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Bacteriophages

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329379/the-lysis-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-by-bacteriophages-releases-less-endotoxin-than-betalactams
#1
Nicolas Dufour, Raphaëlle Delattre, Jean-Damien Ricard, Laurent Debarbieux
Background: Beside numerous experimental data assessing phage therapy efficacy, questions regarding safety of this approach are not sufficiently addressed. In particular, as phages can kill bacterial cells within less than 10 minutes, the associated endotoxin release (ER) in severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria could be a matter of concern. Methods: Two therapeutic virulent phages and four reference antibiotics were studied in vitro for their ability to kill two pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and generate an ER...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#2
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327522/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-shewanella-phage-host-system-from-the-gut-of-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#3
Brittany Leigh, Charlotte Karrer, John P Cannon, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325816/papers-of-note-in-science355-6330
#4
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles include several reviews on targeting signaling pathways to treat cancer, as well as research articles that highlight proteins that drive circadian clocks; how bacteriophages affect the virulence of pathogenic bacteria; a mobile transcription factor in plants; a secreted nucleoside that affects metabolism; and the effects of protein aggregation in aging yeast cells.
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#5
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324612/quantitative-image-analysis-of-single-molecule-mrna-dynamics-in-living-cells
#6
José Rino, Ana C de Jesus, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Single mRNA molecules can be imaged in living cells by a method that consists in genetically inserting binding sites for a bacteriophage protein in the gene of interest. The resulting reporter transgene is then integrated in the genome of cells that express the phage protein fused to a fluorescent tag. Upon transcription, binding of the fluorescent protein to its target sequence makes the RNA visible. With this approach it is possible to track, in real time, the life cycle of a precursor mRNA at the site of transcription in the nucleus and transport of mature mRNA to the cytoplasm...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324178/complete-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-staphylococcus-phage-stap1-and-proposal-of-a-new-species-in-the-genus-silviavirus
#7
Amal Senevirathne, Kuntal Ghosh, Eunjung Roh, Kwang-Pyo Kim
Bacteriophage StAP1 was isolated from a soil sample infecting Staphylococcus aureus and S. xylosus. Its genome was found to be 135,502 base pairs (bp) long with 30.00 mol% G+C content and 192 open reading frames. While no tRNA encoding genes were identified, 7 mobile elements were found to interrupt five StAP1 open reading frames. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis consistently supports the establishment of a new species in the genus Silviavirus.
March 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321010/discovery-and-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-bacteriophage-from-an-obligate-intracellular-symbiont-of-a-cellulolytic-protist-in-the-termite-gut
#8
Ajeng K Pramono, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Takehiko Itoh, Atsushi Toyoda, Akinori Yamada, Yuichi Hongoh
Termites depend nutritionally on their gut microbes, and protistan, bacterial, and archaeal gut communities have been extensively studied. However, limited information is available on viruses in the termite gut. We herein report the complete genome sequence (99,517 bp) of a phage obtained during a genome analysis of "Candidatus Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae" phylotype ProJPt-1, which is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the cellulolytic protist Pseudotrichonympha sp. in the gut of the termite Prorhinotermes japonicus...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320961/structure-of-a-headful-dna-packaging-bacterial-virus-at-2-9-%C3%A3-resolution-by-electron-cryo-microscopy
#9
Haiyan Zhao, Kunpeng Li, Anna Y Lynn, Keith E Aron, Guimei Yu, Wen Jiang, Liang Tang
The enormous prevalence of tailed DNA bacteriophages on this planet is enabled by highly efficient self-assembly of hundreds of protein subunits into highly stable capsids. These capsids can stand with an internal pressure as high as ∼50 atmospheres as a result of the phage DNA-packaging process. Here we report the complete atomic model of the headful DNA-packaging bacteriophage Sf6 at 2.9 Å resolution determined by electron cryo-microscopy. The structure reveals the DNA-inflated, tensed state of a robust protein shell assembled via noncovalent interactions...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318115/microbial-players-and-processes-involved-in-phytoplankton-bloom-utilization-in-the-water-column-of-a-fast-flowing-river-dominated-estuary
#10
Maria W Smith, Lydie Herfort, Caroline S Fortunato, Byron C Crump, Holly M Simon
Fueled by seasonal phytoplankton blooms, the Columbia River estuary is a natural bioreactor for organic matter transformations. Prior metagenome analyses indicated high abundances of diverse Bacteroidetes taxa in estuarine samples containing phytoplankton. To examine the hypothesis that Bacteroidetes taxa have important roles in phytoplankton turnover, we further analyzed metagenomes from water collected along a salinity gradient at 0, 5, 15, 25, and 33 PSU during bloom events. Size fractions were obtained by using a 3-μm prefilter and 0...
March 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316597/insights-of-phage-host-interaction-in-hypersaline-ecosystem-through-metagenomics-analyses
#11
Amir Mohaghegh Motlagh, Ananda S Bhattacharjee, Felipe H Coutinho, Bas E Dutilh, Sherwood R Casjens, Ramesh K Goel
Bacteriophages, as the most abundant biological entities on Earth, place significant predation pressure on their hosts. This pressure plays a critical role in the evolution, diversity, and abundance of bacteria. In addition, phages modulate the genetic diversity of prokaryotic communities through the transfer of auxiliary metabolic genes. Various studies have been conducted in diverse ecosystems to understand phage-host interactions and their effects on prokaryote metabolism and community composition. However, hypersaline environments remain among the least studied ecosystems and the interaction between the phages and prokaryotes in these habitats is poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#12
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315215/detection-of-food-allergens-by-phage-displayed-produced-antibodies
#13
Raquel Madrid, Silvia de la Cruz, Aina García, Rosario Martín, Isabel González, Teresa García
Phage display is a powerful tool to produce recombinant antibodies against a given antigen without animal immunization. This technology employs libraries of recombinant bacteriophages that display billions of different functional antibody fragments on their surface. They are selected by panning in vitro against the target antigen in search for specific binders. In this chapter, we describe the selection of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies to be used for detection of allergenic proteins from nuts in food products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304098/bacteriophages-as-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-and-enteric-virus-removal
#14
REVIEW
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303823/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-contact-lenses-and-their-susceptibility-to-lens-care-solutions
#15
Siddharth Kackar, Ethel Suman, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302859/inflammation-boosts-bacteriophage-transfer-between-salmonella-spp
#16
Médéric Diard, Erik Bakkeren, Jeffrey K Cornuault, Kathrin Moor, Annika Hausmann, Mikael E Sellin, Claude Loverdo, Abram Aertsen, Martin Ackermann, Marianne De Paepe, Emma Slack, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEΦ transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300778/phage-biodiversity-in-artisanal-cheese-wheys-reflects-the-complexity-of-the-fermentation-process
#17
Jennifer Mahony, Angelo Moscarelli, Philip Kelleher, Gabriele A Lugli, Marco Ventura, Luca Settanni, Douwe van Sinderen
Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect "breeding ground" for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments...
March 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299705/characterization-of-in-vivo-selected-bacteriophage-for-the-development-of-novel-tumor-targeting-agents-with-specific-pharmacokinetics-and-imaging-applications
#18
Jessica Newton-Northup, Susan L Deutscher
Bacteriophage (phage) display technology is a powerful strategy for the identification of peptide-based tumor targeting agents for drug discovery. Phage selections performed in vitro often result in many phage clones/peptides with similar properties and often similar sequence. However, these phage and corresponding peptides are selected, validated, and characterized outside the complicated milieu of a living animal. Thus, there is no guarantee that peptides from in vitro selections will successfully meet the requirements of an in vivo targeting compound...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296948/determining-bacteriophage-endopeptidase-activity-using-either-fluorophore-quencher-labeled-peptides-combined-with-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-or-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-fret-assays
#19
Rolf Lood, Henrik Molina, Vincent A Fischetti
The necessity of identifying novel methods to combat infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria is increasing each year. Recent advancements in the development of peptidoglycan hydrolases (e.g. lysins) from bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) have revealed the efficiency of this class of enzymes in treating serious bacterial infections. Though promising results have been obtained regarding the lethal action of lysin on bacterial pathogens both in vitro and in vivo, an often-overlooked factor in these studies is precisely identifying their peptidoglycan cleavage site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294684/survival-of-salmonella-newport-on-whole-and-fresh-cut-cucumbers-treated-with-lytic-bacteriophages
#20
Manan Sharma, Gwendolyn Dashiell, Eric T Handy, Cheryl East, Russell Reynnells, Chanelle White, Esmond Nyarko, Shirley Micallef, Fawzy Hashem, Patricia D Millner
Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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