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Monoamine oxidase, brain, behavior, behaviour

Kadi Luht, Diva Eensoo, Liina-Mai Tooding, Jaanus Harro
Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets...
January 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Vinay Sridhar, Sarika Wairkar, Ram Gaud, Amrita Bajaj, Pramod Meshram
Selegiline hydrochloride (SL), is an anti-Parkinson's agent, has low-oral bioavailability due to its high first pass metabolism and scarce oral absorption. In the present study, SL mucoadhesive nasal thermosensitive gel (SNT-gel) was prepared to enhance the bioavailability and subsequently, its concentration in the brain. The SNT-gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407-Chitosan combination and optimised formulation was further evaluated for physicochemical parameters. The comparative pharmacodynamic studies including behavioural studies, biochemical testing and histopathology of the brain was carried out in rats for SNT-gel, SL-nasal solution and SL Marketed Tablets...
February 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
L-R Bai, A-L Wang, Z-Y Zhao, Y-T Miao
The objective of this study was to examine the association between brain iron measurements of monoamine function and behavioural measurements of learning and memory. Male hybrid tilapias Oreochromis aureus × Oreochromis niloticus were fed either an iron-deficient (ID) diet or an iron-adequate (IA) diet for 8 weeks. The ID fishes showed significantly lower iron content in brain and decreasing learning and memory capacity. The fishes that showed increased learning and memory capacity had higher levels of iron and monoamine oxidase activity in brain...
June 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
Yutaka Yamamuro, Yuki Yamaguchi, Shin Abe, Fumio Takenaga
Dietary components, particularly essential fatty acids, affect the expression and maintenance of normal physiological phenotypes. However, the influence of C18 fatty acids that are abundantly present in the normal diet is unclear. We focused on the behavioural and neurochemical effects of C18 fatty acids during postweaning development in male mice. An AIN-93G diet supplemented with 8% stearic acid (C18:0), 3% oleic acid (C18:1), 3% linoleic acid (C18:2) or 3% α-linolenic acid (C18:3) was provided from four weeks of age for eight weeks...
June 2013: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Anna Stasiak, Mirosław Mussur, Mercedes Unzeta, Abdelouahid Samadi, José L Marco-Contelles, W Agnieszka Fogel
Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with different neurochemical and morphological alterations in the brain leading to cognitive and behavioural impairments. New therapeutic strategies comprise multifunctional drugs. The aim of the presented studies is to evaluate in vivo the novel compounds - ASS188 and ASS234 - which combine the benzylpiperidine moiety of the acetylcholinesteras (AChE) inhibitor donepezil and the indolyl propargylamino moiety of the monoaminooxidase (MAO) inhibitor, N-[(5-benzyloxy-1- methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine, with respect to their influence on cerebral amine neurotransmitters systems and neuroprotective activity...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Natalie J Groves, James P Kesby, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath, Alan Mackay-Sim, Thomas H J Burne
Epidemiological evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may predispose people to develop depression and cognitive impairment. While rodent studies have demonstrated that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with altered brain development, there is a lack of research examining adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of AVD deficiency on behaviour and brain function in the mouse. Ten-week old male C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing...
March 15, 2013: Behavioural Brain Research
Karen L Smith, Gemma K Ford, David S Jessop, David P Finn
The putative endogenous imidazoline binding site ligand harmane enhances neuronal activation in response to psychological stress and alters behaviour in animal models of anxiety and antidepressant efficacy. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying harmane's psychotropic effects are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of intraperitoneal injection of harmane (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) on fear-conditioned behaviour, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and monoaminergic activity within specific fear-associated areas of the rat brain...
February 2013: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Neda Assareh, Maha M ElBatsh, Charles A Marsden, David A Kendall
Recent findings indicate that CB1 receptor blockade might be relevant to the action of antidepressant drugs as inhibition of endocannabinoid function can increase synaptic availability of neurotransmitters; an effect also seen with chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Chronic treatments with established antidepressants also lead to raised brain BDNF levels. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rimonabant (an inverse agonist/antagonist of CB1 receptors) with those of the antidepressant tranylcypromine (TCP), on behaviour and expression of BDNF/CREB signalling pathways in rat brain...
January 2012: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Atbin Djamshidian, Francisco Cardoso, Donald Grosset, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Andrew J Lees
The prevalence of pathological gambling is 3.4% to 6% in treated Parkinson's disease, which is higher than the background population rate. In this review we discuss current evidence to indicate that dopamine agonists are much more likely to trigger this behavior than either L-dopa or selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor monotherapy. New insights from recent behavioral and functional imaging studies and possible treatment approaches are also covered. A PubMed literature search using the terms "gambling" and "Parkinson's disease," "impulse control disorder," "impulsive compulsive behaviour," "dopamine agonist," of individual dopamine agonists, and of ongoing drug trials, using http://www...
September 2011: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Annis O Mechan, Ann Fowler, Nicole Seifert, Henry Rieger, Tina Wöhrle, Stéphane Etheve, Adrian Wyss, Göde Schüler, Biagio Colletto, Claus Kilpert, James Aston, J Martin Elliott, Regina Goralczyk, M Hasan Mohajeri
A healthy, balanced diet is essential for both physical and mental well-being. Such a diet must include an adequate intake of micronutrients, essential fatty acids, amino acids and antioxidants. The monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline, are derived from dietary amino acids and are involved in the modulation of mood, anxiety, cognition, sleep regulation and appetite. The capacity of nutritional interventions to elevate brain monoamine concentrations and, as a consequence, with the potential for mood enhancement, has not been extensively evaluated...
April 2011: British Journal of Nutrition
Brian H Harvey, Ingrid Duvenhage, Francois Viljoen, Nellie Scheepers, Sarel F Malan, Gregers Wegener, Christiaan B Brink, Jacobus P Petzer
Dual action antidepressants have important therapeutic implications. Methylene blue (MB), a charged compound structurally related to tricyclic antidepressants, acts on both monoamine oxidase (MAO) and the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway, and has demonstrated antidepressant activity in rodents. We investigated the antidepressant properties of MB and selected structural analogues and whether their actions involve MAO, NO synthase (NOS) and regional brain monoamines. Acute imipramine (IMI, 15 mg/kg), saline, MB, acriflavine (ACR), methylene green (MG), methylene violet (MV), thionine (THI) and tacrine (TAC) (1-60 mg/kg i...
November 15, 2010: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jucélia J Fortunato, Gislaine Z Réus, Tamires R Kirsch, Roberto B Stringari, Gabriel R Fries, Flávio Kapczinski, Jaime E Hallak, Antônio W Zuardi, José A Crippa, João Quevedo
A growing body of evidence has pointed to the β-carboline harmine as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate behavioural and molecular effects of the chronic treatment with harmine and imipramine in rats. To this aim, rats were treated for 14 days once a day with harmine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) and then subjected to the forced swimming and open-field tests. Harmine and imipramine, at all doses tested, reduced immobility time of rats compared with the saline group...
October 2010: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sofía Sánchez-Iglesias, Estefanía Méndez-Alvarez, Javier Iglesias-González, Ana Muñoz-Patiño, Inés Sánchez-Sellero, José Luís Labandeira-García, Ramón Soto-Otero
The ability of aluminium to affect the oxidant status of specific areas of the brain (cerebellum, ventral midbrain, cortex, hippocampus, striatum) was investigated in rats intraperitoneally treated with aluminium chloride (10 mg Al3+/kg/day) for 10 days. The potential of aluminium to act as an etiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed by studying its ability to increase oxidative stress in ventral midbrain and striatum and the striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in an experimental model of PD...
May 2009: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ursula M D'Souza, Ian W Craig
Many genes in the monoamine neurotransmitter pathways possess functional variants which have been associated with human behavioural disorders and traits, making them of important clinical relevance. In this chapter, we summarize the most recent literature concerning functional studies on these variants and their possible behavioural consequences. Such studies have adopted a variety of strategies. Key investigations have determined effects on gene expression at the level of transcription in mammalian cell cultures, human lymphoblasts and/or human post-mortem brain tissue employing a range of strategies including allele-specific expression...
2008: Progress in Brain Research
Shrinivas K Kulkarni, Ashish Dhir
Berberine, an alkaloid isolated from Berberis aristata Linn. has been used in the Indian system of medicines as a stomachic, bitter tonic, antiamoebic and also in the treatment of oriental sores. Evidences have demonstrated that berberine possesses central nervous system activities, particularly the ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase-A, an enzyme involved in the degradation of norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT). With this background, the present study was carried out to elucidate the antidepressant-like effect of berberine chloride in different behavioural paradigms of despair...
July 28, 2008: European Journal of Pharmacology
Nadia Stefanova, Werner Poewe, Gregor K Wenning
Rasagiline is a novel selective irreversible monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor recently introduced for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson disease. Like other propargylamines rasagiline has also shown neuroprotective effects independent of MAO-B-inhibition in various in vitro and in vivo models. The present study was performed to test the potential of rasagiline as a disease-modifying agent in multiple system atrophy (MSA) using a transgenic mouse model previously described by our group. (PLP)-alpha-synuclein transgenic mice featuring glial cytoplasmic inclusion pathology underwent 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication to model full-blown MSA-like neurodegeneration...
April 2008: Experimental Neurology
N K Popova
This paper concentrates on involvement of protein elements in the brain neurotransmitter serotonin system (key enzymes in serotonin metabolism and 5-HT(1A) receptors) in the genetic control of behaviour. The data were obtained using Norway rats selected for more that 50 generations for lack of aggressive response and for aggressive behaviour towards humans (fear-induced aggression), inbred mouse strains, and MAO A knockout mice. The review provides converging line of evidence that: 1) brain serotonin contributes to critical mechanism underlying genetically defined individual differences in aggressiveness, and 2) genes encoding pivotal enzymes in serotonin metabolism (tryptophan hydroxylase, MAO A) and 5-HT(1A) receptors belong to a group of genes that modulate aggressive behaviour...
June 2007: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
L Oreland, K Nilsson, M Damberg, J Hallman
The importance of an interaction between environment and biological factors for the expression for a particular behaviour is illustrated by results from a series of adolescents in which effects of platelet MAO activity and psychosocial environment on criminality was investigated. In a favourable environment platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with criminality, while a very strong association was found in adolescents from a bad psychosocial environment. Essentially similar findings were obtained when a MAO-A promoter polymorphism was analysed instead of platelet MAO-B activity...
2007: Journal of Neural Transmission
Reinskje Talhout, Antoon Opperhuizen, Jan G C van Amsterdam
This review evaluates the presumed contribution of acetaldehyde to tobacco smoke addiction. In rodents, acetaldehyde induces reinforcing effects, and acts in concert with nicotine. Harman and salsolinol, condensation products of acetaldehyde and biogenic amines, may be responsible for the observed reinforcing effect of acetaldehyde. Harman and salsolinol inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), and some MAO-inhibitors are known to increase nicotine self-administration and maintain behavioural sensitization to nicotine...
October 2007: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shai Rosenberg, Alan R Templeton, Paul D Feigin, Doron Lancet, Jacques S Beckmann, Sara Selig, Dean H Hamer, Karl Skorecki
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyses the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines including neurotransmitters, mainly norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain and peripheral tissues. A nonsense mutation in the gene was shown to be involved in a rare X-linked behavioural syndrome, which includes impaired impulse control, aggression and borderline mental retardation (Brunner syndrome). Several recent studies have shown the association of genetic variation of a VNTR in the gene promoter with various pathological behavioural traits...
November 2006: Human Genetics
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