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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319586/short-term-exercise-training-alters-leukocyte-chemokine-receptors-in-obese-adults
#1
Julianne C Barry, Svetlana Simtchouk, Cody Durrer, Mary E Jung, Jonathan P Little
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation driven by activation and tissue infiltration of circulating leukocytes. Although exercise has anti-inflammatory effects, the impact of exercise on mediators of leukocyte migration is unclear. PURPOSE: To determine the impact of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), in the absence of weight/fat loss, on circulating chemokines and leukocyte chemokine receptors. METHODS: Thirty-seven inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks (10 sessions) of HIIT or MICT with fasting blood samples collected before and after training...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319012/the-expanding-world-of-human-leishmaniasis
#2
James A Cotton
New Leishmania isolates form a novel group of human parasites related to Leishmania enrietti, with cases in Ghana, Thailand, and Martinique; other relatives infect Australian and South American wildlife. These parasites apparently cause both cutaneous and visceral disease, and may have evolved a novel transmission mechanism exploiting blood-feeding midges.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318098/decreased-insulin-stimulated-brown-adipose-tissue-glucose-uptake-after-short-term-exercise-training-in-healthy-middle-aged-men
#3
Piryanka Motiani, Kirsi A Virtanen, Kumail K Motiani, Joonas J Eskelinen, Roeland J Middelbeek, Laurie J Goodyear, Anna M Savolainen, Jukka Kemppainen, Jørgen Jensen, Mueez U Din, Virva Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Juhani Knuuti, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
AIMS: Little is known about the effects of exercise training on brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism in humans. We tested the hypothesis that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improve BAT insulin sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy middle-aged men (n = 18, age 47 [CI: 49, 43] years, BMI 25.3 [CI: 24.1-26.3] kg · m(-2) , VO2peak 34.8[CI: 32.1, 37.4] ml · kg(-1)  · min(-1) ) were recruited and randomized into six HIIT or MICT sessions within two weeks...
March 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317297/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes-with-high-fat-and-low-muscle-mass-at-baseline-and-in-response-to-exercise
#4
Tasuku Terada, Normand G Boulé, Mary Forhan, Carla M Prado, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'homme, Eiji Ito, Ronald J Sigal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between high fat and low muscle mass on cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline and in response to exercise in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using baseline percent body fat and skeletal muscle mass index, 248 participants were divided into high fat versus low fat and low muscle versus high muscle. Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of fat mass and muscle mass and their interaction on baseline cardiometabolic risk factors and changes in risk factors in response to 6-month exercise training...
March 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316391/antileishmanial-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-ocimumsanctum-linn-and-cocosnucifera-linn-in-murine-visceral-leishmaniasis
#5
Gaurav Bhalla, Sukhbir Kaur, Jaspreet Kaur, Rupinder Kaur, Puneet Raina
The role of immunomodulation in the therapeutic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has gained eminence in view of moderate to severe drawbacks of the currently available drugs like toxicity, drug resistance and prohibitive costs. The potential for modulation of the immune system of many herbal plants can be tapped to address these problems. We conducted the present research study to investigate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cocos nucifera Linn. during the progression of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mouse model...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316212/-evaluation-and-classification-of-drug-therapy-for-breast-cancer-with-bone-only-metastasis
#6
X Y Meng, S T Song
Skeleton is one of the most common metastatic organs for breast cancer, which has a better prognosis than visceral metastases. Bone-only metastasis was defined"non-measurable" in the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria, and was excluded by clinical trials. However, patients with bone-only metastasis are also in need of effective treatment to prolong survival. Endocrine therapy is the most important treatment for bone metastatic patients. Tumor response of bone metastases can be determined objectively by bone-window CT...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316012/associations-of-visceral-fat-area-and-physical-activity-levels-with-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Izabela Zając-Gawlak, Barbara Kłapcińska, Aleksandra Kroemeke, Dariusz Pośpiech, Jana Pelclová, Miroslava Přidalová
This study was aimed at the evaluation of relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and physical activity (PA) with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in the physically active postmenopausal women. A total of 85 attendants of the University of the Third Age (U3A) aged 62.8 ± 5.9 years (median time since menopause 11.8 y), participated in this study. VFA was assessed by bioimpedance method using InBody 720 analyzer. PA was assessed using the ActiGraph GT1 M accelerometer. Fasting levels of serum lipids (TG, HDL), serum glucose, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured to diagnose MetS according to NCEP-ATP III criteria...
March 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316007/talimogene-laherparepvec-for-treating-metastatic-melanoma-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#8
REVIEW
Nigel Fleeman, Adrian Bagust, Angela Boland, Sophie Beale, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Angela Stainthorpe, Ahmed Abdulla, Eleanor Kotas, Lindsay Banks, Miranda Payne
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Amgen) of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for previously untreated advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma as part of the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the company's submission of T-VEC, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance (TA410), issued in September 2016...
March 18, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315932/body-and-liver-fat-content-and-adipokines-in-schizophrenia-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-study
#9
Jong-Hoon Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Pil-Whan Park, Jürgen Machann, Michael Roden, Sheen-Woo Lee, Jong-Hee Hwang
RATIONALE: Although antipsychotic treatment often causes weight gain and lipid abnormalities, quantitative analyses of tissue-specific body fat content and its distribution along with adipokines have not been reported for antipsychotic-treated patients. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the present study were to quantitatively assess abdominal and liver fat in patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic treatment and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to evaluate their associations with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels...
March 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#10
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315175/associations-of-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-parameters-at-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis-with-long-term-health-related-quality-of-life
#11
Eline H van Roekel, Martijn J L Bours, Malou E M Te Molder, José J L Breedveld-Peters, Steven W M Olde Damink, Leo J Schouten, Silvia Sanduleanu, Geerard L Beets, Matty P Weijenberg
PURPOSE: Increased visceral adiposity (visceral obesity) and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) at colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis, quantified by computed tomography (CT) image analysis, have been unfavorably associated with short-term clinical outcomes and survival, but associations with long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been investigated. We studied associations of visceral adiposity, muscle fat infiltration, muscle mass, and sarcopenia at CRC diagnosis with HRQoL 2-10 years post-diagnosis...
March 17, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315007/central-obesity-and-risks-of-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-prevalent-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Heba Wahid El Said, Osama Mahmoud Mohamed, Tamer Wahid El Said, Ahmed Bahaa El Serwi
BACKGROUND: To date, no attempt has been made to assess the best anthropometric method for defining abdominal adiposity in hemodialysis (HD) patients or to determine whether the quantity of intra-abdominal fat relates to morbidity and mortality in that population. We aimed to describe the prevalence of central obesity in HD patients and to investigate the relationship between central obesity assessed by anthropometric variables, and composite outcomes, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HD patients and whether this parameter correlates with intra-abdominal fat assessed by computed tomography scan (CT scan)...
March 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314871/-evidence-based-lichtenstein-technique
#13
W Reinpold, D Chen
Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the number one technique worldwide for open, mesh-based inguinal hernia repair. The principle of Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the tension-free reinforcement of the abdominal wall by covering the transversalis fascia and the oblique muscles with an artificial patch of mesh. The Lichtenstein technique has been modified since its inception. The technique has the benefits of low costs and a rapid learning curve and can be performed with the patient under local anesthesia. The recurrence rates after the Lichtenstein operation are significantly lower compared to open suture repair and equal to laparoendoscopic techniques...
March 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303579/endometriosis-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-specific-symptomatic-and-demographic-profile-and-response-to-the-low-fodmap-diet
#15
Judith S Moore, Peter R Gibson, Richard E Perry, Rebecca E Burgell
BACKGROUND: Women with endometriosis are frequently misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for some time before a correct diagnosis is made. Visceral hypersensitivity is a key feature in both conditions. AIMS: To determine if there are distinct symptom patterns in women with IBS and endometriosis, and to determine the response of these women to a low FODMAP diet in comparison to those with IBS alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from women attending a specialist IBS service in Christchurch New Zealand...
March 17, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303483/proliferation-and-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-in-prolonged-lean-and-obese-critically-ill-patients
#16
Chloë Goossens, Sarah Vander Perre, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND: In prolonged non-obese critically ill patients, preservation of adipose tissue is prioritized over that of the skeletal muscle and coincides with increased adipogenesis. However, we recently demonstrated that in obese critically ill mice, this priority was switched. In the obese, the use of abundantly available adipose tissue-derived energy substrates was preferred and counteracted muscle wasting. These observations suggest that different processes are ongoing in adipose tissue of lean vs...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303458/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-pain-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Wendy Sophie Schou, Sait Ashina, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Peter J Goadsby, Messoud Ashina
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in nociceptive pathways in human peripheral and central nervous system and its receptors are also expressed in pain pathways. CGRP is involved in migraine pathophysiology but its role in non-headache pain has not been clarified. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov for articles on CGRP and non-headache pain covering human studies including experimental studies and randomized clinical trials...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301310/glass-fiber-based-mr-safe-guidewire-for-mr-imaging-guided-endovascular-interventions-in-vitro-and-preclinical-in-vivo-feasibility-study
#18
Alexander Massmann, Arno Buecker, Guenther K Schneider
Purpose To evaluate glass-fiber-based guidewires that are safe for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided endovascular interventions by using a phantom and an in vivo swine model. Materials and Methods MR imaging-safe guidewires were made from micropultruded glass and/or aramid fibers and epoxy resin with diameters of 0.89 mm (0.035 inch) for standard and stiff guidewires and 0.36 mm (0.014 inch) for micro guidewires. MR imaging visibility and mechanical properties were assessed in a pulsatile flow model. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, MR imaging guidewires were evaluated for standard endovascular procedures in nine pigs...
March 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301305/molecular-characterization-of-leishmania-parasites-in-giemsa-stained-slides-from-cases-of-human-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis-eastern-algeria
#19
Nadia Beldi, Roukaya Mansouri, Jihene Bettaieb, Alia Yaacoub, Hejer Souguir Omrani, Yusr Saadi Ben Aoun, Farida Saadni, Ikram Guizani, Souheila Guerbouj
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is due to Leishmania (L.) infantum, while three cutaneous forms (CL) are caused by Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. In this study, the use of Giemsa-stained slides was evaluated with two PCR techniques, in Eastern Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples corresponding to 100 CL smears (skin scrapings) and 36 VL slides (bone marrow aspirates) collected from 2008 to 2014 were tested...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301296/distinct-leishmania-infantum-strains-circulate-in-humans-and-dogs-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-northeastern-italy
#20
Gianluca Rugna, Elena Carra, Francesco Corpus, Mattia Calzolari, Daniela Salvatore, Romeo Bellini, Antonietta Di Francesco, Erica Franceschini, Antonella Bruno, Giovanni Poglayen, Stefania Varani, Fabrizio Vitale, Giuseppe Merialdi
Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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