keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bacteriophages

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913133/a-comparative-study-of-different-strategies-for-removal-of-endotoxins-from-bacteriophage-preparations
#1
Jonas D Van Belleghem, Maya Merabishvili, Bjorn Vergauwen, Rob Lavigne, Mario Vaneechoutte
Bacterial endotoxins have high immunogenicity. Phage biology studies as well as therapeutic phage applications necessitate highly purified phage particles. In this study, we compared combinations of seven different endotoxin removal strategies and validated their endotoxin removal efficacy for five different phages (i.e. four Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages and one Staphylococcus aureus phage). These purification strategies included Endotrap HD column purification and/or CsCl density centrifugation in combination with Endotrap purification, followed by organic solvent (1-octanol), detergent (Triton X-100), enzymatic inactivation of the endotoxin using alkaline phosphatase and CIM monolytic anion exchange chromatography...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912785/transmission-of-viruses-via-our-microbiomes
#2
Melissa Ly, Marcus B Jones, Shira R Abeles, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Jonathan Gao, Ivan C Chan, Chandrabali Ghose, David T Pride
BACKGROUND: Bacteria inhabiting the human body have important roles in a number of physiological processes and are known to be shared amongst genetically-related individuals. Far less is known about viruses inhabiting the human body, but their ecology suggests they may be shared between close contacts. RESULTS: Here, we report the ecology of viruses in the guts and mouths of a cohort and demonstrate that substantial numbers of gut and oral viruses were shared amongst genetically unrelated, cohabitating individuals...
December 2, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912769/three-novel-bacteriophages-isolated-from-the-east-african-rift-valley-soda-lakes
#3
Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl, Shonisani Nemavhulani, James Cass, Donald Arthur Cowan, Marla Trindade
BACKGROUND: Soda lakes are unique environments in terms of their physical characteristics and the biology they harbour. Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from sediment samples of lakes Magadi and Shala. Three phages were isolated on two different Bacillus species and one Paracoccus species using agar overlays...
December 3, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910929/novel-groups-and-unique-distribution-of-phage-phoh-genes-in-paddy-waters-in-northeast-china
#4
Xinzhen Wang, Junjie Liu, Zhenhua Yu, Jian Jin, Xiaobing Liu, Guanghua Wang
Although bacteriophages are ubiquitous in various environments, their genetic diversity is primarily investigated in pelagic marine environments. Corresponding studies in terrestrial environments are few. In this study, we conducted the first survey of phage diversity in the paddy ecosystem by targeting a new viral biomarker gene, phoH. A total of 424 phoH sequences were obtained from four paddy waters generated from a pot experiment with different soils collected from open paddy fields in northeast China. The majority of phoH sequences in paddy waters were novel, with the highest identity of ≤70% with known phoH sequences...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908758/thermally-triggered-release-of-the-bacteriophage-endolysin-chapk-and-the-bacteriocin-lysostaphin-for-the-control-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#5
Hollie Hathaway, Jude Ajuebor, Liam Stephens, Aidan Coffey, Ursula Potter, J Mark Sutton, A Toby A Jenkins
Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and soft tissue pose a major concern to public health, largely owing to the steadily increasing prevalence of drug resistant isolates. As an alternative mode of treatment both bacteriophage endolysins and bacteriocins have been shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy against multiple species of bacteria including otherwise drug resistant strains. Despite this, the administration and exposure of such antimicrobials should be restricted until required in order to discourage the continued evolution of bacterial resistance, whilst maintaining the activity and stability of such proteinaceous structures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908235/pentatricopeptide-motifs-in-the-n-terminal-extension-domain-of-yeast-mitochondrial-rna-polymerase-rpo41p-are-not-essential-for-its-function
#6
J Kruszewski, P Golik
The core mitochondrial RNA polymerase is a single-subunit enzyme that in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the nuclear RPO41 gene. It is an evolutionary descendant of the bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but it includes an additional unconserved N-terminal extension (NTE) domain that is unique to the organellar enzymes. This domain mediates interactions between the polymerase and accessory regulatory factors, such as yeast Sls1p and Nam1p. Previous studies demonstrated that deletion of the entire NTE domain results only in a temperature-dependent respiratory deficiency...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904467/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-bacteriophage-preying-an-antifungal-bacterium
#7
Aryan Rahimi-Midani, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Seon-Woo Lee, Sang Bong Jung, Tae-Jin Choi
Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903913/functional-rnas-combined-assembly-and-packaging-in-vlps
#8
Po-Yu Fang, Lizzette M Gómez Ramos, Stefany Y Holguin, Chiaolong Hsiao, Jessica C Bowman, Hung-Wei Yang, Loren Dean Williams
We describe here a one pot RNA production, packaging and delivery system based on bacteriophage Qβ. We demonstrate a method for production of a novel RNAi scaffold, packaged within Qβ virus-like particles (VLPs). The RNAi scaffold is a general utility chimera that contains a functional RNA duplex with paired silencing and carrier sequences stabilized by a miR-30 stem-loop. The Qβ hairpin on the 5' end confers affinity for the Qβ coat protein (CP). Silencing sequences can include mature miRNAs and siRNAs, and can target essentially any desired mRNA...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#9
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899557/alignment-free-d_2-oligonucleotide-frequency-dissimilarity-measure-improves-prediction-of-hosts-from-metagenomically-derived-viral-sequences
#10
Nathan A Ahlgren, Jie Ren, Yang Young Lu, Jed A Fuhrman, Fengzhu Sun
Viruses and their host genomes often share similar oligonucleotide frequency (ONF) patterns, which can be used to predict the host of a given virus by finding the host with the greatest ONF similarity. We comprehensively compared 11 ONF metrics using several k-mer lengths for predicting host taxonomy from among ∼32 000 prokaryotic genomes for 1427 virus isolate genomes whose true hosts are known. The background-subtracting measure [Formula: see text] at k = 6 gave the highest host prediction accuracy (33%, genus level) with reasonable computational times...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896482/phage-therapy-in-bacterial-infections-treatment-one-hundred-years-after-the-discovery-of-bacteriophages
#11
REVIEW
Agata Anna Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
The therapeutic use of bacteriophages has seen a renewal of interest blossom in the last few years. This reversion is due to increased difficulties in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics, a serious problem in contemporary medicine, does not implicate resistance to phage lysis mechanisms. Lytic bacteriophages are able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria at the end of the phage infection cycle. Thus, the development of phage therapy is potentially a way to improve the treatment of bacterial infections...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895630/comparative-functional-genomic-analysis-of-two-vibrio-phages-reveals-complex-metabolic-interactions-with-the-host-cell
#12
Dimitrios Skliros, Panos G Kalatzis, Pantelis Katharios, Emmanouil Flemetakis
Sequencing and annotation was performed for two large double stranded DNA bacteriophages, φGrn1 and φSt2 of the Myoviridae family, considered to be of great interest for phage therapy against Vibrios in aquaculture live feeds. In addition, phage-host metabolic interactions and exploitation was studied by transcript profiling of selected viral and host genes. Comparative genomic analysis with other large Vibrio phages was also performed to establish the presence and location of homing endonucleases highlighting distinct features for both phages...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892495/quorum-regulated-resistance-of-vibrio-cholerae-against-environmental-bacteriophages
#13
M Mozammel Hoque, Iftekhar Bin Naser, S M Nayeemul Bari, Jun Zhu, John J Mekalanos, Shah M Faruque
Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found that bacterial cell density-dependent gene expression termed "quorum sensing" which is regulated by signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) can protect V...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890586/exploring-the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Itziar Lekunberri, Jèssica Subirats, Carles M Borrego, José Luis Balcázar
Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in our planet. They infect susceptible bacterial hosts into which they either multiply or persist. In the latter case, phages can confer new functions to their hosts as a result of gene transfer, thus contributing to their adaptation (short-term) and evolution (long-term). In this regard, the role of phages on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among bacterial hosts in natural environments has not yet been clearly resolved...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890360/anti-tubercular-peptides-a-quest-of-future-therapeutic-weapon-to-combat-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Paul Agastian
Tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic menace to mankind, infecting almost one third of the world's populace and causing over a million mortalities annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the key pathogen of TB that invades and replicates inside the host's macrophage. With the emerging dilemma of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), the exigency for developing new TB drugs is an obligation now for worldwide researchers. Among the propitious antimycobacterial agents examined in last few decades, anti-tubercular peptides have been substantiated to be persuasive with multiple advantages such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to bacterial negatively charged cell envelopes and most importantly divergent mechanisms of action...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889453/simultaneous-real-time-imaging-of-leading-and-lagging-strand-synthesis-reveals-the-coordination-dynamics-of-single-replisomes
#16
Karl E Duderstadt, Hylkje J Geertsema, Sarah A Stratmann, Christiaan M Punter, Arkadiusz W Kulczyk, Charles C Richardson, Antoine M van Oijen
The molecular machinery responsible for DNA replication, the replisome, must efficiently coordinate DNA unwinding with priming and synthesis to complete duplication of both strands. Due to the anti-parallel nature of DNA, the leading strand is copied continuously, while the lagging strand is produced by repeated cycles of priming, DNA looping, and Okazaki-fragment synthesis. Here, we report a multidimensional single-molecule approach to visualize this coordination in the bacteriophage T7 replisome by simultaneously monitoring the kinetics of loop growth and leading-strand synthesis...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886033/efficacy-of-lytic-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteriophage-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mice
#17
Joseph Michael Ochieng' Oduor, Nyamongo Onkoba, Fredrick Maloba, Washingtone Ouma Arodi, Atunga Nyachieo
INTRODUCTION: The use of bacteriophages as an alternative treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been explored in Kenya. This study sought to determine the efficacy of environmentally obtained lytic bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) bacterium in mice. METHODOLOGY: Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and S. aureus-specific lytic phage were isolated from sewage and wastewater collected within Nairobi County, Kenya...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885938/genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-nit1-capable-of-obstructing-natto-fermentation-carrying-genes-for-the-capsule-lytic-soluble-enzymes-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-hydrolase-and-levanase
#18
Tatsuro Ozaki, Naoki Abe, Keitarou Kimura, Atsuto Suzuki, Jun Kaneko
Bacillus subtilis strains including the fermented soybean (natto) starter produce capsular polymers consisting of poly-γ-glutamate and levan. Capsular polymers may protect the cells from phage infection. However, bacteriophage ϕNIT1 carries a γ-PGA hydrolase gene (pghP) that help it to counteract the host cell's protection strategy. ϕNIT had a linear double stranded DNA genome of 155,631-bp with a terminal redundancy of 5,103-bp, containing a gene encoding an active levan hydrolase. These capsule-lytic enzyme genes were located in the possible foreign gene cluster regions between central core and terminal redundant regions, and were expressed at the late phase of the phage lytic cycle...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885865/delivering-phage-therapy-per-os-benefits-and-barriers
#19
Susan Zelasko, Andrzej Gorski, Krystyna Dabrowska
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract pose a serious public health concern. High levels of antibiotic drug resistance, along with the potential for antibiotics to precipitate disease or alter the gut microbiome has prompted research into alternative treatment methods. Evidence suggests that bacteriophage therapy delivered per os may be well-suited to target such infections. Areas covered: Herein, we discuss the specific advantages and challenges of using orally administered phage therapy...
November 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885601/methods-for-initial-characterization-of-campylobacter-jejuni-bacteriophages
#20
Martine Camilla Holst Sørensen, Yilmaz Emre Gencay, Lone Brøndsted
Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
keyword
keyword
60952
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"