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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770489/melatonin-induction-and-its-role-in-high-light-stress-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
In plants, melatonin is a potent bioactive molecule involved in the response against various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known of its defensive role against high light (HL) stress. In this study, we found that melatonin was transiently induced in response to HL stress in Arabidopsis thaliana with a simultaneous increase in the expression of melatonin biosynthetic genes, including serotonin N-acetyltransferase1 (SNAT1). Transient induction of melatonin was also observed in the flu mutant, a singlet oxygen (1 O2 )-producing mutant, upon light exposure, suggestive of melatonin induction by chloroplastidic 1 O2 against HL stress...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766569/differential-roles-of-melatonin-in-plant-host-resistance-and-pathogen-suppression-in-cucurbits
#2
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone melatonin, has focused on its multi-regulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745516/-research-on-the-mechanism-of-delirium-based-on-related-serum-biomarkers-of-the-delirium
#3
REVIEW
Yanyan Wang, Yulin Liao, Jirong Yue
Delirium is an acute cognitive disorder caused by a variety of factors which lead to cerebral cortical dysfunction. At present the studies on the pathophysiology of delirium is still very few. But studies on serum biomarker of delirium can help to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of delirium, and the studies are significant for delirium diagnosis, severity classification and prediction of long-term outcome. This review examines three major groups of delirium related serum biomarkers: ① risk markers: those that are present or elevated prior to disease onset, including serum chemistries, genetic markers and so on; ② disease markers: those markers elevate with delirium onset and fall when delirium recovery, including acetylcholine and serum anticholinergic activity, serotonin, serum amino acids, and melatonin, interleukin, C-reactive protein; and ③ end products: those that rise in proportion to the consequences of disease, including S-100ß and neuron specific enolase...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708069/indoles-gut-bacteria-metabolites-of-tryptophan-with-pharmacotherapeutic-potential
#4
Piotr Konopelski, Marcin Ufnal
Increasing evidence proves the pivotal role of gut microbiota in mammals' homeostasis. Gut bacterial metabolites may exert local effects on the intestines, and may enter the circulation, affecting the functions of virtually all organs. Indoles represent a wide group of gut bacteria-derived compounds produced from tryptophan, an essential amino acid and the precursor of endogenous synthesis of tryptamine, serotonin and melatonin. Recently, it has been suggested that gut microbiota and their metabolites, including indoles, may be involved in the etiology of cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychiatric diseases...
April 27, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702749/melatonin-and-its-derivatives-counteract-the-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-damage-in-human-and-porcine-skin-ex-vivo
#5
Cezary Skobowiat, Anna A Brożyna, Zorica Janjetovic, Jeayeng Saowanee, Allen S W Oak, Tae-Kang Kim, Uraiwan Panich, Russel J Reiter, Andrzej T Slominski
Melatonin and its derivatives [N1 -acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-methoxykynurenine (AFMK) and N-acetyl serotonin (NAS)] have broad spectrum protective effects against photocarcinogenesis, including both direct and indirect antioxidative actions, regulation of apoptosis and DNA damage repair; these data were primarily derived from in vitro models. This study evaluates possible beneficial effects of melatonin and its active derivatives against UVB-induced harm to human and porcine skin ex vivo and to cultured HaCaT cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699692/melatonin-receptor-signaling-impact-of-receptor-oligomerization-on-receptor-function
#6
Atsuro Oishi, Erika Cecon, Ralf Jockers
The melatonin receptor subfamily is composed of three members, MT1 and MT2 , which are binding to melatonin, and GPR50, which shows high sequence homology to MT1 and MT2 but does not bind to melatonin or any other known ligand. An interesting feature of these receptors is their capacity to form homo- and heteromers between each other and also with other GPCRs. The following heteromers have been described: MT1 /MT2 , MT1 /GPR50, and heteromers composed of MT2 and the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor or the orphan GPR61, GPR62, and GPR135 receptors...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696002/aromatic-amino-acid-derived-compounds-induce-morphological-changes-and-modulate-the-cell-growth-of-wine-yeast-species
#7
Beatriz González, Jennifer Vázquez, Paul J Cullen, Albert Mas, Gemma Beltran, María-Jesús Torija
Yeasts secrete a large diversity of compounds during alcoholic fermentation, which affect growth rates and developmental processes, like filamentous growth. Several compounds are produced during aromatic amino acid metabolism, including aromatic alcohols, serotonin, melatonin, and tryptamine. We evaluated the effects of these compounds on growth parameters in 16 different wine yeasts, including non- Saccharomyces wine strains, for which the effects of these compounds have not been well-defined. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tryptophol negatively influenced yeast growth, whereas phenylethanol and tyrosol specifically affected non- Saccharomyces strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#8
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
July 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607549/melatonin-is-involved-in-skotomorphogenesis-by-regulating-brassinosteroids-biosynthesis-in-rice-plants
#9
Ok Jin Hwang, Kyoungwhan Back
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis catalyzing the conversion of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin. In plants, SNAT is encoded by two isogenes of which SNAT1 is constitutively expressed and its overexpression confers increased yield in rice. However, the role of SNAT2 remains to be clarified. In contrast to SNAT1, the diurnal rhythm of SNAT2 mRNA expression peaks at night. In this study, transgenic rice plants in which SNAT2 expression was suppressed by RNAi technology showed a decrease in melatonin and a dwarf phenotype with erect leaves, reminiscent of brassinosteroids (BRs)-deficient mutants...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601719/multi-metal-multi-wavelength-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-detection-of-neurotransmitters
#10
Amber Shea Moody, Bhavya Sharma
The development of a sensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters could provide a pathway for the diagnosis of neurological diseases, leading to the discovery of more effective treatment methods. We investigate the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensors for the rapid detection of melatonin, serotonin, glutamate, dopamine, GABA, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Previous studies have demonstrated SERS detection of neurotransmitters, however, there has been no comprehensive study on the effect of the metal used as the SERS substrate or the excitation wavelength used for detection...
March 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543650/tryptophan-catabolites-along-the-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-as-a-biological-link-between-depression-and-cancer
#11
Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531009/-communication-melatonin-hyperhomocysteinemia-thioretinaco-ozonide-adenosylmethionine-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aging-and-dementia
#12
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495457/microrna-and-transcriptomic-profiling-showed-mirna-dependent-impairment-of-systemic-regulation-and-synthesis-of-biomolecules-in-rag2-ko-mice
#13
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
The Rag2 knockout (KO) mouse is a well-established immune-compromised animal model for biomedical research. A comparative study identified the deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in Rag2 KO mice. However, the interaction between deregulated genes and miRNAs in the alteration of systemic (cardiac, renal, hepatic, nervous, and hematopoietic) regulations and the synthesis of biomolecules (such as l-tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, alcohol, noradrenaline, putrescine, and acetate) are unclear...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487083/drugs-for-insomnia-beyond-benzodiazepines-pharmacology-clinical-applications-and-discovery
#14
REVIEW
Tobias Atkin, Stefano Comai, Gabriella Gobbi
Although the GABAergic benzodiazepines (BZDs) and Z-drugs (zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon) are FDA-approved for insomnia disorders with a strong evidence base, they have many side effects, including cognitive impairment, tolerance, rebound insomnia upon discontinuation, car accidents/falls, abuse, and dependence liability. Consequently, the clinical use of off-label drugs and novel drugs that do not target the GABAergic system is increasing. The purpose of this review is to analyze the neurobiological and clinical evidence of pharmacological treatments of insomnia, excluding the BZDs and Z-drugs...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468141/impact-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-intestinal-immunity-mediated-by-tryptophan-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447434/alterations-in-melatonin-and-5-ht-signalling-in-the-colonic-mucosa-of-mice-with-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#16
Sarah J MacEachern, Catherine M Keenan, Evangelia Papakonstantinou, Keith A Sharkey, Bhavik Anil Patel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by pain, bleeding, cramping and altered gastrointestinal (GI) function. Changes in mucosal 5-HT (serotonin) signalling occur in animal models of colitis and in humans suffering from IBD. Melatonin is co-released with 5-HT from the mucosa and has a wide variety of actions in the GI tract. Here, we examined how melatonin signalling is affected by colitis and determined how this relates to 5-HT signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using electroanalytical approaches, we investigated how 5-HT release, reuptake and availability as well as melatonin availability are altered in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
May 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428440/melatonin-a-cutaneous-perspective-on-its-production-metabolism-and-functions
#17
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
March 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307018/the-role-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-postpartum-depression
#18
REVIEW
Kai-Ming Duan, Jia-Hui Ma, Sai-Ying Wang, ZhengDong Huang, YingYong Zhou, HeYa Yu
The Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common postpartum psychiatric disorder, afflicting approximately 10%-20% of new mothers. Clinical symptoms of the PPD include depressive disorder, agitation, insomnia, anxiety and confusion, resulting in an increase in suicidal tendencies, thereby having significant impacts on the puerpera, newborn and their family. A growing body of data indicate a role for alterations in tryptophan metabolism in the PPD. The metabolism of tryptophan produces an array of crucial factors that can differentially regulate key physiological processes linked to the PPD...
January 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277417/reprint-of-contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#19
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247559/rice-histone-deacetylase-10-and-arabidopsis-histone-deacetylase-14-genes-encode-n-acetylserotonin-deacetylase-which-catalyzes-conversion-of-n-acetylserotonin-into-serotonin-a-reverse-reaction-for-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-plants
#20
Kyungjin Lee, Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
In plants, melatonin production is strictly regulated, unlike the production of its precursor, serotonin, which is highly inducible in response to stimuli, such as senescence and pathogen exposure. Exogenous serotonin treatment does not greatly induce the production of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and melatonin in plants, which suggests the possible existence of one or more regulatory genes in the pathway for the biosynthesis of melatonin from serotonin. In this report, we found that NAS was rapidly and abundantly converted into serotonin in rice seedlings, indicating the presence of an N-acetylserotonin deacetylase (ASDAC)...
March 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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