and social and verbal deficits in individuals with ASD...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085892/novel-word-acquisition-in-aphasia-facing-the-word-referent-ambiguity-of-natural-language-learning-contexts
#8
Claudia Peñaloza, Daniel Mirman, Leena Tuomiranta, Annalisa Benetello, Ida-Maria Heikius, Sonja Järvinen, Maria C Majos, Pedro Cardona, Montserrat Juncadella, Matti Laine, Nadine Martin, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback...
June 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016338/systematic-augmented-feedback-and-dependency-in-spinal-manipulation-learning-a-randomized-comparative-study
#9
Arnaud Lardon, Charlène Cheron, Isabelle Pagé, Claude Dugas, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate if systematic augmented feedback during short sessions of spinal manipulation (SM) training creates a dependency compared with short training session characterized by progressive withdrawal of augmented feedback. METHODS: Forty fourth- and fifth-year chiropractic students enrolled in a 5-year chiropractic program were randomized into 2 groups. The 2 groups performed the same number of SM with a 300-N peak force target on an instrumented device...
March 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006042/piloting-the-feasibility-of-head-mounted-video-technology-to-augment-student-feedback-during-simulated-clinical-decision-making-an-observational-design-pilot-study
#10
Helen Forbes, Tracey K Bucknall, Alison M Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision-making is a complex activity that is critical to patient safety. Simulation, augmented by feedback, affords learners the opportunity to learn critical clinical decision-making skills. More detailed feedback following simulation exercises has the potential to further enhance student learning, particularly in relation to developing improved clinical decision-making skills. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of head-mounted video camera recordings, to augment feedback, following acute patient deterioration simulations...
April 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898988/misperception-of-tiredness-in-young-adults-with-insomnia
#11
Umair Akram, Jason G Ellis, Andriy Myachykov, Nicola L Barclay
People with insomnia often exhibit interpretive biases to cues associated with their condition. This study examined whether individuals with insomnia display an interpretive bias, such that they misperceive facial attributes of tiredness in a disorder-consistent manner. The efficacy of providing feedback related to the accuracy of participants' perception on later judgements of tiredness was further examined. Forty participants, 20 with DSM-5-defined insomnia disorder and 20 normal-sleepers, participated. The perception of one's own facial appearance of tiredness was assessed twice over two consecutive days using a visual task whereby participants indicated when a morphing image of their face represented their current level of tiredness...
August 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884223/running-retraining-to-treat-lower-limb-injuries-a-mixed-methods-study-of-current-evidence-synthesised-with-expert-opinion
#12
REVIEW
C J Barton, D R Bonanno, J Carr, B S Neal, P Malliaras, A Franklyn-Miller, H B Menz
IMPORTANCE: Running-related injuries are highly prevalent. OBJECTIVE: Synthesise published evidence with international expert opinion on the use of running retraining when treating lower limb injuries. DESIGN: Mixed methods. METHODS: A systematic review of clinical and biomechanical findings related to running retraining interventions were synthesised and combined with semistructured interviews with 16 international experts covering clinical reasoning related to the implementation of running retraining...
May 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877722/the-creation-of-a-superstitious-belief-regarding-putters-in-a-laboratory-based-golfing-task
#13
Andrew Churchill, Jamie A Taylor, Royston Parkes
The objective was to determine the extent to which it was possible to induce superstitious behaviour and beliefs in a golf putting task in a laboratory. Participants (N = 28) took part in a putting task using three identical clubs in which visual feedback regarding performance was restricted. Participants were provided with verbal feedback of their performance, which was honest when they used one putter, negative with a second putter (they did better than they were told) and positive with a third (they did worse than they were told)...
October 2, 2015: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595682/an-investigation-of-the-role-of-some-person-and-situation-variables-in-multiple-cue-probability-learning
#14
Mustafa Bayindir, Fergus Bolger, Bilge Say
Making decisions using judgements of multiple non-deterministic indicators is an important task, both in everyday and professional life. Learning of such decision-making has often been studied as the mapping of stimuli (cues) to an environmental variable (criterion), however, little attention has been paid to the effects of situation-by-person interactions on this learning. Accordingly, we manipulated cue and feedback presentation mode (graphic or numeric) and task difficulty, and measured individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC)...
November 23, 2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26585856/how-children-aged-2-6-tailor-verbal-expressions-to-interlocutor-informational-needs
#15
Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Erika Nurmsoo, Rebecca Croll, Heather Ferguson, Michael Forrester
Although preschoolers are pervasively underinformative in their actual usage of verbal reference, a number of studies have shown that they nonetheless demonstrate sensitivity to listener informational needs, at least when environmental cues to this are obvious. We investigated two issues. The first concerned the types of visual cues to interlocutor informational needs which children aged 2;6 can process whilst producing complex referring expressions. The second was whether performance in experimental tasks related to naturalistic conversational proficiency...
November 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542827/altering-sensorimotor-feedback-disrupts-visual-discrimination-of-facial-expressions
#16
Adrienne Wood, Gary Lupyan, Steven Sherrin, Paula Niedenthal
Looking at another person's facial expression of emotion can trigger the same neural processes involved in producing the expression, and such responses play a functional role in emotion recognition. Disrupting individuals' facial action, for example, interferes with verbal emotion recognition tasks. We tested the hypothesis that facial responses also play a functional role in the perceptual processing of emotional expressions. We altered the facial action of participants with a gel facemask while they performed a task that involved distinguishing target expressions from highly similar distractors...
August 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26520148/improving-empathic-communication-skills-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Lynn Kern Koegel, Kristen Ashbaugh, Anahita Navab, Robert L Koegel
The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD...
March 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441745/absence-of-modulatory-action-on-haptic-height-perception-with-musical-pitch
#18
Michele Geronazzo, Federico Avanzini, Massimo Grassi
Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., "high in pitch" or "low in pitch"). Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with) the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual) in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325985/load-dependent-increases-in-alpha-band-power-relevance-to-sensory-cortex-excitability-and-distractor-interference
#19
Andrew Heinz, Jeffrey Johnson
Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP) during the delay period of verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas, and the active retention of information in STM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of distractor interference in STM...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26305797/structure-learning-in-bayesian-sensorimotor-integration
#20
Tim Genewein, Eduard Hez, Zeynab Razzaghpanah, Daniel A Braun
Previous studies have shown that sensorimotor processing can often be described by Bayesian learning, in particular the integration of prior and feedback information depending on its degree of reliability. Here we test the hypothesis that the integration process itself can be tuned to the statistical structure of the environment. We exposed human participants to a reaching task in a three-dimensional virtual reality environment where we could displace the visual feedback of their hand position in a two dimensional plane...
August 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
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