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Cancer detect

Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jiang He, Yuzu Zhao, Erhu Zhao, Xianxing Wang, Zhen Dong, Yibiao Chen, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui
Background: The cancer-testis specific gene Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) is a testis-specific gene that is reactivated in many human cancers, but its functions in glioblastoma remain unclear. Here, we assessed the significance of OIP5 in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of glioblastoma for the first time. Methods: An immunohistochemistry assay was performed to detect OIP5 expression changes in glioblastoma patients. Overall survival analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of OIP5...
March 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Aloma L D'Souza, John R Chevillet, Pejman Ghanouni, Xinrui Yan, Muneesh Tewari, Sanjiv S Gambhir
We have previously shown that low frequency ultrasound can release biomarkers from cells into the murine circulation enabling an amplification and localization of the released biomarker that could be used as a blood-based method to detect cancer earlier and monitor therapy. In this study, we further demonstrate that this technique could be used for characterization of tumors and/or identification of cellular masses of unknown origin due to the release of multiple protein and nucleic acid biomarkers in cells in culture, mice and patients...
2018: PloS One
Davina Gale, Andrew R J Lawson, Karen Howarth, Mikidache Madi, Bradley Durham, Sarah Smalley, John Calaway, Shannon Blais, Greg Jones, James Clark, Peter Dimitrov, Michelle Pugh, Samuel Woodhouse, Michael Epstein, Ana Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alexandra S Whale, Jim F Huggett, Carole A Foy, Gerwyn M Jones, Hadas Raveh-Amit, Karin Schmitt, Alison Devonshire, Emma Green, Tim Forshew, Vincent Plagnol, Nitzan Rosenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Detection and monitoring of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is rapidly becoming a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in cancer patient care. A growing number of gene targets have been identified as diagnostic or actionable, requiring the development of reliable technology that provides analysis of multiple genes in parallel. We have developed the InVision™ liquid biopsy platform which utilizes enhanced TAm-Seq™ (eTAm-Seq™) technology, an amplicon-based next generation sequencing method for the identification of clinically-relevant somatic alterations at low frequency in ctDNA across a panel of 35 cancer-related genes...
2018: PloS One
Babita Saigal, Laura Guerra
BACKGROUND: A common class-specific toxicity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors is stomatitis. Some patients experience a severe form of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) that can have a negative effect on nutritional status, compromise quality of life, and potentially lead to nonadherence, reducing the efficacy of cancer therapy. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to address an unmet need for education about mIAS among oncology nurses and patients and to share findings about everolimus-related stomatitis from the SWISH trial...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Suzanne M Mahon
People with multiple polyps may have a germline mutation that places them at higher risk for developing colorectal, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. Genetic testing can often identify the specific polyposis syndrome and provide insight into appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and early detection. Individuals with hereditary polyposis syndromes often begin developing polyps in their teenage years and require aggressive gastrointestinal surveillance to remove polyps. For some, the polyp burden will be too high to manage endoscopically and will require risk-reducing colectomies...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Denise Thigpen, Amanda Kappler, Rachel Brem
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Estimates indicate a nearly 40% breast cancer mortality reduction when screening women annually starting at age 40. Although mammography is well known to be a powerful screening tool in the detection of early breast cancer, it is imperfect, particularly for women with dense breasts. In women with dense breast tissue, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced. Additionally, women with dense breasts have an increased risk of developing breast cancer while mammography has a lower sensitivity...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Qingwang Xue, Chunxue Liu, Xia Li, Li Dai, Huaisheng Wang
Various fluorescent sensing systems for miRNAs detection have been developed. But they mostly contain enzymatic amplification reactions and label procedures. The strict reaction conditions of tool enzymes and the high cost of labeling limit their potential applications, especially in complex biological matrix. Here we have addressed the difficult problems and report a strategy for label-free fluorescent DNA dendrimers based on enzyme-free nonlinear hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-mediated multiple G-quadruplex for simple, sensitive and selective detection of miRNAs with low-background signal...
March 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Midori Tanaka, Hidenobu Ishii, Hayato Moribuchi, Yoshiko Naito, Norikazu Matsuo, Masayuki Nakamura, Takaaki Tokito, Koichi Azuma, Kazuhiko Yamada, Tomoaki Hoshino
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is extremely rare, and standard chemotherapeutic strategies have not yet been established. In the present study, we report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with combined SCLC with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion). Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan was initiated as first-line chemotherapy, and computed tomography findings revealed tumor shrinkage after two cycles of chemotherapy. However, after the third cycle of the treatment, disease progression was observed including the appearance of pleural and pericardial effusion...
March 15, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Stephan Bartels, Akinyele Adisa, Timothy Aladelusi, Juliana Lemound, Angelika Stucki-Koch, Sami Hussein, Hans Kreipe, Christian Hartmann, Ulrich Lehmann, Kais Hussein
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation profile of BRAF wild-type craniopharyngiomas and ameloblastomas. Pre-screening by immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing for identifying BRAF wild-type tumors was performed on archived specimens of ameloblastic tumors (n = 20) and craniopharyngiomas (n = 62). Subsequently, 19 BRAF wild-type tumors (nine ameloblastic tumors and ten craniopharyngiomas) were analyzed further using next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting hot spot mutations of 22 cancer-related genes...
March 15, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Ryota Matsuki, Masanori Sugiyama, Shinya Yoshiike, Junji Shibahara, Masaharu Kogure, Masaaki Yokoyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Nobutsugu Abe, Tadahiko Masaki, Toshiyuki Mori
A 72-year-old woman with advanced ascending colon cancer and an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreatic head was treated by right hemicolectomy (RHC) and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PpPD). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered. Multimodal examinations at 5 months after surgery detected a solitary metastatic liver tumor derived from cancer of the ascending colon. Liver resection proceeded at 7 months after the first surgery. A pathological study of a surgical specimen of the liver identified a necrotic nodule that did not contain viable tumor cells...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Lan Hai, Maria M Szwarc, Bin He, David M Lonard, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Speckle-type poz protein (SPOP) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase adaptor for turnover of a diverse number of proteins involved in key cellular processes from chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation to cell signaling. Genomic analysis revealed that SPOP somatic mutations are found in a subset of endometrial cancers, suggesting that these mutations act as oncogenic drivers of this gynecologic malignancy. These studies also raise the question as to the role of wild type SPOP in normal uterine function. To address this question, we generated a mouse model (Spopd/d) in which SPOP is ablated in uterine cells that express the PGR...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Peng Wang, San-Pin Wu, Kelsey E Brooks, Andrew M Kelleher, Jessica Milano-Foster, Francesco J DeMayo, Thomas E Spencer
Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) is a pioneer transcription factor involved in organ development, function and cancer. In the uterus, FOXA2 is essential for pregnancy and expressed specifically in the glands of the endometrium loss of FOXA2 function occurs during development of endometrial cancer in humans. The present study describes the development of a mouse model for conditional expression of mouse FOXA2. Using a system consisting of a minigene located at the Rosa26 locus, a CAG-S-mFOXA2 allele was generated in embryonic stem cells and subsequently in mice; before activation, the minigene is silent due to a floxed stop cassette inserted between the promoter and the transgene...
March 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Haiying Rao, Yuxiang Bai, Qingshu Li, Baimei Zhuang, Yu Yuan, Yamin Liu, Wei Peng, Philip N Baker, Chao Tong, Xin Luo, Hongbo Qi
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy. Adequate migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the uterine wall and spiral arteries to form a functional maternal-fetal interface are pivotal for normal placentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence has revealed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a tumor promoter that participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, the expression and function of SATB1 in trophoblasts is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Hua Zhou, Abdul Mondal, Aleksandra Dakic, Lama Alhawas, Xuefeng Liu, Zhixu He
The roles of protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) in human ovarian cancer have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the impact of POT1 knockdown (POT1-KD) on in vitro cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) response in human ovarian cancer-derived SK-OV3 cells. The POT1 gene was knocked down by infection with POT1 lenti-shRNA. POT1, c-Myc, and hTERT mRNA levels and relative telomere length were determined by qRT-PCR; POT1 protein levels were determined by western blot...
2018: BioMed Research International
Runyu Jing, Yu Liang, Yi Ran, Shengzhong Feng, Yanjie Wei, Li He
In genetic data modeling, the use of a limited number of samples for modeling and predicting, especially well below the attribute number, is difficult due to the enormous number of genes detected by a sequencing platform. In addition, many studies commonly use machine learning methods to evaluate genetic datasets to identify potential disease-related genes and drug targets, but to the best of our knowledge, the information associated with the selected gene set was not thoroughly elucidated in previous studies...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
Caroline K Søgaard, Siver A Moestue, Morten B Rye, Jana Kim, Anala Nepal, Nina-Beate Liabakk, Siri Bachke, Tone F Bathen, Marit Otterlei, Deborah K Hill
Docetaxel is the chemotherapeutic choice for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer, however, it only marginally improves the survival rate. The purpose of the present study was to examine if a peptide targeting the cellular scaffold protein PCNA could improve docetaxel's efficacy. We found that docetaxel given in combination with a cell penetrating peptide containing the AlkB homolog 2 PCNA interacting motif (APIM-peptide), reduced the prostate volume and limited prostate cancer regrowth in vivo in the immunocompetent transgenic adenocarcinoma model of prostate cancer (TRAMP)...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Verena M Throm, David Männle, Thomas Giese, Andrea S Bauer, Matthias M Gaida, Juergen Kopitz, Thomas Bruckner, Konstanze Plaschke, Svetlana P Grekova, Klaus Felix, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia A Giese, Oliver Strobel
Smoking is associated with increased risk and poorer prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Nicotine acts through cholinergic nicotinic receptors, preferentially α7 (CHRNA7) that also binds the endogenous ligand SLURP1 (Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-Related Protein 1). The clinical significance of SLURP1 and its interaction with nicotine in PDAC are unclear. We detected similar levels of SLURP1 in sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis or PDAC; higher preoperative values were associated with significantly better survival in patients with resected tumors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Francesca Vena, Ruochen Jia, Arman Esfandiari, Juan J Garcia-Gomez, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Jianguo Ma, Sakeena Syed, Lindsey Crowley, Brian Elenbaas, Samantha Goodstal, John A Hartley, Daniel Hochhauser
Targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) in tumors with defective DNA repair is a clinically successful strategy. The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in human cancers. In this study, we explored the effects of MEK inhibition on the homologous recombination pathway and explored the potential for combination therapy of MEK inhibitors with DDR inhibitors and a hypoxia-activated prodrug. We studied effects of combining pimasertib, a selective allosteric inhibitor of MEK1/2, with olaparib, a small molecule inhibitor of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerases (PARP), and with the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide in ovarian and pancreatic cancer cell lines...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
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