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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793194/simultaneous-determination-of-18-psychoactive-agents-and-6-metabolites-in-plasma-using-lc-ms-ms-and-application-to-actual-plasma-samples-from-conscription-candidates
#1
Dongeun Park, Hyeyoung Choi, Moonhee Jang, Hyejin Chang, Sanghee Woo, Wonkyung Yang
In Korea, an increasing number of people attempt to evade military conscription by posing as mental health patients. To verify the authenticity of mental illness, there is a need to detect wide range of psychoactive agents in biological specimens of conscription candidates. In this study, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 18 psychoactive agents and 6 metabolites in human plasma. The method was characterized by the use of a simple, fast and cheap protein precipitation as sample preparation, a rapid run time (11min) and a low volume of plasma sample (200μL)...
April 22, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793191/development-and-validation-of-a-prediction-model-for-functional-decline-in-older-medical-inpatients
#2
Toshihiko Takada, Shingo Fukuma, Yosuke Yamamoto, Yukio Tsugihashi, Hiroyuki Nagano, Michio Hayashi, Jun Miyashita, Teruhisa Azuma, Shunichi Fukuhara
OBJECTIVE: To prevent functional decline in older inpatients, identification of high-risk patients is crucial. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prediction model to assess the risk of functional decline in older medical inpatients. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients ≥65 years admitted acutely to medical wards were included. The healthcare database of 246 acute care hospitals (n = 229,913) was used for derivation, and two acute care hospitals (n = 1767 and 5443, respectively) were used for validation...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793166/renoprotective-effect-of-the-isoflavonoid-biochanin-a-against-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice-effect-on-inflammatory-burden-and-p53-apoptosis
#3
Faiha A Suliman, Dina M Khodeer, Afaf Ibrahiem, Eman T Mehanna, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy, Hala M F Mohammad, Sawsan A Zaitone, Yasser M Moustafa
Cisplatin is a potent widely-used chemotherapeutics; however, its clinical use is associated with nephrotoxicity. Renoprotective approaches are being discovered to halt the tubular cell death due to inflammatory and apoptotic burdens. In the present study, the renoprotective effects of different doses of biochanin A (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) in mice treated with a single injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg) were reported. Cisplatin administration resulted in marked increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen...
May 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793165/inhibition-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-by-exogenous-thymosin%C3%AE-4-treatment
#4
Lei Wang, Xiankui Li, Cai Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of exogenous thymosinβ4 (Tβ4) treatment in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: Liver injury was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (500 mg/kg). Exogenous Tβ4 was intraperitoneally administrated at 0 h, 2 h and 4 h after APAP injection. Chloroquine (CQ) (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected 2 h before APAP administration to inhibit autophagy. Six hours after APAP injection liver injury was evaluated by histological examinations, biochemical measurements and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs)...
May 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793140/effectiveness-of-a-voluntary-family-befriending-service-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-using-the-donabedian-model
#5
S V Gentry, E F J Powers, N Azim, M Maidrag
OBJECTIVES: Voluntary befriending schemes operate in many countries, promoting public health by supporting vulnerable individuals and families. Use of third sector and voluntary services to complement health and social care provision is increasingly important globally in the context of economic and demographic challenges, but the evidence base around such collaborations is limited. This article reports the results of operational evaluation research seeking to use robust routine work to generate transferable findings for use by those commissioning and providing services...
May 21, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793057/ellagic-acid-protects-from-myelin-associated-sphingolipid-loss-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Rebeca Busto, Jorge Serna, Aránzazu Perianes-Cachero, Rocío Quintana-Portillo, David García-Seisdedos, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Carlos L Paino, Milagros Lerma, María E Casado, Antonia Martín-Hidalgo, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro, Miguel A Lasunción, Óscar Pastor
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most common model for multiple sclerosis, is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the central nervous system and demyelination. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of some polyphenols may reduce the neurological alterations of EAE. In this work, we show that ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound, is beneficial in EAE, most likely through stimulation of ceramide biosynthesis within the brain. EAE was induced in Lewis rats by injection of guinea-pig spinal cord tissue along with Freund's complete adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793054/bacillus-clausii-inhibits-bone-loss-by-skewing-treg-th17-cell-equilibrium-in-postmenopausal-osteoporotic-mice-model
#7
Hamid Y Dar, Subhashis Pal, Prashant Shukla, Pradyumna K Mishra, Geetanjali B Tomar, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Rupesh K Srivastava
OBJECTIVES: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of most commonly occurring skeletal diseases leading to bone loss and fragility. Probiotics have been associated with various immunomodulatory properties and thus can be exploited to enhance bone health. In the present study, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that oral administration of Bacillus clausii (BC) in postmenopausal osteoporotic (OVX) mice model enhances bone health. METHODS: BC was selected as probiotic of choice due to its established immunomodulatory properties...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792955/fisetin-alleviates-oxidative-stress-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#8
Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Yali Zhou, Yihao Zhu, Maoxin Fei
Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has neuroprotection properties in many brain injury models. However, its role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been fully explained. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of fisetin in a mouse model of TBI. We found that fisetin improved neurological function, reduced cerebral edema, attenuated brain lesion and ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after TBI. Moreover, the up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reversed by fisetin treatment...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792953/protective-effect-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-administration-against-hyperglycemia-induced-disruption-of-blood-brain-barrier-is-mediated-by-alterations-in-tight-junction-proteins-and-cell-adhesion-molecules
#9
Aanchal Aggarwal, Inderjit Singh, Rajat Sandhir
Diabetes is associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability resulting in neurological deficits. The present study investigated the role of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days in mice. GSNO was administered daily (100 μg/kg body weight, orally) for 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. A significant decline was observed in the cognitive ability of diabetic animals assessed using radial arm maze test...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792946/investigation-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-drug-metabolism-by-comparative-global-toxicoproteomics
#10
Ann-Yae Na, Jung Jae Jo, Ok Kwang Kwon, Riya Shrestha, Piljoung Cho, Kyu Min Kim, Sung Hwan Ki, Tae Hee Lee, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes conditions such as steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the pathology of NAFLD is well-established, NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver has remained largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by CYP by quantitative toxicoproteomics analysis. After administration of a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet to induce development of NAFLD, tandem mass tags-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to investigate the dynamics of hepatic proteins...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792929/recent-advances-in-intra-articular-drug-delivery-systems-for-osteoarthritis-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Pierre Maudens, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the joint. Despite many reports and numerous clinical trials, OA is not entirely understood, and there is no effective treatment available for this disease. To satisfy this unmet medical need, drug delivery systems (DDSs) containing disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) for intra-articular (IA) administration are required to improve the health of OA patients. DDSs should provide controlled and/or sustained drug release, enabling long-term treatment with a reduced number of injections...
May 21, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792927/bacillus-subtilis-as-probiotic-candidate-for-red-sea-bream-growth-performance-oxidative-status-and-immune-response-traits
#12
Amr I Zaineldin, Sayed Hegazi, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Abdulnasser Bakr, Abeer M S El-Keredy, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Serge Dossou, Weilong Wang, Zhang Yukun
The effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, blood chemistry, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major) were evaluated in the current study. Fish fed five different levels of B. subtilis at 0 (BS0), 1 × 104 (BS1), 1 × 106 (BS2), 1 × 108 (BS3) and 1 × 1010 (BS4) CFU kg-1 diet for 60 days. The obtained results showed that B. subtilis supplementation significantly improved growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR), feed utilization (FI, FCE, PER and PG) and whole-body protein content when compared to the control group (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792920/inner-ear-drug-delivery-recent-advances-challenges-and-perspective
#13
Jinsong Hao, S Kevin Li
Effective and safe treatment of auditory and vestibular diseases has become increasingly dependent on inner ear drug delivery systems. This review highlights recent advances in inner ear drug delivery research and technologies. The focus is on strategies to overcome delivery barriers and to improve drug residence and targeting, with special attention to in vivo animal and human studies. The research in gene and stem cell delivery to the inner ear is briefly reviewed. Newly developed research tools to address experimental challenges and safety issues are discussed...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792911/prolonged-drug-release-properties-for-orodispersible-films-by-combining-hot-melt-extrusion-and-solvent-casting-methods
#14
Isabell Speer, Maren Preis, Jörg Breitkreutz
Orodispersible films (ODFs) are an advantageous dosage form to accomplish patient convenience and compliance in oral drug delivery. They provide a number of special application features, such as the ease of administration without water and suitability for patients with swallowing problems. However, this promising dosage form has been limited to immediate release formulations so far. The aim of this study was to develop a thin film produced by solvent casting, which is rapidly disintegrating when placed in the mouth, but which provides prolonged drug release characteristics by incorporating drug-loaded matrix particles (MPs)...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792899/protective-effect-of-exendin-4-treatment-on-erectile-dysfunction-induced-by-chronic-methylglyoxal-administration-in-rats
#15
Selvinaz Dalaklioglu, Arda Tasatargil, Nilay Kuscu, Soner Celik, Ciler Celik-Ozenci, Sebahat Ozdem, Ayse Barutcigil, Ikbal Kucukcetin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exendin-4 (Ex-4) treatment on corpus cavernosum (CC) dysfunction in methylglyoxal (MGO) administered rats. METHODS: Male rats were divided into four groups as control, MGO (75 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 12 weeks), MGO + low-dose Ex-4 (0.1 μg/kg twice daily subcutaneously for 12 weeks concomitant with MGO), and MGO + high-dose Ex-4 (1 μg/kg twice daily subcutaneously for 12 weeks concomitant with MGO)...
May 21, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792889/ros-triggered-degradable-iron-chelating-nanogels-safely-improving-iron-elimination-in-vivo
#16
Zhi Liu, Jing Qiao, Tamas Nagy, May P Xiong
Iron-mediated generation of highly toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) plays a major role in the process leading to iron overload-related diseases. The long-term subcutaneous administration of Deferoxamine (DFO) is currently clinically-approved to improve patient symptoms and survival. However, non-specific toxicity and short circulation times of the drug in humans often leads to poor patient compliance. Herein, thioketal-based ROS-responsive polymeric nanogels containing DFO moieties (rNG-DFO) were designed to chelate iron and to degrade under oxidative stimuli into fragments <10 nm to enhance excretion of iron-bound chelates...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792888/oral-vitamin-a-coupled-valsartan-nanomedicine-high-hepatic-stellate-cell-receptors-accessibility-and-prolonged-enterohepatic-residence
#17
Nesrine S El-Mezayen, Wessam F El-Hadidy, Wessam M El-Refaie, Thanaa I Shalaby, Mahmoud M Khattab, Aiman S El-Khatib
So far, liver fibrosis still has no clinically-approved treatment. The loss of stored vitamin-A (VA ) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main regulators to hepatic fibrosis, can be applied as a mechanism for their targeting. Valsartan is a good candidate for this approach; it is a marketed oral-therapy with inverse- and partial-agonistic activity to the over-expressed angiotensin-II type1 receptor (AT1R) and depleted nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), respectively, in activated HSCs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792885/effects-of-vasopressin-on-neural-processing-of-infant-crying-in-expectant-fathers
#18
Sandra Thijssen, Anna E Van 't Veer, Jurriaan Witteman, Willemijn M Meijer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the effect of 20 IU intranasal vasopressin on the neural processing of infant crying in 25 fathers-to-be. We explored whether familial background modulates vasopressin effects, and whether vasopressin differentially affects cry processing coupled with neutral or emotional contextual information. Participants listened to cries accompanied by neutral ('this is an infant') or emotional ('this infant is sick/bored') contextual information, and neutral control sounds ('this is a saw')...
May 21, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792833/self-diffusion-of-water-soluble-fullerene-derivatives-in-mouse-erythrocytes
#19
Irina Avilova, Ekaterina Khakina, Ol''ga Kraevaya, Alexander Kotelnikov, Raisa Kotelnikova, Pavel Troshin, Vitaliy Volkov
Self-diffusion of water-soluble fullerene derivative (WSFD) C60 [S(CH2 )3 SO3 Na]5 H in mouse red blood cells (RBC) was characterized by 1 H pulsed field gradient NMR technique. It was found that a fraction of fullerene molecules (~13% of the fullerene derivative added in aqueous RBC suspension) shows a self-diffusion coefficient of (5.5 ± 0.8)·10-12  m2 /s, which is matching the coefficient of the lateral diffusion of lipids in the erythrocyte membrane (DL  = (5.4 ± 0.8)·10-12  m2 /s). This experimental finding evidences the absorption of the fullerene derivative by RBC...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792747/interpretation-time-using-a-concurrent-read-computer-aided-detection-system-for-automated-breast-ultrasound-in-breast-cancer-screening-of-women-with-dense-breast-tissue
#20
Yulei Jiang, Marc F Inciardi, Alexandra V Edwards, John Papaioannou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and interpretation time of screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) for women with dense breast tissue without and with use of a recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved computer-aided detection (CAD) system for concurrent read. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective observer performance study, 18 radiologists interpreted a cancer-enriched set (i.e., cancer prevalence higher than in the original screening cohort) of 185 screening ABUS studies (52 with and 133 without breast cancer)...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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