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bipolar disease

Yoshihiro Kawakubo, Masaya Yanagi, Noa Tsujii, Osamu Shirakawa
In applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical psychiatry settings in Japan, a phonemic verbal fluency test (VFT) that includes "switching" (the ability to shift efficiently to a new word subcategory) to assess phonemic fluency is employed to capture disease-specific hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, to extend the specific features of this test, the VFT was repeated to examine an activation change in NIRS measurements in 20 healthy males. Without task performance change, the hemodynamic activation induced by the VFT was significantly attenuated in the left PFC through repetition of the task...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Hulcová, Kateřina Breiterová, Tomáš Siatka, Kamila Klímová, Lara Davani, Marcela Šafratová, Anna Hošťálková, Angela De Simone, Vincenza Andrisano, Lucie Cahlíková
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lauren R Klein, Marc L Martel, Brian E Driver, Mackenzie Reing, Jon B Cole
Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jenna M Reinen, Oliver Y Chén, R Matthew Hutchison, B T Thomas Yeo, Kevin M Anderson, Mert R Sabuncu, Dost Öngür, Joshua L Roffman, Jordan W Smoller, Justin T Baker, Avram J Holmes
Higher-order cognition emerges through the flexible interactions of large-scale brain networks, an aspect of temporal coordination that may be impaired in psychosis. Here, we map the dynamic functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in healthy young adults, leveraging this atlas of transient network configurations (states), to identify state- and network-specific disruptions in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. We demonstrate that dynamic connectivity profiles are reliable within participants, and can act as a fingerprint, identifying specific individuals within a larger group...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Maciej Kubala, Rajeev K Pathak, Shuanglun Xie, Ruben Casado Arroyo, Cory M Tschabrunn, Tatsuya Hayashi, Fermin C Garcia, Gregory E Supple, Pasquale Santangeli, David S Frankel, Erica S Zado, David J Callans, Francis E Marchlinski
BACKGROUND: Repolarization abnormalities in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy and their relationship to ventricular tachycardia substrate are incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 40 patients (29 men, mean age 38 years) with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, we compared the extent and location of abnormal T (NegT) waves ≥1 mm in depth (n=32) and downsloping elevated ST segment (n=13), in ≥2 adjacent leads, to area and location of endocardial bipolar (<1...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ying Han, Zhenyu Lu, Zhenguang Du, Qi Luo, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD), along with depression and schizophrenia, is one of the most serious mental illnesses, and one of the top 20 causes of severe impairment in everyday life. Recent molecular studies, using both traditional approaches and new procedures such as Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), have suggested that genetic factors could significantly contribute to the development of BD, with heritability estimates of up to 85%. However, it is assumed that BD is a multigenic and multifactorial illness with environmental factors that strongly contribute to disease development/progression, which means that progress in genetic knowledge of BD might be difficult to interpret in clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Vasily Mikhaïlovitch Smirnov, Christina Zeitz, Nagasamy Soumittra, Isabelle Audo, Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes
INTRODUCTION: CABP4-related retinal dysfunction is a cone-rod synaptic transmission disorder with electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) waveform. It is a rare retinal dysfunction that can be classified into the incomplete form of congenital stationary night blindness. Absent foveal reflex and overall foveal thinning were previously reported, but in most cases the fundus appearance was described as nearly normal. We report here peculiar macular changes in a patient of French ancestry harbouring CABP4 mutations...
March 10, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett, John D Fisk, Tingting Zhang, Scott B Patten, Lorne Kastrukoff, Trudy Campbell, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that comorbidity may influence disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS); we investigated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and MS disability progression in a large multiclinic population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study accessed prospectively collected information from linked clinical and population-based health administrative databases in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Nova Scotia...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Georgina P Ossani, Diego J Martino, Jorge E Toblli
Lithium has been approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder since the 1970s and even today it is considered a first-line drug for the treatment of this disease. As bipolar disorder often begins between 15-35 years of age and requires long-term treatment, the assessment of the adverse effects of the drugs used is critical. Recently, there has been renewed interest on the risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure induced by lithium, with findings suggesting that both complications could be more frequent than previously considered...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Seol Baek, Seung-Ryong Kwon, Song Yi Yeon, Sun-Heui Yoon, Chung Mu Kang, Seok Hee Han, Dahye Lee, Taek Dong Chung
We suggest electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing platform driven by eco-friendly, disposable, and miniaturized reverse elec-trodialysis (RED) patches as an electric power source. The flexible RED patches composed of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can produce voltage required for ECL sensing by simply choosing the appropriate number of the IEMs and the ratio of salt con-centrations. We integrate the RED patch with a bipolar electrode on the microfluidic chip to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, i.e. glucose detection in the range of 0...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anke Hoffmann, Vincenza Sportelli, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Bipolar disease (BD) is one of the major public health burdens worldwide and more people are affected every year. Comprehensive genetic studies have associated thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BD risk; yet, very little is known about their functional roles. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are powerful tools for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype in disease-relevant tissues and cell types. Neural cells generated from BD-specific iPSCs are thought to capture associated genetic risk factors, known and unknown, and to allow the analysis of their effects on cellular and molecular phenotypes...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eduard Vieta, Michael Berk, Thomas G Schulze, André F Carvalho, Trisha Suppes, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Iria Grande
Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease. Psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medical comorbidities are common in patients and might also contribute to increased mortality. Bipolar disorders are some of the most heritable psychiatric disorders, although a model with gene-environment interactions is believed to best explain the aetiology...
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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