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Melatonin serotonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899931/melatonin-in-plants-and-plant-culture-systems-variability-stability-and-efficient-quantification
#1
Lauren A E Erland, Abhishek Chattopadhyay, Andrew Maxwell P Jones, Praveen K Saxena
Despite growing evidence of the importance of melatonin and serotonin in the plant life, there is still much debate over the stability of melatonin, with extraction and analysis methods varying greatly from lab to lab with respect to time, temperature, light levels, extraction solvents, and mechanical disruption. The variability in methodology has created conflicting results that confound the comparison of studies to determine the role of melatonin in plant physiology. We here describe a fully validated method for the quantification of melatonin, serotonin and their biosynthetic precursors: tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin by liquid chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in diverse plant species and tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876126/regular-sun-exposure-benefits-health
#3
H J van der Rhee, E de Vries, J W Coebergh
Since it was discovered that UV radiation was the main environmental cause of skin cancer, primary prevention programs have been started. These programs advise to avoid exposure to sunlight. However, the question arises whether sun-shunning behaviour might have an effect on general health. During the last decades new favourable associations between sunlight and disease have been discovered. There is growing observational and experimental evidence that regular exposure to sunlight contributes to the prevention of colon-, breast-, prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, hypertension and diabetes...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875954/how-immune-inflammatory-processes-link-cns-and-psychiatric-disorders-classification-and-treatment-implications
#4
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855744/melatonin-natural-health-products-and-supplements-presence-of-serotonin-and-significant-variability-of-melatonin-content
#5
Lauren A E Erland, Praveen K Saxena
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is an important neurohormone, which mediates circadian rhythms and the sleep cycle. As such, it is a popular and readily available supplement for the treatment and prevention of sleep-related disorders including insomnia and jet lag. This study quantified melatonin in 30 commercial supplements, comprising different brands and forms and screened supplements for the presence of serotonin. METHODS: A total of 31 supplements were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for quantification of melatonin and serotonin...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777206/-role-of-serotoninergic-melatoninergic-system-in-melanin-metabolism-in-melanocytes-exposed-to-serum-of-rabbits-fed-with-liuwei-dihuang-decoction
#6
Yan Deng, Lin Lv, Guang Yang, Yu-Kun Sui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH) decoction on serotonine (5-HTs), melatonin and the activity of the rate-limiting enzymes ANNAT and HIOMT in cultured human melanocytes and in melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes. METHODS: CCK-8 assay was used to assess the proliferation of melanocytes and melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes after treatment with the serum from rabbits fed with LWDH decoction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine 5-HT and melatonin contents, and real-time fluorescent PCR was employed to evaluate the ANNAT and HIOMT activities in the cell cultures...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749467/agomelatine-a-new-opportunity-to-reduce-neuropathic-pain-preclinical-evidence
#7
Chouki Chenaf, Eric Chapuy, Frédéric Libert, Fabien Marchand, Christine Courteix, Marianne Bertrand, Cecilia Gabriel, Elisabeth Mocaër, Alain Eschalier, Nicolas Authier
Antidepressants are first-line treatments of neuropathic pain but not all of these drugs are really effective. Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a novel mode of action, acting as a MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist that involves indirect noradrenaline release. Melatonin, serotonin and noradrenaline have been involved in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Yet no study has been conducted to determine agomelatine effects on neuropathic pain in animal models.Using three rat models of neuropathic pain of toxic (oxaliplatin/OXA), metabolic (streptozocin/STZ) and traumatic (sciatic nerve ligation/CCI) etiologies, we investigated the anti-hypersensitivity effect of acute and repeated agomelatine administration...
October 1, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726356/design-and-discovery-of-functionally-selective-serotonin-2c-5-ht2c-receptor-agonists
#8
Jianjun Cheng, John D McCorvy, Patrick M Giguère, Hu Zhu, Terry Kenakin, Bryan L Roth, Alan P Kozikowski
Based on the structural similarity of our previous 5-HT2C agonists with the melatonin receptor agonist tasimelteon, and the putative biological cross-talk between serotonergic and melatonergic systems, a series of new (2,3-dihydro)benzofuran-based compounds were designed and synthesized. The compounds were evaluated for their selectivity toward 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors in the calcium flux assay with the ultimate goal to generate selective 5-HT2C agonists. Selected compounds were studied for their functional selectivity by comparing their transduction efficiency at the G protein signaling pathway versus β-arrestin recruitment...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723491/daily-profiles-of-melatonin-synthesis-related-indoles-in-the-pineal-glands-of-young-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus-l
#9
Iwona Adamska, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Markowska, Pawel M Majewski
The aim of the present study was to characterize the daily profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles in the pineal glands of male Hy-Line chickens hatched in the winter and reared under controlled light (L:D 12:12) conditions. The pineal glands were isolated from 16-day-old birds immediately after decapitation every 2h over a 24-h period. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the obtained data, in chicken pineal glands tryptophan occurred at the highest level among the investigated compounds, showing rhythmical, daily changes with decreased levels during the scotophase...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708652/melatonin-producing-endophytic-bacteria-from-grapevine-roots-promote-the-abiotic-stress-induced-production-of-endogenous-melatonin-in-their-hosts
#10
Jian Jiao, Yaner Ma, Sha Chen, Chonghuai Liu, Yuyang Song, Yi Qin, Chunlong Yuan, Yanlin Liu
Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634184/multiple-sclerosis-gut-microbiota-and-permeability-role-of-tryptophan-catabolites-depression-and-the-driving-down-of-local-melatonin
#11
Moses Rodriguez, Bharath Wootla, George Anderson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gut microbiota, coupled to increased gut permeability are now widely recognized as having a role in the etiology, course and treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: In this review, the role that such gut changes play over the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is detailed. RESULTS: Given the wide array of biological factors and processes that have been shown to be altered in MS, including changes in the gut, this allows for a better integration of the diverse array of pathophysiological processes linked to MS...
September 15, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604608/gut-permeability-and-microbiota-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-depression-tryptophan-catabolites-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-melatoninergic-pathways
#12
George Anderson, M Seo, M Berk, A F Carvalho, M Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and alterations in gut microbiota are now widely accepted as relevant to the etiology, course and treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Although a wide array of data on the biological underpinnings of PD has not yet been linked to such gut-associated changes, increased gut permeability and dysregulated microbiota alter many pathways germane to PD. METHODS: In this article we review and integrate these wider biological changes in PD, including increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, immune-inflammatory processes, tryptophan catabolites and alterations in serotoninergic and melatoninergic pathways...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600803/melatonin-biosynthesis-in-plants-multiple-pathways-catalyze-tryptophan-to-melatonin-in-the-cytoplasm-or-chloroplasts
#13
Kyoungwhan Back, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is an animal hormone as well as a signaling molecule in plants. It was first identified in plants in 1995, and almost all enzymes responsible for melatonin biosynthesis had already been characterized in these species. Melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan requires four-step reactions. However, six genes, i.e., TDC, TPH, T5H, SNAT, ASMT, and COMT, have been implicated in the synthesis of melatonin in plants, suggesting the presence of multiple pathways. Two major pathways have been proposed based on the enzyme kinetics: one is the tryptophan/tryptamine/serotonin/N-acetylserotonin/melatonin pathway, which may occur under normal growth conditions; the other is the tryptophan/tryptamine/serotonin/5-methoxytryptamine/melatonin pathway, which may occur when plants produce large amounts of serotonin, e...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598108/recent-advances-in-neurogenic-small-molecules-as-innovative-treatments-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Clara Herrera-Arozamena, Olaia Martí-Marí, Martín Estrada, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco
The central nervous system of adult mammals has long been considered as a complex static structure unable to undergo any regenerative process to refurbish its dead nodes. This dogma was challenged by Altman in the 1960s and neuron self-renewal has been demonstrated ever since in many species, including humans. Aging, neurodegenerative, and some mental diseases are associated with an exponential decrease in brain neurogenesis. Therefore, the controlled pharmacological stimulation of the endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) niches might counteract the neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other pathologies, opening an exciting new therapeutic avenue...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590559/quantification-of-the-neurotransmitters-melatonin-and-n-acetyl-serotonin-in-human-serum-by-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-coupled-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Denise Wolrab, Peter Frühauf, Christopher Gerner
The aim of this study was developing a supercritical fluid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) method and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, for the analysis of N-acetyl-serotonin (NAS) and melatonin (Mel) in human serum, and to compare the performance of these methods. Deuterated isotopologues of the neurotransmitters were synthesized and evaluated for suitability as internal standards in sample preparation. Liquid-liquid extraction was selected as sample preparation procedure...
September 21, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571234/antidepressant-drug-use-among-adolescents-during-2004-2013-a-population-based-register-linkage-study
#16
I Hartz, S Skurtveit, V Hjellvik, K Furu, R Nesvåg, M Handal
OBJECTIVE: To study trends in use of antidepressants (ADs) by adolescents, and psychiatric morbidity and use of other psychotropic drugs as a measure of psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: One-year prevalence of AD drug use was analyzed for 13- to 17-year-old Norwegians during 2004-2013. Use of other psychotropic drugs and specialist healthcare services was analyzed for incident AD users in 2012, using linked data from the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Patient Register...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566064/behavioral-and-molecular-effects-of-prenatal-continuous-light-exposure-in-the-adult-rat
#17
Suzana Elena Voiculescu, Diana Le Duc, Adrian Eugen Roșca, Vlad Zeca, Diana Maria Chiţimuș, Andreea Letiţia Arsene, Cristina Manuela Drăgoi, Alina Crenguţa Nicolae, Leon Zăgrean, Torsten Schöneberg, Ana-Maria Zăgrean
Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy leads to behavioral changes and diseases in the adult offspring. To explore the influence of prenatal continuous light exposure (PCLE) on the adult offspring, we exposed pregnant Wistar rats to constant light during late gestation. Adult PCLE offspring showed an anxiety-like behavior and impairment of short-term memory in different tests. Measurements in the whole brain homogenates from newborn and adult offspring indicated decreased melatonin and serotonin levels and increased reactive oxygen species level in PCLE offspring...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540379/current-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Michael D Lovelace, Bianca Varney, Gayathri Sundaram, Nunzio F Franco, Mei Li Ng, Saparna Pai, Chai K Lim, Gilles J Guillemin, Bruce J Brew
The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the major metabolic pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP). Stimulation by inflammatory molecules, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), is the trigger for induction of the KP, driving a complex cascade of production of both neuroprotective and neurotoxic metabolites, and in turn, regulation of the immune response and responses of brain cells to the KP metabolites. Consequently, substantial evidence has accumulated over the past couple of decades that dysregulation of the KP and the production of neurotoxic metabolites are associated with many neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, AIDS-related dementia, motor neurone disease, schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, and brain cancers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530044/-molecular-mechanisms-of-functional-activity-decreasing-of-the-skin-cells-with-its-aging
#19
REVIEW
V Kh Khavinson, N S Linkova, E O Kukanova, O A Orlova
The article discusses the pool of signaling molecules that regulate the functional activity of the skin cells. Molecules of apoptosis and cells skin aging are p53, p21, p15, Cdk 4/6 and Bcl-2. Inflammation in skin fibroblasts are realized through the cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1, ICAM-1, matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1,2,3,9, transcription factor NF-κB and activator protein AP-1. An important role in the aging of skin cells play neuroimmunoendocrine signaling molecules--melatonin, serotonin, skin fibroblast proliferation marker chromogranin A and CD98hc...
April 2016: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513937/evaluation-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-therapy-with-large-neutral-amino-acid-supplementation-in-phenylketonuria-effects-on-potential-peripheral-biomarkers-melatonin-and-dopamine-for-brain-monoamine-neurotransmitters
#20
Shoji Yano, Kathryn Moseley, Xiaowei Fu, Colleen Azen
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to a defective hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase. Transport of the precursor amino acids from blood into the brain for serotonin and dopamine synthesis is reported to be inhibited by high blood Phe concentrations. Deficiencies of serotonin and dopamine are involved in neurocognitive dysfunction in PKU. OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate the effects of sapropterin (BH4) and concurrent use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) on the peripheral biomarkers, melatonin and dopamine with the hypothesis they reflect brain serotonin and dopamine metabolism...
2016: PloS One
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