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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107779/effects-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-on-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
Li-Jing Sun, Yan-Ni Sun, Jian-Ping Shan, Geng-Ru Jiang
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), as standard treatment in patients with DN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We scanned the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for human clinical trials published in English until June 2016, evaluating renal outcomes in patients with DN...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107775/beta-caryophyllene-protects-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mice
#2
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Katalin Erdelyi, Resat Cinar, Daniela Nieri, Andrea Chicca, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Lukas Corey, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, George Kunos, Jürg Gertsch, Pal Pacher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a plant-derived FDA approved food additive with anti-inflammatory properties. Some of its beneficial effects in vivo reported to involve activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2) that are predominantly expressed in immune cells. Herein, we evaluated the translational potential of BCP using a well-established model of chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of BCP on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice in vivo by using biochemical assays, real-time PCR and histology analyses...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107769/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-under-short-term-adrenergic-stimulation-in-brown-adipocytes
#3
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Iezaki, Yuki Onishi, Kakeru Ozaki, Yukari Nakamura, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada, Eiichi Hinoi
Sympathetic tone activates the function of classical brown adipocytes, which constitutively exist in the brown adipose tissue, and inducible brown adipocytes (so-called beige adipocytes), which sporadically reside within the white adipose tissue. Here we identified the transcriptional modulator interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) as a negative regulator of thermogenic and mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipocytes. Ifrd1 expression was markedly induced by cold exposure and administration of CL-316243 (a β3 adrenergic agonist) in interscapular brown adipose and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal visceral white adipose tissue, in vivo...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107754/hyperoside-attenuates-ova-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-activating-nrf2
#4
Peng Ye, Xi-Liang Yang, Xing Chen, Cai Shi
Allergic airways disease (AAD) is one of the most common medical illnesses that is associated with an increased allergic airway inflammation. Hyperoside, an active compound isolated from Rhododendron brachycarpum G. Don, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of hyperoside on OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. In the present study, the mouse asthma model was induced by given OVA and hyperoside was administrated 1h before OVA challenge...
January 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107741/building-related-symptoms-are-linked-to-the-in-vitro-toxicity-of-indoor-dust-and-airborne-microbial-propagules-in-schools-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
J T Salin, M Salkinoja-Salonen, P J Salin, K Nelo, T Holma, P Ohtonen, H Syrjälä
INTRODUCTION: Indoor microbial toxicity is suspected to cause some building-related symptoms, but supporting epidemiological data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the in vitro toxicity of indoor samples from school buildings was associated with work-related health symptoms (building-related symptoms, BRS). METHODS: Administrators of the Helsinki City Real Estate Department selected 15 schools for the study, and a questionnaire on symptoms connected to work was sent to the teachers in the selected schools for voluntary completion...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107724/effect-of-sole-or-combined-administration-of-nitrate-and-3-nitro-1-propionic-acid-on-fermentation-and-salmonella-survivability-in-alfalfa-fed-rumen-cultures-in-vitro
#6
Alejandro Castañeda Correa, Julian Trachsel, Heather K Allen, Agustin Corral-Luna, Hector Gutierrez-Bañuelos, Pedro Antonia Ochoa-Garcia, Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Michael E Hume, Todd R Callaway, Roger B Harvey, Ross C Beier, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
Ruminal methanogenesis is a digestive inefficiency resulting in the loss of dietary energy consumed by the host and contributing to environmental methane emission. Nitrate is being investigated as a feed supplement to reduce rumen methane emissions but safety and efficacy concerns persist. To assess potential synergies of co-administering sub-toxic amounts of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate (NPA) on fermentation and Salmonella survivability with an alfalfa-based diet, ruminal microbes were cultured with additions of 8 or 16mM nitrate, 4 or 12mM NPA or their combinations...
January 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107700/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-eight-major-bioactive-components-in-normal-and-bacterial-diarrhea-mini-pigs-after-oral-administration-of-gegen-qinlian-decoction
#7
Xiao Ling, Yuqiang Xiang, Qingfa Tang, Feilong Chen, Xiaomei Tan
Healthy animals are most widely used in current pharmacokinetic(PK) studies. However, neglecting the effects of specific diseases on drug absorption results in the PK parameters of those experiments not accurately reflecting in vivo drug concentration changes during treatment. In this study, an E. coli infective diarrheal minipig model was applied to explore the pharmacokinetics of Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD). A simple and rapid ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentrations of the eight GQD components in minipig plasma after intragastric administration of GQD...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107687/do-recreational-cannabis-users-unlicensed-and-licensed-medical-cannabis-users-form-distinct-groups
#8
Sharon R Sznitman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to gain a more nuanced perspective on the differences between recreationally and medically motivated cannabis use by distinguishing between people who use cannabis for recreational purposes, unlicensed and licensed medical users. METHODS: Data collection was conducted online from a convenience sample of 1479 Israeli cannabis users. Multinomial regression analysis compared unlicensed medical users (38%) with recreational (42%) and licensed medical (5...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#9
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107603/desmopressin-octostim%C3%A2-before-a-native-kidney-biopsy-can-reduce-the-risk-for-biopsy-complications-in-patients-with-impaired-renal-function-a-pilot-study
#10
Björn Peters, Henrik Hadimeri, Johan Mölne, Salmir Nasic, Gert Jensen, Bernd Stegmayr
AIM: To evaluate if the administration of desmopressin alters the risk for renal biopsy complications. METHODS: A multicenter registry containing 576 native kidney biopsies (NKb) with a serum creatinine above 150 µmol/L in 527 patients (372 men and 155 women, median age 61 years) was used. Most of the data were prospective. At one of the hospitals all biopsies with creatinine above 150 µmol/L received desmopressin before biopsies (NKb 204). These were compared to outcome of biopsy complications against other centres where desmopressin was not given (NKb 372)...
January 20, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107590/endocannabinoid-activation-of-cb1-receptors-contributes-to-long-lasting-reversal-of-neuropathic-pain-by-repetitive-spinal-cord-stimulation
#11
L Sun, L Tai, Q Qiu, R Mitchell, S Fleetwood-Walker, E A Joosten, C W Cheung
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to be effective in the management of certain neuropathic pain conditions, however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated repetitive SCS in a rodent neuropathic pain model, revealing long-lasting and incremental attenuation of hyperalgesia and a mechanism of action involving endocannabinoids. METHOD: Animals were implanted with monopolar electrodes at the time of partial sciatic nerve injury...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107588/mitochondrial-uncoupler-exerts-a-synthetic-lethal-effect-against-%C3%AE-catenin-mutant-tumor-cells
#12
Yuki Shikata, Masaki Kiga, Yushi Futamura, Harumi Aono, Hiroyuki Inoue, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Osada, Masaya Imoto
The wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signal transduction pathway plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. When β-catenin: a component of the Wnt pathway, is mutated into an active form, cell growth signaling is hyperactive and drives oncogenesis. As β-catenin is mutated in a wide variety of tumors, including up to 10% of all sporadic colon carcinomas and 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas, it has been considered a promising target for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we screened an in-house natural product library for compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality towards β-catenin mutations and isolated nonactin, an antibiotic mitochondrial uncoupler, as a hit compound...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107543/quantification-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-bleomycin-mouse-model-using-automated-histological-image-analysis
#13
Jean-Claude Gilhodes, Yvon Julé, Sebastian Kreuz, Birgit Stierstorfer, Detlef Stiller, Lutz Wollin
Current literature on pulmonary fibrosis induced in animal models highlights the need of an accurate, reliable and reproducible histological quantitative analysis. One of the major limits of histological scoring concerns the fact that it is observer-dependent and consequently subject to variability, which may preclude comparative studies between different laboratories. To achieve a reliable and observer-independent quantification of lung fibrosis we developed an automated software histological image analysis performed from digital image of entire lung sections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107533/improvement-of-therapeutic-efficacy-of-oral-immunotherapy-in-combination-with-regulatory-t-cell-inducer-kakkonto-in-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#14
Yuka Nagata, Takeshi Yamamoto, Michie Hayashi, Shusaku Hayashi, Makoto Kadowaki
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been considered a promising approach for food allergies (FAs). However, the current OIT strategy is limited in terms of the long-term efficacy and safety. We have previously demonstrated that kakkonto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, suppresses the occurrence of allergic symptoms in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA, which is attributed to the induction of the Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we established an OIT model using the FA mice with already established allergic symptoms and determined whether kakkonto could improve the efficacy of OIT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107527/effects-of-the-administration-of-25-oh-vitamin-d3-in-an-experimental-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-animals-null-for-1-alpha-hydroxylase
#15
Noelia Torremadé, Milica Bozic, David Goltzman, Elvira Fernandez, José M Valdivielso
The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107445/beta-glucans-supplementation-associates-with-reduction-in-p-cresyl-sulfate-levels-and-improved-endothelial-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-individuals
#16
Carmela Cosola, Maria De Angelis, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Eustacchio Montemurno, Valentina Maranzano, Giuseppe Dalfino, Carlo Manno, Annapaola Zito, Michele Gesualdo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Marco Gobbetti, Loreto Gesualdo
BACKGROUND: Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107348/predicting-length-of-stay-among-patients-discharged-from-the-emergency-department-using-an-accelerated-failure-time-model
#17
Chung-Hsien Chaou, Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Shu-Hui Chang, Petrus Tang, Shin-Liang Pan, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Te-Fa Chiu
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) crowding continues to be an important health care issue in modern countries. Among the many crucial quality indicators for monitoring the throughput process, a patient's length of stay (LOS) is considered the most important one since it is both the cause and the result of ED crowding. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the influence of different patient-related or diagnostic activities-related factors on the ED LOS of discharged patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107322/on-body-injector-an-administration-device-for-pegfilgrastim
#18
Linda J Mahler, Regina DiBlasi, Anielka Perez, Jeannie Gaspard, Dayna McCauley
Many chemotherapy regimens used today require the support of a 
granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for the prevention of 
life-threatening neutropenia. In March 2015, a delivery method was introduced for Neulasta® (pegfilgrastim) through an on-body injector (Onpro®), which may eliminate the need for patients to return for injection after chemotherapy, increase workflow, and allow more patients to be seen. The purpose of this study was to monitor the implementation of the Onpro delivery system in an outpatient facility...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107310/the-renin-inhibitor-aliskiren-protects-rat-lungs-from-the-histopathologic-effects-of-fat-embolism
#19
Amanda N Fletcher, Agostino Molteni, Rakesh Ponnapureddy, Chirag Patel, Mark Pluym, Alan M Poisner
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism (FE) and the consequent FE syndrome occurring after trauma or surgery can lead to serious pulmonary injury, including ARDS and death. Current treatment of FE syndrome is limited to supportive therapy. We have shown in a rat model that the renin angiotensin system plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of FE because drugs interfering with the renin angiotensin system, captopril and losartan reduce the histopathologic pulmonary damage. The purpose of the current study was to determine if inhibition of renin by aliskiren, an FDA-approved drug for treating hypertension, would produce effective protection in the same model...
February 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107297/nursing-care-management-influence-on-bundled-payments
#20
Shaynie Lentz, Brenda Luther
Fragmented and uncoordinated care is the third highest driver of U.S. healthcare costs. Although less than 10% of patients experience uncoordinated care, these patients represent 36% of total healthcare costs; care management interaction makes a significant impact on the utilization of healthcare dollars. A literature search was conducted to construct a model of care coordination for elective surgical procedures by collecting best practices for acute, transitions, and post-acute care periods. A case study was used to demonstrate the model developed...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
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