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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908144/improving-the-quality-of-electroretinogram-recordings-using-active-electrodes
#1
Yolanda Wong Ying Yip, Tsz Chun Man, Chi Pui Pang, Mårten Erik Brelén
The aim of this study was to compare the quality of electroretinogram (ERG) recordings using a custom built active electrode with attached amplifier versus a standard (passive) ERG electrode. Scotopic and photopic ERG responses were recorded from five adult albino rabbits using a custom built active electrode on one eye and a passive electrode on the other. For the active electrode, the ERG-jet electrode (Universo S.A., La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland) was used as the transducer with the cable cut short and soldered directly to the input of a customized amplifier...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903886/a-dust-enshrouded-tidal-disruption-event-with-a-resolved-radio-jet-in-a-galaxy-merger
#2
S Mattila, M Pérez-Torres, A Efstathiou, P Mimica, M Fraser, E Kankare, A Alberdi, M Á Aloy, T Heikkilä, P G Jonker, P Lundqvist, I Martí-Vidal, W P S Meikle, C Romero-Cañizales, S J Smartt, S Tsygankov, E Varenius, A Alonso-Herrero, M Bondi, C Fransson, R Herrero-Illana, T Kangas, R Kotak, N Ramírez-Olivencia, P Väisänen, R J Beswick, D L Clements, R Greimel, J Harmanen, J Kotilainen, K Nandra, T Reynolds, S Ryder, N A Walton, K Wiik, G Östlin
Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are transient flares produced when a star is ripped apart by the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We have observed a transient source in the western nucleus of the merging galaxy pair Arp 299 that radiated >1.5 × 1052 erg in the infrared and radio but was not luminous at optical or x-ray wavelengths. We interpret this as a TDE with much of its emission reradiated at infrared wavelengths by dust. Efficient reprocessing by dense gas and dust may explain the difference between theoretical predictions and observed luminosities of TDEs...
June 14, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902622/detection-of-sand-encroachment-patterns-in-desert-oases-the-case-of-erg-chebbi-morocco
#3
Arnald Puy, Manuel Herzog, Pedro Escriche, Amou Marouche, Yousef Oubana, Olaf Bubenzer
Desert oases are fragile agrarian areas, very vulnerable to sand encroachment by wind. Ensuring their conservation highly depends on our capacity to identify sand encroachment patterns, e.g. the origin of sand and its spatial distribution in the irrigated plots. Here we show how to tackle this issue using the case study of Erg Chebbi (Morocco), where two oases (Hassilabiad and Merzouga) are surrounded by dunes, Hamada and alluvial sediments from the Wadi Ziz. We combine field interviews with the study of wind dynamics, sediment sampling, Particle Size Distribution (PSD) tests and End-Member Modelling Analysis (EMMA)...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899545/soft-transparent-graphene-contact-lens-electrodes-for-conformal-full-cornea-recording-of-electroretinogram
#4
Rongkang Yin, Zheng Xu, Ming Mei, Zhaolong Chen, Kai Wang, Yanlin Liu, Tao Tang, Manish Kr Priydarshi, Xuejuan Meng, Siyuan Zhao, Bing Deng, Hailin Peng, Zhongfan Liu, Xiaojie Duan
Visual electrophysiology measurements are important for ophthalmic diagnostic testing. Electrodes with combined optical transparency and softness are highly desirable, and sometimes indispensable for many ocular electrophysiology measurements. Here we report the fabrication of soft graphene contact lens electrodes (GRACEs) with broad-spectrum optical transparency, and their application in conformal, full-cornea recording of electroretinography (ERG) from cynomolgus monkeys. The GRACEs give higher signal amplitude than conventional ERG electrodes in recordings of various full-field ERG responses...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898995/ews-ets-driven-ewing-sarcoma-requires-bet-bromodomain-proteins
#5
Paradesi Naidu Gollavilli, Aishwarya Pawar, Kari Wilder-Romans, Natesan Ramakrishnan, Carl G Engelke, Vijaya L Dommeti, Pranathi M Krishnamurthy, Archana Nallasivam, Ingrid J Apel, Tianlei Xu, Zhaohui Qin, Felix Y Feng, Irfan A Asangani
The EWS/ETS fusion transcription factors drive Ewing sarcoma (EWS) by orchestrating an oncogenic transcription program. Therapeutic targeting of EWS/ETS has been unsuccessful; however, identifying mediators of the EWS/ETS function could offer new therapeutic options. Here we describe the dependency of EWS/ETS-driven transcription upon chromatin reader BET bromdomain proteins and investigate the potential of BET inhibitors in treating EWS. EWS/FLI1 and EWS/ERG were found in a transcriptional complex with BRD4, and knockdown of BRD2/3/4 significantly impaired the oncogenic phenotype of EWS cells...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892050/fine-mapping-of-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-loci-in-a-large-meta-analysis-identifies-candidate-causal-variants
#6
Tokhir Dadaev, Edward J Saunders, Paul J Newcombe, Ezequiel Anokian, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Mark N Brook, Clara Cieza-Borrella, Martina Mijuskovic, Sarah Wakerell, Ali Amin Al Olama, Fredrick R Schumacher, Sonja I Berndt, Sara Benlloch, Mahbubl Ahmed, Chee Goh, Xin Sheng, Zhuo Zhang, Kenneth Muir, Koveela Govindasami, Artitaya Lophatananon, Victoria L Stevens, Susan M Gapstur, Brian D Carter, Catherine M Tangen, Phyllis Goodman, Ian M Thompson, Jyotsna Batra, Suzanne Chambers, Leire Moya, Judith Clements, Lisa Horvath, Wayne Tilley, Gail Risbridger, Henrik Gronberg, Markus Aly, Tobias Nordström, Paul Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Johanna Schleutker, Teuvo L J Tammela, Csilla Sipeky, Anssi Auvinen, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie Weinstein, Alicja Wolk, Niclas Hakansson, Catharine West, Alison M Dunning, Neil Burnet, Lorelei Mucci, Edward Giovannucci, Gerald Andriole, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Stella Koutros, Laura E Beane Freeman, Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen, Torben Falck Orntoft, Michael Borre, Lovise Maehle, Eli Marie Grindedal, David E Neal, Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, Richard M Martin, Ruth C Travis, Tim J Key, Robert J Hamilton, Neil E Fleshner, Antonio Finelli, Sue Ann Ingles, Mariana C Stern, Barry Rosenstein, Sarah Kerns, Harry Ostrer, Yong-Jie Lu, Hong-Wei Zhang, Ninghan Feng, Xueying Mao, Xin Guo, Guomin Wang, Zan Sun, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey, Robert J MacInnis, Liesel M FitzGerald, Adam S Kibel, Bettina F Drake, Ana Vega, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño, Laura Fachal, Robert Szulkin, Martin Eklund, Manolis Kogevinas, Javier Llorca, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Kathryn L Penney, Meir Stampfer, Jong Y Park, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Janet L Stanford, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Jan Lubinski, Elaine A Ostrander, Milan S Geybels, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Maren Weisher, Rasmus Bisbjerg, Martin Andreas Røder, Peter Iversen, Hermann Brenner, Katarina Cuk, Bernd Holleczek, Christiane Maier, Manuel Luedeke, Thomas Schnoeller, Jeri Kim, Christopher J Logothetis, Esther M John, Manuel R Teixeira, Paula Paulo, Marta Cardoso, Susan L Neuhausen, Linda Steele, Yuan Chun Ding, Kim De Ruyck, Gert De Meerleer, Piet Ost, Azad Razack, Jasmine Lim, Soo-Hwang Teo, Daniel W Lin, Lisa F Newcomb, Davor Lessel, Marija Gamulin, Tomislav Kulis, Radka Kaneva, Nawaid Usmani, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Matthew Parliament, Sandeep Singhal, Frank Claessens, Steven Joniau, Thomas Van den Broeck, Samantha Larkin, Paul A Townsend, Claire Aukim-Hastie, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Jose Esteban Castelao, Maria Elena Martinez, Monique J Roobol, Guido Jenster, Ron H N van Schaik, Florence Menegaux, Thérèse Truong, Yves Akoli Koudou, Jianfeng Xu, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael, Andrzej Kierzek, Stephen N Thibodeau, Shannon K McDonnell, Daniel J Schaid, Sara Lindstrom, Constance Turman, Jing Ma, David J Hunter, Elio Riboli, Afshan Siddiq, Federico Canzian, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Robert N Hoover, Mitchell J Machiela, Peter Kraft, Matthew Freedman, Fredrik Wiklund, Stephen Chanock, Brian E Henderson, Douglas F Easton, Christopher A Haiman, Rosalind A Eeles, David V Conti, Zsofia Kote-Jarai
Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890291/confirmation-of-luteinizing-hormone-lh-in-living-human-vitreous-and-the-effect-of-lh-receptor-reduction-on-murine-electroretinogram
#7
Tammy Z Movsas, Kwoon Y Wong, Michael D Ober, Robert Sigler, Zhenmin M Lei, Arivalagan Muthusamy
Luteinizing hormone (LH), produced in the anterior pituitary, has been detected in cadaver eyes and LH receptors (LHRs) have been identified in the retina, with the highest density in cone photoreceptors. Our aim was to confirm the presence of LH in the living, human eye as well as to examine the potential impact of a reduction in LHR signaling on visual processing. Vitreous samples were collected from 40 patients (23 diabetics, 17 non-diabetics) who were undergoing vitrectomies for various indications. LH concentration was quantified in each sample via an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay and Meso Scale Discovery platform and normalized to total protein...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888430/contrary-to-popular-belief-chinchillas-do-not-have-a-pure-rod-retina
#8
Shai Sandalon, Anna Boykova, Maya Ross, Alexey Obolensky, Eyal Banin, Ron Ofri
PURPOSE: To establish whether there is cone contribution to retinal function and structure in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), in view of the prevailing notion that this species possesses a pure rod retina. METHODS: Photopic electroretinography (ERG) responses to high-intensity flashes (10 and 25 cd*s/m2 ) were recorded unilaterally in six pigmented chinchillas following 10 minutes of light adaptation (30 cd/m2 ). Retinas of two animals were studied histologically, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to detect the presence of short and medium/long wavelength cone photoreceptors...
June 10, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882406/strain-control-of-giant-magnetic-anisotropy-in-metallic-perovskite-srcoo3-%C3%AE-thin-films
#9
Songbai Hu, Claudio Cazorla, Feixiang Xiang, Hongfei Ma, Jianyuan Wang, Jianbo Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Clemens Ulrich, Lang Chen, Jan Seidel
Magnetic materials with large magnetic anisotropy are essential for workaday applications such as permanent magnets and magnetic data storage. There is widespread interest in finding efficient ways of controlling magnetic anisotropy, among which strain control has proven to be a very powerful technique. Here we demonstrate strain-mediated magnetic anisotropy in SrCoO3-δ thin film, a perovskite oxide that is metallic and adopts a cubic structure at δ ≤ 0.25. We find that the easy-magnetization axis in SrCoO3-δ can be rotated by 90º upon application of moderate epitaxial strains ranging from -1...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882210/sarilumab-for-previously-treated-moderate-or-severe-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#10
REVIEW
Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Emma Simpson, Mark Clowes, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Sanofi Genzyme) of sarilumab (SAR; Kevzara® ) to submit evidence of its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness for previously treated moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a detailed review of the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE...
June 8, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879147/interrogation-of-transcriptomic-changes-associated-with-drug-induced-hepatic-sinusoidal-dilatation-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Monika A Jarzabek, William R Proctor, Jennifer Vogt, Rupal Desai, Patrick Dicker, Gary Cain, Rajiv Raja, Jens Brodbeck, Dale Stevens, Eric P van der Stok, John W M Martens, Cornelis Verhoef, Priti S Hegde, Annette T Byrne, Jacqueline M Tarrant
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875353/effects-of-post-treatment-hydrogen-gas-inhalation-on-uveitis-induced-by-endotoxin-in-rats
#12
Weiming Yan, Tao Chen, Pan Long, Zhe Zhang, Qian Liu, Xiaocheng Wang, Jing An, Zuoming Zhang
BACKGROUND Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been widely reported to have benefiicial effects in diverse animal models and human disease through reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hydrogen gas could ameliorate endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal group, a model group, a nitrogen-oxygen (N-O) group, and a hydrogen-oxygen (H-O) group. EIU was induced in rats of the latter 3 groups by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
June 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875233/intravitreal-chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma-expanded-use-beyond-intravitreal-seeds
#13
David H Abramson, Xunda Ji, Jasmine H Francis, Federica Catalanotti, Scott E Brodie, Larissa Habib
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) has changed the face of retinoblastoma treatment and led to a higher rate of globe salvage. The introduction of intravitreal chemotherapy (IVitC) has further enhanced globe salvage with increased success in treatment of intravitreal seeds. Our group has seen success at treating non-vitreous disease that is refractory to OAC using IVitC. This study was undertaken to quantify and report on this success. METHODS: A retrospective review was used to identify patients treated with IVitC for indications other than vitreous seeds from two centres...
June 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863235/lncrna-hottip-improves-diabetic-retinopathy-by-regulating-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#14
Y Sun, Y-X Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of HOTTIP in diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diabetic rat model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ). The expression of HOTTIP in the retina of diabetic mice and wild-type mice was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The wild-type and diabetic rats were injected with HOTTIP shRNA or Scr shRNA adenovirus, and the down-regulated expression of HOTTIP was accessed by RT-PCR...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863233/safety-evaluation-of-subretinal-injection-of-trypan-blue-in-rats
#15
Y Fang, X-Q Yao, L-L Niu, J-H Wu, E F Thee, D-F Chen, J-Y Chen, X-H Sun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the appropriate concentration of trypan blue (TB) for subretinal injection in a rat model and to provide a safety profile that limits retinal toxicity while maintaining dye visibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult rats were subretinally injected with various concentrations of either TB or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); rats which received sham injections served as an additional control. The injected areas were visualized under a surgical microscope...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863021/nogo-receptor-expression-in-microglia-macrophages-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-progression
#16
Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Min Joung Kim, Pei-Mun Aui, Kylie A Magee, Steven Petratos
Myelin-associated inhibitory factors within the central nervous system (CNS) are considered to be one of the main obstacles for axonal regeneration following disease or injury. The nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) has been well documented to play a key role in limiting axonal regrowth in the injured and diseased mammalian CNS. However, the role of nogo receptor in immune cell activation during CNS inflammation is yet to be mechanistically elucidated. Microglia/macrophages are immune cells that are regarded as pathogenic contributors to inflammatory demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860619/mechanisms-underlying-early-stage-changes-in-visual-performance-and-retina-function-after-experimental-induction-of-sustained-dyslipidemia
#17
Christa L Montgomery, Heather M Johnson, Thomas P Johnston, Peter Koulen
Visual and retinal function was measured in a mouse model of chemically induced, sustained dyslipidemia to determine the contribution of dyslipidemia to the pathogenesis of retinopathy in the context of metabolic syndrome. Fifteen male C57BL/6Crl mice were divided into three groups. Poloxamer 407 (P-407), 14.5% w/w was delivered at a rate of 6 µl/day by implanted osmotic mini-pumps either subcutaneously (P-407 SQ) or intraperitoneally (P-407 IP) to P-407-treated mice, whereas saline was administered at the same rate to control mice using only the subcutaneous route of administration...
June 2, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860454/cd160-expression-in-retinal-vessels-is-associated-with-retinal-neovascular-diseases
#18
Adrien Henry, Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Thierry Menguy, Jérôme Giustiniani, Christian Garbar, Corinne Mascaux, Marc Labrousse, Corentin Milas, Coralie Barbe, Armand Bensussan, Vincent Durlach, Carl Arndt
Purpose: Anti-angiogenic agents stand first in the treatment of neovascular diseases of the retina. CD160 appeared in several experimental studies as a marker of activated endothelial cells, suggesting it could represent a promising target for novel anti-angiogenic therapies. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of CD160 in the human eye, and to search for a possible correlation with retinal neovascular diseases. Methods: The physiological distribution of CD160 in the normal eye was assessed with immunolabeling in 10 human donor eyes...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858967/dark-adapted-red-flash-ergs-in-healthy-adults
#19
R Hamilton, K Graham
PURPOSE: The x-wave of the dark-adapted (DA) ERG to a red flash reflects DA cone function. This exploratory study of healthy adults aimed to investigate changes in the DA red ERG with flash strength and during dark adaptation to optimise visualisation and therefore quantification of the x-wave. METHODS: The effect of altering red flash strength was investigated in four subjects by recording ERGs after 20 min dark adaptation to red flashes (0.2-2.0 cd s m-2 ) using skin electrodes and natural pupils...
June 1, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851975/understanding-variable-disease-severity-in-x-linked-retinoschisis-does-rs1-secretory-mechanism-determine-disease-severity
#20
Dhandayuthapani Sudha, Srividya Neriyanuri, Ramya Sachidanandam, Srikrupa N Natarajan, Mamatha Gandra, Arokiasamy Tharigopala, Muthukumaran Sivashanmugam, Mohammed Alameen, Umashankar Vetrivel, Lingam Gopal, Vikas Khetan, Rajiv Raman, Parveen Sen, Subbulakshmi Chidambaram, Jayamuruga Pandian Arunachalam
X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal degenerative disorder caused by mutations in RS1 gene leading to splitting of retinal layers (schisis) which impairs visual signal processing. Retinoschisin (RS1) is an adhesive protein which is secreted predominantly by the photoreceptors and bipolar cells as a double-octameric complex. In general, XLRS patients show wide clinical heterogeneity, presenting practical challenges in disease management. Though researchers have attempted various approaches to offer an explanation for clinical heterogeneity, the molecular basis has not been understood yet...
2018: PloS One
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