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Bacteriophages

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934297/molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-%C3%AF-rs551-a-filamentous-bacteriophage-isolated-from-a-race-3-biovar-2-strain-of-ralstonia-solanacearum
#1
Abdelmonim Ali Ahmad, Michael J Stulberg, John Patrick Mershon, Dimitre S Mollov, Qi Huang
A filamentous bacteriophage, designated ϕRs551, was isolated and purified from the quarantine and select agent phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 (phylotype IIB sequevar 1) grown under normal culture conditions. Electron microscopy suggested that ϕRs551 is a member of the family Inoviridae, and is about 1200 nm long and 7 nm wide. ϕRs551 has a genome of 7929 nucleotides containing 14 open reading frames, and is the first isolated virion that contains a resolvase (ORF13) and putative type-2 phage repressor (ORF14)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933822/rod-like-virus-based-multiarm-colloidal-molecules
#2
Alexis de la Cotte, Cheng Wu, Marie Trévisan, Andrii Repula, Eric Grelet
We report on the construction of multiarm colloidal molecules by tip-linking filamentous bacteriophages, functionalized either by biological engineering or chemical conjugation. The affinity for streptavidin of a genetically modified vector phage displaying Strep-tags fused to one end of the viral particle, is measured by determining the dissociation constant, Kd. In order to both improve the colloidal stability and the efficiency of the self-assembly process, a biotinylation protocol having a chemical yield higher than 90% is presented to regio-selectively functionalize the cystein residues located at one end of the bacteriophages...
September 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929273/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-lytic-bacteriophage-isolated-from-ralstonia-solanacearum
#3
Jingfang Su, Hongwei Sun, Junjie Liu, Zhaokui Guo, Guoquan Fan, Gang Gu, Guanghua Wang
A lytic podophage RSPI1 was isolated from tobacco field soil collected in Fujian Province, South China using host bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum Tb15-14. Whole genome sequencing of this phage was performed using the high-throughput Ion Torrent PGM Sequencer. The complete genome of RSPI1 was 43,211 bp in length with a mean DNA G + C content of 61.5%. A total of 48 open reading frames were identified with lengths ranging from 132 bp to 5,061 bp, of which, 11, 12 and 25 were identified as functional, structural and unknown genes, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929212/an-insight-into-phage-diversity-at-environmental-habitats-using-comparative-metagenomics-approach
#4
Krupa Parmar, Nishant Dafale, Rajesh Pal, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant Purohit
Bacteriophages play significant role in driving microbial diversity; however, little is known about the diversity of phages in different ecosystems. A dynamic predator-prey mechanism called "kill the winner" suggests the elimination of most active bacterial populations through phages. Thus, interaction between phage and host has an effect on the composition of microbial communities in ecosystems. In this study, secondary phage metagenome data from aquatic habitats: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), fresh, marine, and hot water spring habitat were analyzed using MG-RAST and STAMP tools to explore the diversity of the viruses...
September 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928209/combining-comprehensive-analysis-of-off-site-lambda-phage-integration-with-a-crispr-based-means-of-characterizing-downstream-physiology
#5
Yu Tanouchi, Markus W Covert
During its lysogenic life cycle, the phage genome is integrated into the host chromosome by site-specific recombination. In this report, we analyze lambda phage integration into noncanonical sites using next-generation sequencing and show that it generates significant genetic diversity by targeting over 300 unique sites in the host Escherichia coli genome. Moreover, these integration events can have important phenotypic consequences for the host, including changes in cell motility and increased antibiotic resistance...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926767/stabilization-of-t4-bacteriophage-at-acidic-and-basic-ph-by-adsorption-on-paper
#6
Abigail Meyer, Melissa Greene, Chad Kimmelshue, Rebecca Cademartiri
Bacteriophages find applications in agriculture, medicine, and food safety. Many of these applications can expose bacteriophages to stresses that inactivate them including acidic and basic pH. Bacteriophages can be stabilized against these stresses by materials including paper, a common material in packaging and consumer products. Combining paper and bacteriophages creates antibacterial materials, which can reduce the use of antibiotics. Here we show that adsorption on paper protects T4, T5, and T7 bacteriophage from acidic and basic pH...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925542/genome-characteristics-and-environmental-distribution-of-the-first-phage-that-infects-the-ld28-clade-a-freshwater-methylotrophic-bacterial-group
#7
Kira Moon, Ilnam Kang, Suhyun Kim, Sang-Jong Kim, Jang-Cheon Cho
Bacteriophages infecting major groups of freshwater heterotrophic bacteria have been rarely isolated, hampering analyses of freshwater viromes. Here we report the isolation and genomic characterization of P19250A, the first phage that infects the LD28 clade, an abundant freshwater methylotrophic bacterial group. P19250A was isolated from Lake Soyang, an oligotrophic reservoir, using an LD28 strain as a host. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that P19250A is a lytic siphovirus with a ∼38.6-kb genome...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919692/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacteriophages-with-lytic-activity-against-common-bacterial-pathogens
#8
R K Shende, S D Hirpurkar, C Sannat, Nidhi Rawat, Vinay Pandey
AIM: Present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteriophages with lytic activity against common bacterial pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 samples of animal waste disposal from cattle (42) and buffalo (18) farms were collected from three different strata, i.e., top, mid, and bottom of collection tank. Samples were primarily subjected to rapid detection methods, and then isolation of phage was done by double agar layer method using Bacillus subtilis (BsH) and Escherichia coli (EH) as host system...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918034/a-simple-and-cost-effective-approach-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-production-of-sliced-sirnas-as-potent-triggers-for-rnai
#9
Guihua Sun, Arthur D Riggs
We have studied the molecular properties of in-vitro-transcribed sliced small interfering RNAs (tsli-siRNAs) as an alternative RNAi agent for chemically synthesized siRNA. We describe here a simple and cost-effective procedure for high-purity production of tsli-siRNA using bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerases. tsli-siRNAs exhibit potent gene knockdown effects, with efficacy comparable with that of chemically synthesized sli-siRNAs and classical siRNAs. Furthermore, we found that it is very easy to prepare potent tsli-siRNAs with modified bases, such as 2'-fluorine- or biotin-16-modified tsli-siRNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917651/bacteriophages-as-an-alternative-to-conventional-antibiotic-use-for-the-prevention-or-treatment-of-paenibacillus-larvae-in-honeybee-hives
#10
T Scott Brady, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Michael B Stephenson, Sandra Hope
American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studies were performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the phage cocktail treatment as a replacement for traditional antibiotics for the prevention of AFB and the treatment of active infections...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916451/switches-in-a-genetic-regulatory-system-under-multiplicative-non-gaussian-noise
#11
Xi Chen, Yan-Mei Kang, Yu-Xuan Fu
The non-Gaussian noise is multiplicatively introduced to model the universal fluctuation in the gene regulation of the bacteriophage λ. To investigate the key effect of non-Gaussian noise on the genetic on/off switch dynamics from the viewpoint of quantitative analysis, we employ the high-order perturbation expansion to deduce the stationary probability density of repressor concentration and the mean first passage time from low concentration to high concentration and vice versa. The occupation probability of different concentration states can be estimated from the height and shape of the peaks of the stationary probability density, which could be used to determine the overall expression level...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#12
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914348/immunogenicity-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-specific-bacteriophage-in-a-human-lung-in-vitro-model
#13
Joseph R Shiley, Kristen K Comfort, Jayne B Robinson
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. While previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of phage in combating persistent bacterial infections, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the host immunological response following phage exposure...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#15
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912765/biology-and-genomics-of-an-historic-therapeutic-escherichia-coli-bacteriophage-collection
#16
Abiyad Baig, Joan Colom, Paul Barrow, Catherine Schouler, Arshnee Moodley, Rob Lavigne, Robert Atterbury
We have performed microbiological and genomic characterization of an historic collection of nine bacteriophages, specifically infecting a K1 E. coli O18:K1:H7 ColV(+) strain. These phages were isolated from sewage and tested for their efficacy in vivo for the treatment of systemic E. coli infection in a mouse infection model by Smith and Huggins (1982). The aim of the study was to identify common microbiological and genomic characteristics, which co-relate to the performance of these phages in in vivo study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912306/complete-nucleotide-sequence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteriophage-vb_kpnm_kpv477
#17
Ekaterina V Komisarova, Angelina A Kislichkina, Valentina M Krasilnikova, Alexander G Bogun, Nadezhda K Fursova, Nikolay V Volozhantsev
The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage vB_KpnM_KpV477, with a broad spectrum of lytic activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, including strains of capsular serotypes K1, K2, and K57, was isolated from a clinical sample. The phage genome comprises 168,272 bp, with a G+C content of 39.3%, and it contains 275 putative coding sequences (CDSs) and 17 tRNAs.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912268/structural-and-functional-diversity-in-listeria-cell-wall-teichoic-acids
#18
Yang Shen, Samy Boulos, Eric Sumrall, Benjamin Gerber, Alicia Julian-Rodero, Marcel R Eugster, Lars Fieseler, Laura Nyström, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Martin J Loessner
Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are the most abundant glycopolymers found on the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria, whose diverse surface structures play key roles in multiple biological processes. Despite recent technological advances in glycan analysis, structural elucidation of WTAs remains challenging due to their complex nature. Here, we employed a combination of UPLC-MS/MS and NMR to determine the structural complexity of WTAs from Listeria species. We unveiled more than 10 different types of WTA polymers that vary in their linkage and repeating units...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910089/reduction-of-human-norovirus-gi-gii-and-surrogates-by-peracetic-acid-and-monochloramine-in-municipal-secondary-wastewater-effluent
#19
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Caroline G Coulter, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg Schwab
The objective of this study was to characterize human norovirus (hNoV) GI and GII reductions during disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) and monochloramine in secondary wastewater (WW) and phosphate buffer (PB) as assessed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Infectivity and RT-qPCR reductions are also presented for surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2 under identical experimental conditions to aid in interpretation of hNoV molecular data. In WW, RT-qPCR reductions were less than 0...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906479/characterization-of-vb_saum-frusau02-a-twort-like-bacteriophage-isolated-from-a-therapeutic-phage-cocktail
#20
Katarzyna Leskinen, Henni Tuomala, Anu Wicklund, Jenni Horsma-Heikkinen, Pentti Kuusela, Mikael Skurnik, Saija Kiljunen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium that causes infections in humans and animals. It is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are necessary. In this respect, polyvalent staphylococcal myoviruses have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates for phage therapy. Here we present the characterization of the bacteriophage vB_SauM-fRuSau02 (fRuSau02) that was isolated from a commercial Staphylococcus bacteriophage cocktail produced by Microgen (Moscow, Russia)...
September 14, 2017: Viruses
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