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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829988/anaesthetic-and-surgical-management-of-airway-penetrating-injuries-in-children-in-resource-poor-setting-case-reports
#1
Bassey E Edem, Amali Adekwu, Michael E Efu, Joseph Kuni, Gerald Onuchukwu, Johnbosco Ugwuadu
INTRODUCTION: Impacted penetrating foreign body (FB) in the airway especially the postnasal space presents with management challenges. The challenges are worsened by lack of modern equipment in resource-poor settings. Two suchlike cases were managed in this report. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: A 4-year-old girl who fell on a metal rod in her mouth while playing alone. Examination revealed an agitated child in open mouth posture, with a silvery straight metallic object impacted on the hard palate and projecting from the mouth...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762040/case-update-on-cranial-osteopetrosis-which-is-the-role-of-the-neurosurgeon
#2
Irene Stella, Matthieu Vinchon, Pierre Guerreschi, Eva De Berranger, Ikram Bouacha
PURPOSE: Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare skeletal disease, which can affect the skull base and calvaria. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory and patient may need neurosurgical care. Few observations have been published, and optimal management of OP is not established yet. METHOD: We report a case of an infant with OP diagnosed at 5 months, who presented signs of intracranial hypertension associated with unilateral blindness. Bone marrow allograft was performed at 6 months of age...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591001/multiple-unilateral-skull-base-defects-in-a-child-with-conductive-hearing-loss
#3
Brian L Scott, Cameron C Wick, Gopi B Shah, Timothy N Booth, Joe Walter Kutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525774/development-and-validation-of-a-physical-model-to-investigate-the-biomechanics-of-infant-head-impact
#4
M Jones, D Darwall, G Khalid, R Prabhu, A Kemp, Owen J Arthurs, P Theobald
Head injury in childhood is the single most common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of the response of a child's head to injurious loading. This is a significant limitation when making early diagnoses, informing clinical and/or forensic management or injury prevention strategies. With respect to impact vulnerability, current understanding is predominantly based on a few post-mortem-human-surrogate (PMHS) experiments...
July 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470385/the-metopic-sagittal-craniosynostosis-report-of-35-operative-cases
#5
Takeyoshi Shimoji, Takaoki Kimura, Kazuaki Shimoji, Masakazu Miyajima
PURPOSE: We have diagnosed 35 cases of the supposedly rare condition metopic-sagittal synostosis in the past 20 years. Here, we introduce their clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, and surgical treatment methods, as well as discuss the relevant literature. METHODS: Subjects included 35 patients (33 boys and 2 girls; mean age 4.2 years; range 1-8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that there were no abnormal findings in the brain. Thirty patients presented with symptoms including speech delay, hyperactivity, autistic tendency, motor impairment, self-mutilation, and panic/temper tantrum behaviors...
August 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468512/acalvaria-report-of-a-case-and-discussion-of-the-literature
#6
John R Ouma
Acalvaria is a rare condition indeed, defined as the absence of the flat bones of the skull, as well as the associated muscles and dura, with, in some cases, normal skull base bones and normal brain structures. It has been reported as a fatal congenital condition, because of the failure of afflicted children to survive for extended periods. There have, however, been reports of extended survival. The first report of this condition was in 1996, involving an 11-year-old child who had severe mental retardation...
May 4, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451777/infantile-cranial-fasciitis-case-based-review-and-operative-technique
#7
Oliver E Flouty, Anthony J Piscopo, Marshall T Holland, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Leslie Bruch, Arnold H Menezes, Brian J Dlouhy
BACKGROUND: Cranial fasciitis (CF) is an uncommon benign primary lesion of the skull that typically affects the pediatric age group. Due to the rarity of CF, no prospective studies exist. Earliest description of this condition dates to 1980. The limited scientific and clinical literature regarding CF is dominated by case reports. For these reasons, questions pertaining to the true incidence, genetic risk factors, prognosis, and long-term outcome remain unanswered. DISCUSSION: Clinically, CF presents as a firm, painless, growing scalp mass that is typically not considered in the differential diagnosis...
April 27, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435118/transoral-intracranial-injury-via-middle-skull-base-by-a-blunt-chopstick-in-a-child
#8
Thiti Samuthrat, Ke Ye, Ying Tong
BACKGROUND: Transoral penetrating injury from a blunt-tipped chopstick is unusual and should be promptly dealt with because it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 2-year-old girl who sustained a transoral penetrating brain injury after falling onto a bamboo chopstick, which penetrated through the hard palate and eventually led to middle skull base fracture as well as temporal lobe laceration and contusion. The chopstick was successfully extracted via a transoral approach followed by administration of empirical antibiotics and anticonvulsants...
July 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298794/anesthetic-implications-in-a-child-with-crouzon-syndrome
#9
Ajeet Kumar, Nitika Goel, Chandni Sinha, Abhishek Singh
Crouzon syndrome (CS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial dysostosis. Premature fusion of skull base leads to midfacial hypoplasia, shallow orbit, mandibular prognathism, overcrowding of upper teeth, high-arched palate, and upper airway obstruction. It is important for anesthesiologists managing such patients to recognize and avoid potential airway complications. Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old child with CS posted for ptosis correction surgery. Use of peripheral nerve blocks to cut down opioid requirement, inhalational induction, and maintenance are key aspects in successful management of such cases...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241124/skull-base-and-cervical-spine-involvement-in-jansen-syndrome-case-report
#10
Rabia Khan, Peter Oakes, Christian Fisahn, Brittni Burgess, Kristina M Kirkpatrick, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs, Jeffrey P Blount
INTRODUCTION: Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type (JMD), is a rare form of endochondral ossification resulting in short limbs and dwarfism. CASE REPORT: A child presented with JMD and was found to have involvement of the cervical spine. Conservative treatment was given to the patient who at the long-term follow-up continues to have no neurological findings or cervical spine instability. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of involvement of the superior cervical spine in a patient with JMD...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183292/case-report-rapid-and-durable-response-to-pdgfr-targeted-therapy-in-a-child-with-refractory-multiple-infantile-myofibromatosis-and-a-heterozygous-germline-mutation-of-the-pdgfrb-gene
#11
Peter Mudry, Ondrej Slaby, Jakub Neradil, Jana Soukalova, Kristyna Melicharkova, Ondrej Rohleder, Marta Jezova, Anna Seehofnerova, Elleni Michu, Renata Veselska, Jaroslav Sterba
BACKGROUND: Infantile myofibromatosis belongs to a family of soft tissue tumors. The majority of these tumors have benign behavior but resistant and malignant courses are known, namely in tumors with visceral involvement. The standard of care is surgical resection. Observations suggest that low dose chemotherapy is beneficial. The treatment of resistant or relapsed patients with multifocal disease remains challenging. Patients that harbor an actionable mutation in the kinase domain are potential subjects for targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy...
February 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919116/stylohyoid-complex-eagle-syndrome-starting-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#12
Maite Gárriz-Luis, Pablo Irimia, Juan M Alcalde, Pablo Domínguez, Juan Narbona
Background There are only four previous pediatric reports of the glossopharyngeal neuralgic form of the stylohyoid complex syndrome. Stylohyoid complex has merely been described as cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia in children. Case Report A 12-year-old boy came to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of severe cranial pain (9/10) lasting for 5 to 15 minutes. Pain affected the right tonsillar fossa, ear, and mastoid region. Since the start at the age of 9 years, the frequency of painful episodes has progressively increased: when admitted to our clinics 3 years later, the child was having up to five episodes daily in spite of analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant drugs; he had abandoned school and leisure...
February 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771113/-cerebral-primitive-osteosarcoma-a-radiological-and-histological-atypia
#13
K M H Ahanogbe, K Ibahioin, M Karkouri, M B Dianka, W Akpo, A El Azhari
INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor including cells that present an osteoblastic differentiation. On the skull, it has often extra-axial development associated with bone reaction. We report an atypical and rare case of intracranial or cerebral osteosarcoma underline the radiological and pathological diagnostic difficulties. CASE REPORT: Our case concerns a primary osteosarcoma without bone involvement in a 10-year old boy who was admitted for intracranial hypertension with progressive worsening and brachial monoparesis...
October 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619045/symptomatic-stroke-complicating-central-skull-base-osteomyelitis-following-otitis-media-in-a-2-year-old-boy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Eliz Kilich, Reena Dwivedi, Shelley Segal, Sandeep Jayawant, Manish Sadarangani
We describe the youngest case to date of a 2 year old child who developed central skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) initially presenting with a fever, vomiting and sore throat. An extremely rare complication of mastoiditis following otitis media in children is SBO which can present with non-specific symptoms. This report describes the first case of symptomatic ischaemic stroke secondary to SBO in an immunocompetent child. We review the literature of the management and the potential cerebrovascular complications of central SBO in children secondary to otolaryngological infection...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447182/contemporary-occurrence-of-hydrocephalus-and-chiari-i-malformation-in-sagittal-craniosynostosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Francesco Giovanni Sgulò, Pietro Spennato, Ferdinando Aliberti, Giuliana Di Martino, Daniele Cascone, Giuseppe Cinalli
Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and hydrocephalus are often associated with complex craniosynostosis. On the contrary, their simultaneous occurrence in monosutural synostosis is extremely rare. The pathophysiological hypothesis is that they may alter posterior fossa growth and lead to cerebellar tonsil herniation also without skull base primary involvement. Hydrocephalus is multifactorial and may be secondary to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. The management of these cases is quite complex and not well defined...
January 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444293/evaluation-of-the-necessity-of-hospitalization-in-children-with-an-isolated-linear-skull-fracture-isf
#16
Adi Reuveni-Salzman, Guy Rosenthal, Oded Poznanski, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of skull fractures after mild head trauma is 2 % in children of all ages and 11 % in children younger than 2 years. The current standard management for a child diagnosed with an isolated skull fracture (ISF), in our institute, is hospitalization for a 24-h observation period. Based on data from the literature, less than 1 % of all minor head injuries require neurosurgical intervention. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of neurological deterioration of ISF cases, in order to assess the need for hospitalization...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265045/numerical-simulations-of-the-10-year-old-head-response-in-drop-impacts-and-compression-tests
#17
Zhou Zhou, Binhui Jiang, Libo Cao, Feng Zhu, Haojie Mao, King H Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on traumatic injuries of children indicate that impact to the head is a major cause of severe injury and high mortality. However, regulatory and ethical concerns very much limit development and validation of computer models representing the pediatric head. The purpose of this study was to develop a child head finite element model with high-biofidelity to be used for studying pediatric head injury mechanisms. METHODS: A newly developed 10-year-old (YO) pediatric finite element head model was limitedly validated for kinematic and kinetic responses against data from quasi-static compressions and drop tests obtained from an experimental study involving a child-cadaver specimen...
July 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244848/a-qi-initiative-to-reduce-hospitalization-for-children-with-isolated-skull-fractures
#18
Todd W Lyons, Anne M Stack, Michael C Monuteaux, Stephanie L Parver, Catherine R Gordon, Caroline D Gordon, Mark R Proctor, Lise E Nigrovic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although children with isolated skull fractures rarely require acute interventions, most are hospitalized. Our aim was to safely decrease the hospitalization rate for children with isolated skull fractures. METHODS: We designed and executed this multifaceted quality improvement (QI) initiative between January 2008 and July 2015 to reduce hospitalization rates for children ≤21 years old with isolated skull fractures at a single tertiary care pediatric institution...
June 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195034/spontaneous-extradural-hemorrhage-due-to-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-skull-in-a-child-a-rare-presentation
#19
Mohamad G Bakhaidar, Fahad A Alghamdi, Saleh S Baeesa
Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104180/multiple-osteoblastomas-in-a-child-with-cushing-syndrome-due-to-bilateral-adrenal-micronodular-hyperplasias
#20
Hyeoh Won Yu, Won Im Cho, Hye Rim Chung, Keun Hee Choi, Sumi Yun, Hwan Seong Cho, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm) and micronodular (≤1 cm) hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD)', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD...
March 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
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