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Subcutaneous ketamine

Lily Parkinson, Christoph Mans
Effective and safe anesthetic protocols are required for a variety of surgical and diagnostic procedures in chinchillas.Alfaxalone, a new anesthetic agent in the United States, can be administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously and is therefore potentially useful as an anesthetic induction agent in chinchillas. This study compared the anesthetic efficacy andpostanesthetic effects on food intake and fecal output of a combination of intramuscular alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and butorphanol(0.5 mg/kg; AB anesthesia) with a combination of dexmedetomidine (0...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Kelly Jonkman, Tine van de Donk, Albert Dahan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we assess the benefit of ketamine in the treatment of terminal cancer pain that is refractory to opioid treatment and/or complicated by neuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: While randomized controlled trials consistently show lack of clinical efficacy of ketamine in treating cancer pain, a large number of open-label studies and case series show benefit. SUMMARY: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that at low-dose has effective analgesic properties...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Joyce Alencar Santos, Ana Claudia Piccinelli, Maira Dante Formagio, Cristhian Santos Oliveira, Elide Pereira Dos Santos, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Ubirajara Lanza Junior, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Mário Mateus Sugizaki, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. METHODS: In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p...
2017: PloS One
Janetti N Francischi, Taíssa Iolanda C Frade, Marcella P A de Almeida, Bárbara F G de Queiroz, Y S Bakhle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ketamine+xylazine mixture is a widely used anaesthetic in animal experiments. In rats anaesthetized with this mixture, we have shown that injection of carrageenan, a standard proinflammatory stimulus, into the cheek (intra-oral injection) induced oedema. A likely mediator of this oedema is substance P (SP), a major transmitter of sensory nerves in orofacial tissue. We have assessed the effects of intra-oral injection of SP in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: SP (50-1μg per rat) was injected intra-orally in male adult Holtzman or Wistar rats, anaesthetized with ketamine+xylazine...
January 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
Mengchan Ou, Yu Li, Yi Kang, Xiaolin Zhao, Tao Zhu
This study aimed to investigate the effect of subchronic exposure to morphine on the 50% effective dose (EC50) (median effective concentration/EC50) values of intravenous (propofol and ketamine) and inhalation (sevoflurane) anaesthetics in mice. Eight to 12-week-old male mice were administered morphine subcutaneously for 5 days to create a subchronic morphine exposure model. Control mice were injected with saline. The EC50 for righting reflex loss and tail clip reflex of general anaesthetics on the first (D1), third (D3) and seventh days (D7), after establishing a subchronic morphine exposure model, were determined...
January 2, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kennett D Radford, Thomas Y Park, Bong Hyo Lee, Sean Moran, Lisa A Osborne, Kwang H Choi
Clinicians administer subanesthetic intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions for treatment of refractory depression, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder in humans. However, ketamine is administered via the subcutaneous (SC) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes to rodents in most pre-clinical research, which may limit translational application. The present study characterized the dose-response of a subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus (2 and 5mg/kg) and 1-h infusion (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/h) on dissociative stereotypy, locomotion, sensorimotor gating, and thermal nociception in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Amir Erfanparast, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Shaghayegh Nemati
In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory...
December 18, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Maya Levin-Arama, Lital Abraham, Trevor Waner, Alon Harmelin, David M Steinberg, Tal Lahav, Mickey Harlev
Mice are commonly anesthetized intraperitoneally with a ketamine-xylazine (KX) solution. Although this route of administration allows rapid uptake of the injected drugs, its disadvantages and potential risks include pain, peritoneal irritation, and perforation of an abdominal organ; some of the risks depend on the operator's experience. We compared the efficacy of intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of KX in HSD:ICR, BALB/cOlaHsd, and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice in terms of time to onset and duration of surgical anesthesia, procedure safety, and mortality...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Marzieh Navardi, Reza Shariat Moharari, Pejman Pourfakhr, Narjes Khalili, Farhad Etezadi, Farsad Imani
BACKGROUND: Pain is an important consideration after renal surgery. A multimodal approach to postoperative pain management could enhance analgesia by risking fewer side effects after surgery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine and tramadol at the incision site to reduce postoperative pain. METHODS: Sixty-four patients between 18 and 80 years old who were scheduled for elective renal surgery were enrolled in a double-blind randomized controlled study...
October 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Justin L Poklis, Amanda J Mohs, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
In healthcare settings drug diversion and impairment of physicians are major concerns requiring a rapid and efficient method for surveillance and detection. A Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source coupled to a JEOL AccuTOF(TM) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) method was developed to screen parenteral pharmaceutical formulations for potential drug diversion. Parenteral pharmaceutical formulations are also known as injectable formulations and are used with intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intra-articular administration...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Paul M Anderson, Nigel C Jones, Terence J O'Brien, Didier Pinault
The non-competitive N-methyl d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine elicits a brain state resembling high-risk states for developing psychosis and early stages of schizophrenia characterized by sensory and cognitive deficits and aberrant ongoing gamma (30-80 Hz) oscillations in cortical and subcortical structures, including the thalamus. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine whether a ketamine-induced psychotic-relevant state disturbs the functional state of the corticothalamic (CT) pathway...
June 3, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Lana Fox, Lindsey Bc Snyder, Christoph Mans
The objective of this study was to compare isoflurane with a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine, administered intramuscularly, for anesthesia in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). In a prospective, complete crossover study, adult chinchillas (n = 8; age, 2 to 5 y) were anesthetized with a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (4 mg/kg IM). Atipamezole (0.15 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously 45 min after dexmedetomidine-ketamine administration. For comparison, anesthesia also was induced and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen, delivered by facemask...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Bronislav Jurasek, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Palenicek
Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive compound (NPS) that emerged in 2010 as a substitute for the dissociative anaesthetic ketamine. MXE has a reputation of carrying a lower risk of harm than ketamine, however a number of deaths have been reported. Currently very little is known about the psychopharmacological effects of this compound or its toxicity; therefore we tested, in Wistar rats, the effects of MXE in a series of behavioural tasks, measured its pharmacokinetics and urinary metabolites. Locomotor activity and its spatial characteristics (in the open field) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition; PPI) were evaluated after 5, 10 and 40mg/kg subcutaneous (sc...
May 4, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Olfat Zekry, Stephen B Gibson, Arun Aggarwal
This study was designed to describe the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine infusions and sublingual ketamine lozenges for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Data were collected prospectively on 70 subjects managed in an academic, tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2012 who received between 3 and 7 days of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion. Data were analyzed for efficacy, adverse effects, and reduction in use of opioid medication. We also analyzed whether subsequent treatment with sublingual ketamine lozenges resulted in longer-term efficacy of the beneficial effects of the initial ketamine infusion...
June 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
C K Loo, V Gálvez, E O'Keefe, P B Mitchell, D Hadzi-Pavlovic, J Leyden, S Harper, A A Somogyi, R Lai, C S Weickert, P Glue
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study assessed the feasibility, efficacy and safety of an individual dose-titration approach, and of the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) routes for treating depression with ketamine. METHOD: Fifteen treatment-refractory depressed participants received ketamine or midazolam (control treatment) in a multiple crossover, double-blind study. Ketamine was administered by IV (n = 4), IM (n = 5) or SC (n = 6) injection. Dose titration commenced at 0...
July 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Robert A Schoevers, Tharcila V Chaves, Sonya M Balukova, Marije Aan Het Rot, Rudie Kortekaas
BACKGROUND: Recent studies with intravenous (i.v.) application of ketamine show remarkable but short-term success in patients with MDD. Studies in patients with chronic pain have used different ketamine applications for longer time periods. This experience may be relevant for psychiatric indications. AIMS: To review the literature about the dosing regimen, duration, effects and side-effects of oral, intravenous, intranasal and subcutaneous routes of administration of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression and pain...
February 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Insang Hwang, Hyun-Suk Lee, Ho Song Yu, Mi Eun Kim, Jun Sik Lee, Kwangsung Park
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of testosterone on cavernosal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in a castrated rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats (12-weeks old) were divided into control, surgical castration, and castration with testosterone replacement groups. The rats were castrated under ketamine anaesthesia, and testosterone was administered by daily subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate. The corpus cavernosum was obtained after perfusion with 10 mL saline via the abdominal aorta 4 weeks later...
June 2016: BJU International
Toshifumi Yamamoto, Tomomi Nakayama, Junji Yamaguchi, Maaya Matsuzawa, Masayoshi Mishina, Kazutaka Ikeda, Hideko Yamamoto
The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and/or nitric oxide (NO) pathway in ketamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Mice received repeated subcutaneous administration of ketamine (25mg/kg), once daily or once weekly for a total of five doses. Even three administrations of ketamine, daily or weekly, induced a rapid increase in locomotor activity in wild-type (WT), but not in GluN2D knockout (GluN2D-KO) mice. Furthermore, for WT mice receiving daily ketamine, elevated locomotor activity was maintained after a 1-month withdrawal period; however, this was not the case when ketamine was administered weekly...
January 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jing-Fen Jin, Ling-Ling Zhu, Meng Chen, Hui-Min Xu, Hua-Fen Wang, Xiu-Qin Feng, Xiu-Ping Zhu, Quan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) are the three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. Comparative studies of SC versus IV, IM versus IV, or IM versus SC have been sporadically conducted, and some new findings are completely different from the dosage recommendation as described in prescribing information. However, clinicians may still be ignorant of such new evidence-based findings when choosing treatment methods. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Sciences™ Core Collection to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of SC, IV, and IM administration in head-to-head comparative studies...
2015: Patient Preference and Adherence
D Flores-Castillo, R Martínez-Rider, S Ruiz-Rodríguez, A Garrocho-Rangel, J Lara-Guevara, A Pozos-Guillén
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) sedation using midazolam with and without ketamine in non-cooperative pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot clinical trial was carried out in 13 children, aged between 17-46 months, ASA l, Frankl 1. Two sedation schemes were administered SC: Midazolam alone (M), and a combination of Midazolam-Ketamine (MK)...
2015: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
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