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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307018/the-role-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-postpartum-depression
#1
REVIEW
Kai-Ming Duan, Jia-Hui Ma, Sai-Ying Wang, ZhengDong Huang, YingYong Zhou, HeYa Yu
The Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common postpartum psychiatric disorder, afflicting approximately 10%-20% of new mothers. Clinical symptoms of the PPD include depressive disorder, agitation, insomnia, anxiety and confusion, resulting in an increase in suicidal tendencies, thereby having significant impacts on the puerpera, newborn and their family. A growing body of data indicate a role for alterations in tryptophan metabolism in the PPD. The metabolism of tryptophan produces an array of crucial factors that can differentially regulate key physiological processes linked to the PPD...
January 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277417/reprint-of-contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#2
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
December 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274168/prophylactic-supplement-with-melatonin-successfully-suppresses-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis-through-normalizing-rankl-opg-ratio-and-depressing-the-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway
#3
Ting-Yi Renn, Yung-Kai Huang, Sheng-Wei Feng, Hsiao-Wei Wang, Wei-Fang Lee, Che-Tong Lin, Thierry Burnouf, Li-You Chen, Pan-Fu Kao, Hung-Ming Chang
Periodontitis (PD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by gingival inflammation and resorption of alveolar bone. Impaired receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) signaling caused by enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of PD. Considering melatonin possesses significant anti-inflammatory property, this study aimed to determine whether prophylactic treatment with melatonin would effectively normalize RANKL/OPG signaling, depress toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (TLR4/MyD88)-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine activation, and successfully suppress the pathogenesis of PD...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#4
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219947/dendritic-cell-nuclear-protein-1-regulates-melatonin-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-bmal1-and-inhibiting-the-transcription-of-n-acetyltransferase-in-c6-cells
#5
Dong Chen, Yi-Pei Li, Yan-Xia Yu, Tian Zhou, Chao Liu, Er-Kang Fei, Feng Gao, Chen-Chen Mu, Hai-Gang Ren, Guang-Hui Wang
Dendritic cell nuclear protein-1 (DCNP1) is a protein associated with major depression. In the brains of depression patients, DCNP1 is up-regulated. However, how DCNP1 participates in the pathogenesis of major depression remains unknown. In this study, we first transfected HEK293 cells with EGFP-DCNP1 and demonstrated that the full-length DCNP1 protein was localized in the nucleus, and RRK (the residues 117-119) composed its nuclear localization signal (NLS). An RRK-deletion form of DCNP1 (DCNP1ΔRRK) and truncated form (DCNP11-116), each lacking the RRK residues, did not show the specific nuclear localization like full-length DCNP1 in the cells...
December 7, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171489/-melatonin-in-the-treatment-of-low-back-pain-and-predictors-of-its-efficacy
#6
Yu M Kurganova, A B Danilov
AIM: To assess analgesic properties of melatonin in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain and to study predictors of its efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study included 178 patients, aged from 40 to 65 years, with chronic non-specific low back pain during >3 month and the VAS score >3. Patients were stratified into 6 groups (3 pairs of comparison). In the first pair, patients of both groups received a combination of 500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride and 500 mg of chondroitin sulfate; in the second pair - a combination of 500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride and 500 mg of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac, in the third pair - diclofenac...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151193/disturbances-of-diurnal-phase-markers-behavior-and-clock-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-modulatory-effects-of-agomelatine-treatment
#7
K Højgaard, S L Christiansen, E V Bouzinova, O Wiborg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a growing problem worldwide. Though, the etiology remains unresolved, circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently observed in MDD and thus is speculated to play a key role herein. The present study focuses on circadian rhythm disturbances in the chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression and examined whether the atypical antidepressant, agomelatine, which is mediating its action via melatonergic and serotonergic receptors, is capable of resynchronizing the perturbed rhythm...
November 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141444/associations-among-obesity-inflammation-and-tryptophan-catabolism-in-pregnancy
#8
Maureen Groer, Dietmar Fuchs, Allyson Duffy, Adetola Louis-Jacques, Amy D'Agata, Teodor T Postolache
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among obesity in pregnancy and plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN), inflammatory markers, and depressed mood. METHODS: Pregnant women ( N = 374) were enrolled, and data were collected at a mean gestation of 20 weeks in this cross-sectional study. Plasma was analyzed for TRP, KYN, neopterin, and nitrite levels. Women completed demographic and mood scales. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and TRP and positive correlations between BMI and KYN and the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) ratio...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077529/postnatal-melatonin-treatment-protects-against-affective-disorders-induced-by-early-life-immune-stimulation-by-reducing-the-microglia-cell-activation-and-oxidative-stress
#9
I Berkiks, H Benmhammed, A Mesfioui, A Ouichou, A El Hasnaoui, S Mouden, T Touil, Y Bahbiti, R Nakache, A El Hessni
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induced by neonatal infection may result as long-term hyper-activation of microglial cells followed by an overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation. Those inflammation mediators can trigger behavioral disruption and/or cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present work aims to evaluate the effect of melatonin (a cytokine release modulator and antioxidant agent) in the reduction of the prefrontal microglia activation and depressive-like behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in adult rats...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072179/the-role-of-chronobiology-as-transdisciplinary-field-of-research-application-to-psychiatry
#10
Okan Çalıyurt
Chronobiology is a field that studies the effects of time on biological systems. Periodicity is of particular interest. The master biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus controls daily rhythms of core body temperature, rest-activity cycle, physiological and behavioral functions, psychomotor functions and mood in humans. The clock genes are involved in the generation of the circadian rhythms and the biological clock is synchronized to solar day by direct photic inputs. Various circadian rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in mood disorders such as unipolar depression, bipolar depression and seasonal affective disorder...
October 26, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026843/melatonin-supplementation-may-improve-the-outcome-of-patients-with-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#11
Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Atabak Najafi, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Arezoo Ahmadi, Hamidreza Sharifnia, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Farhad Najmeddin, Azadeh Moghaddas
OBJECTIVE: Although mechanical ventilation is frequently a life-saving therapy, its use can result in unwanted side effects. It has been well documented that the choice of sedating agent may influence the duration of mechanical ventilation. Melatonin is a sedative and analgesic agent without any respiratory depressant effect which makes it an attractive adjuvant for sedation in the intubated patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of melatonin on the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with hemorrhagic stroke...
July 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954634/the-effect-of-agomelatine-and-melatonin-on-sleep-related-eating-a-case-report
#12
Angela Alexandra Zapp, Eva Caroline Fischer, Michael Deuschle
BACKGROUND: Sleep-related eating may occur in the context of mental illness, sleep disorders, or psychopharmacological treatment. Frequently, sleep-related eating leads to severe weight gain and, so far, there are no treatment options for the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 54-year-old white woman with depression, panic disorder, and sleep apnea under treatment with various antidepressants who developed severe sleep-related eating. Her sleep-related eating completely vanished after addition of agomelatine, it reoccurred after cessation of agomelatine, and vanished again after her re-exposure to another melatonergic drug, extended melatonin...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918172/melatonin-and-periodontal-tissues-molecular-and-clinical-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Agata Rita Carpentieri, María Elena Peralta Lopez, Javier Aguilar, Verónica Mariana Solá
Periodontal disease is a frequent chronic inflammatory pathology that implies the destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, which represents a high sanitary cost. It usually appears associated with other systemic conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, depression and Alzheimer disease among others. The presence of melatonin and its receptors in the oral cavity supports the hypothesis that this hormone could play a role in homeostasis of periodontal tissues. In the present review we will discuss the potential role of melatonin, a circadian synchronizing hormone, with proved antiinflammatory and antioxidant profile, in the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontitis...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901278/neuroinflammation-and-the-immune-kynurenine-pathway-in-anxiety-disorders
#14
Yong-Ku Kim, Sang Won Jeon
BACKGROUND: Recently, neuroinflammation and the immune-kynurenine pathway have received increased attention in the psychoimmunology field of major depressive disorder (MDD), while studies related to anxiety disorders have been very limited. OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed possible mechanisms by which stress or inflammation modulate anxiety through tryptophan metabolism and the kynurenine pathway. METHOD: Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed...
September 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894915/chronobiological-theories-of-mood-disorder
#15
Nevin F W Zaki, David Warren Spence, Ahmed S BaHammam, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Daniel P Cardinali, Gregory M Brown
Major depressive disorder (MDD) remains the most prevalent mental disorder and a leading cause of disability, affecting approximately 100 million adults worldwide. The disorder is characterized by a constellation of symptoms affecting mood, anxiety, neurochemical balance, sleep patterns, and circadian and/or seasonal rhythm entrainment. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between chronobiological parameters and depression remain unknown. A PubMed search was conducted to review articles from 1979 to the present, using the following search terms: "chronobiology," "mood," "sleep," and "circadian rhythms...
September 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859501/is-there-a-hormonal-regulation-of-phagocytosis-at-unicellular-and-multicellular-levels-a-critical-review
#16
György Csaba
Phagocytosis is an ancient cell function, which is similar at unicellular and multicellular levels. Unicells synthesize, store, and secrete multicellular (mammalian) hormones, which influence their phagocytosis. Amino acid hormones, such as histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and melatonin stimulate phagocytosis, whereas peptide hormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin, opioids, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide decreased it, independently on their chemical structure or function in multicellulars...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#17
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799778/how-important-is-tryptophan-in-human-health
#18
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Max Stanley Chartrand, Geir Bjørklund
Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777368/-melatonin-known-problems-and-perspectives-of-clinical-usage
#19
A V Zakharov, E V Khivintseva, V F Pytin, M S Sergeeva, O I Antipov
The article discusses well-known and ongoing studies of mechanisms of action of melatonin. The main clinical effects of melatonin are discussed. The emphasis on the chronobiological effect of melatonin, its adaptogenic and anti-carcinogenic properties has been done in the article. The most frequent manifestations of epiphyseal melatonin deficiency are various functional disorders in the form of insomnia, anxiety or depressive disorders. Recommendations on the effective use of melatonin in its deficiency due to pathology are given...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777177/chronic-insomnia-disorder
#20
Alon Y Avidan, David N Neubauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologists, along with all health care providers, commonly encounter patients with insomnia, which is a condition that impacts patients' underlying neurologic conditions in a bidirectional manner. While chronic insomnia is one of the most common sleep disturbances, only a small proportion of individuals with this condition discuss their sleep problems with their providers. When insomnia is described, it is more often in relationship to another medical problem, as opposed to an independent condition...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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