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white kidney bean extract

Cheng-Tien Wu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Chun-Fa Huang, Fu-Chuo Peng, Shing-Hwa Liu
Steady-fiber granule (SFG) is a functional food mixture that is composed of four major ingredients, resistant maltodextrin, white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract, mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex. This study focused on determining the safety of SFG. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity were evaluated. SFG did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 system)...
February 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Keiko Iwakoshi, Kenji Otsuka, Yasuhiro Tamura, Sanae Tomizawa, Tamako Masubuchi, Yumiko Yamaki, Yukiko Nakagawa, Ryoko Masuda, Shota Suto, Yoshie Kokaji, Tetsuya Shindo, Ichiro Takano
Rapid multi-residue analysis of pesticides in pulses was developed using LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues in 5 g of homogenized pulses were extracted with 30 mL of acetonitrile and salted out with 4 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 2 g of sodium chloride in the presence of citrate buffer in a disposable tube. The resulting residues were extracted with 30 mL of acetonitrile, and co-extractives were removed on a handmade four-layer column, consisting of a layer of Z-Sep/C18 (20 mg/50 mg) dry particles on top of a three-layer, custom-made (pre-packed) column (lower bed: 60 mg of PSA, middle bed: 30 mg of GC, and top bed: 60 mg of C18) packed in a 10 mm internal diameter polypropylene column (3 mL)...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Ana García-Lafuente, Carlos Moro, Noelia Manchón, Alicia Gonzalo-Ruiz, Ana Villares, Eva Guillamón, Mauricio Rostagno, Laura Mateo-Vivaracho
According to epidemiological evidence, diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of several chronic diseases that share an inflammatory component. These protective effects are attributed, in part, to the occurrence of different antioxidant components, mainly phenolic compounds. Our aim was to characterise phenolic composition, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from two kinds of common beans, white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB)...
October 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Maribel Ovando-Martínez, Kristin Whitney, Senay Simsek
Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among food carbohydrates. Starch contributes to the physicochemical attributes of food products made from roots, legumes, cereals, and fruits. It occurs naturally as distinct particles, called granules. Most starch granules are a mixture of 2 sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The starch contained in food products undergoes changes during processing, which causes changes in the starch molecular weight and amylose to amylopectin ratio...
February 2013: Journal of Food Science
Lifen Zhang, Changmei Wang, Mingjie Yang, Tian Zhang, Minkang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of different concentration of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on mouse embryo development. METHOD: In experiment 1, crude and purified PHA extracted from Yunnan white kidney bean with different concentration were added into M16 culture medium, the final concentration of PHA were: 50, 100, 200, 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 5 000 mg x L(-1) respectively. 2-cell stage embryos were collected and cultured in PHA containing or control medium for 72-96 h and their development were recorded...
June 2011: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hossein Alizadeh, David W M Leung, Anthony L J Cole
Effect of proteinaceous extracts from red kidney bean cotyledons on mycelium of Alternaria alternata growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was investigated. Unexpectedly, conidia formation was induced in response to applied crude extracts. A PDA disc method was developed to quantify conidia formed. A purified fraction retaining conidiation inducing effect (CIE) was obtained following several protein purification procedures including the last step of eluting bound proteins from an Affi-gel blue gel column...
January 2011: Phytochemistry
Harry G Preuss
Many believe that excessive intake of refined carbohydrates (CHO) plays a major role in the development of obesity/overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, a collection of events commonly referred to as "diabesity," and have sought natural means to overcome these linked perturbations. As a first approach, planned diets with low portions of refined CHO have become popular. However, these diets do not satisfy everyone; and many are concerned over replacing CHO with more fats. As a second option, addition of soluble fiber to the diet can slow absorption of refined CHO, i...
June 2009: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Jay K Udani, Betsy B Singh, Marilyn L Barrett, Harry G Preuss
BACKGROUND: Phase 2((R)) is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI) of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread). METHODS: An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects...
2009: Nutrition Journal
Matthias F Melzig, Ines Funke
Antidiabetics of plant origin are in common use. A proof of their effectiveness or their mode of action is often missing. The aim of this work was to review the knowledge about inhibitors of alpha-amylase from plants and to comment on the use in anti-diabetic treatment. Herbal alpha-amylase inhibitors are rarely described in the literature, nevertheless they have the ability to lower postprandial blood glucose level and should be used in the supplementary treatment of diabetes. Important constituents for the inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase are mainly polyphenolic compounds...
2007: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Leonardo Celleno, Maria Vittoria Tolaini, Alessandra D'Amore, Nicholas V Perricone, Harry G Preuss
BACKGROUND: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract...
2007: International Journal of Medical Sciences
N V Koval'chuk
PHA quantity and activity dynamics during early germination of bean seed were investigated. Electrophoretic characteristics, subunits composition and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectin extracted from white kidney bean cv. Bilozerna were studied. It was shown that investigated lectin consisted of 2 subunits E and L with molecular weight 34 and 36 kDa, respectively, analogously to purified PHA ("Serva", Germany), and specifically bound N-acetyl-D-galactosamin and galactose. During germination both quantity and activity of PHA were dramatically decreasing in embryonic axes and in cotyledons, possibly, as a result of the lectin release from seeds to the environment...
January 2006: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
Dilip Chokshi
Dietary supplements containing "starch blockers" are believed to reduce carbohydrate-derived calories by interfering with alpha-amylase, the digestive enzyme responsible for conversion of complex carbohydrates to simple, absorbable sugars. The present paper reports the findings of a 28-day oral toxicity study in rats of Phase 2, a standardized extract derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), which has been shown to have alpha-amylase-inhibiting activity. In order to establish safety, eighty male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (10 animals/sex/group) received Phase 2 via oral gavage at doses of 0, 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg (7 days/wk) for a period of 31 (males) or 32 (females) days...
January 2007: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dilip Chokshi
The number of available dietary supplements containing "starch blockers" intended for weight loss has risen dramatically in recent years. These supplements are believed to reduce carbohydrate-derived calories by interfering with alpha-amylase, the digestive enzyme responsible for conversion of complex carbohydrates to simple absorbable sugars. The present paper reports the findings of single- and multiple-dose (4-week) oral toxicity studies in rats of the marketed dietary supplement Blockal. Blockal contains as its main ingredient Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer (Phase 2 or Phaseolamin 2250), a standardized extract derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) that has been shown to have alpha-amylase-inhibiting activity...
September 2006: International Journal of Toxicology
M A Tormo, I Gil-Exojo, A Romero de Tejada, J E Campillo
An inhibitor of alpha-amylase was isolated and purified from an extract of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The acute oral administration of the inhibitor (50 mg/kg body weight) to adult Wistar rats together with a starch load (2 g/kg body weight suspended in NaCl (9 g/l)) reduced the increase in glycaemia over the basal value (NaCl, 222 (SEM 49); inhibitor, 145 (SEM 16) mmol/l x 180 min; P<0.05) without modifying the insulin response. On administering the inhibitor orally (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in NaCl (9 g/l)) for 21 d to rats fed on a standard diet, a decline was observed in the glycaemia values on day 0 (NaCl, 5...
November 2004: British Journal of Nutrition
F H Savelkoul, S Tamminga, P P Leenaars, J Schering, D W Ter Maat
White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cv Processor, contain a relatively high content of phaseolin (storage protein), lectins and a special group of glycoproteins as well as a considerable amount of protein-type trypsin inhibitors. Protein digestion of raw 'Processor' beans in monogastrics, for example pigs, is disturbed by poorly digested, phaseolin lectins, which can bind to carbohydrates in brush border membranes of the small intestinal epithelium, and trypsin inhibitors. The effect of the germination of white kidney beans on lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors was studied in order to achieve a degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors and an increase of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein of bean flour...
April 1994: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
M A Rossi, J Mancini Filho, F M Lajolo
Rats maintained for a period of 5 days on a diet containing purified lectins extracted from a Brazilian variety (called 'Jalo') of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed marked ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum, while both pair-fed and ad-libitum-fed controls did not. The jejunal absorptive cells of rats fed a diet containing lectins exhibited conspicuous abnormalities of the microvilli. They were shorter, slightly thicker, irregular and more sparse; some were bi- or tri-furcated, sharing a common base of implantation...
February 1984: British Journal of Experimental Pathology
M Maranesi, G Carenini, P Gentili
Anti-alpha-amylase is a protein characterized by an antienzymatic activity in the sense that it prevents hydrolysis of the alpha--1,4 glycoside bond of starch. Such action could be exploited for reducing the caloric value of the diet. We studied the in-vivo effectiveness of large doses of anti-alpha-amylase extracted from white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The growth rate of rats was clearly impaired, the blood pictures and biochemistry showed modifications, and the internal organ histology revealed alterations in the liver and kidney...
1984: Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica
J P Roozen, J de Groot
Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively...
November 1991: Journal—Association of Official Analytical Chemists
S Areekul, P Kirdudom, K Chaovanapricha
Djenkolic acid was extracted from djenkol beans with 70% ethanol and water and was quantitatively determined by paper chromatography. Djenkol beans contained 0.3-1.3 gm% djenkolic acid and about 93% of this acid occurred in the free state. The toxicity of djenkol beans was studied in 5 rhesus monkeys, 9 albino rats and 22 mice fed with 70% ethanol extracts. The total urinary output decreased. There was an increase in specific gravity of the urine during the period of feeding monkeys with djenkol beans. Urinary samples of the experimental animals were turbid and contained some red cells, white cells, epithelial cells, albumin and amorphous particles...
December 1976: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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