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Subcutaneous ketamine

Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Amir H Rezvani, Yousef Tizabi, Susan Slade, Bruk Getachew, Edward D Levin
Smoking cessation strategies are of prime medical importance. Despite availability of various pharmacological agents in combating addiction to nicotine, more effective medications are needed. Based on recent findings, the glutamatergic system in the brain may provide novel targets. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer nicotine. Animals were injected subcutaneously with 5, 7...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Tuomas O Lilius, Hanna Viisanen, Viljami Jokinen, Mikko Niemi, Eija A Kalso, Pekka V Rauhala
Ketamine and its primary metabolite norketamine attenuate morphine tolerance by antagonising N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ketamine is extensively metabolized to several other metabolites. The major secondary metabolite (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (6-hydroxynorketamine) is not an NMDA antagonist. However, it may modulate nociception through negative allosteric modulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We studied whether 6-hydroxynorketamine could affect nociception or the effects of morphine in acute or chronic administration settings...
November 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Odd V Höglund, Barbara Dyall, Victoria Gräsman, Anna Edner, Ulf Olsson, Katja Höglund
Objectives The use of physiological parameters such as respiratory rate and heart rate to assess pain has long been discussed. The aim of the study was to compare postoperative respiratory rate and heart rate in cats subjected to flank ovariohysterectomy treated with a preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or no NSAID, and determine whether these parameters are suitable for postoperative pain assessment in cats. We hypothesised that cats without an NSAID would experience more postoperative pain, which may increase heart rate and respiratory rate...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Calen Sacevich, Benjamin Semakuba, William P McKay, Shefali Thakore, Theogene Twagirumugabe, John Nyiligira
PURPOSE: Postoperative pain control is often inadequate in low-income countries such as Rwanda, prompting the search for an inexpensive improvement. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to study the use of subcutaneous ketamine for the management of postoperative pain in patients undergoing major surgery in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients undergoing major abdominal, head and neck, plastic, or gynecological surgeries were studied. In addition to standard care, patients received five subcutaneous injections of ketamine 1 mg·kg-1 (ketamine group, n = 30) or normal saline (placebo group, n = 29) during the postoperative period...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani, Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi, Ehsan Zayerzadeh
BACKGROUND: Nowadays use of specific antivenin for latrodectism is considered as the most effective treatment in the world. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific antivenom against histopathological complications caused by Latrodectus dahli venom on liver, heart and kidneys tissues within 72h. METHODS: Two groups were selected, each one contained 6 male New Zealand rabbits weighing 2±0.5kg. The animals were anesthetized with 0.5ml ketamine and 0...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Bassey E Edem, Amali Adekwu, Michael E Efu, Joseph Kuni, Gerald Onuchukwu, Johnbosco Ugwuadu
INTRODUCTION: Impacted penetrating foreign body (FB) in the airway especially the postnasal space presents with management challenges. The challenges are worsened by lack of modern equipment in resource-poor settings. Two suchlike cases were managed in this report. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: A 4-year-old girl who fell on a metal rod in her mouth while playing alone. Examination revealed an agitated child in open mouth posture, with a silvery straight metallic object impacted on the hard palate and projecting from the mouth...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Nasr Mahmoud Abdallah, Atef Kamel Salama, Ahmed Mohamed Ellithy
CONTEXT: Postoperative pain management remains a cornerstone in patient's management to ensure a better quality of life. Preemptive analgesia is reported to inhibit the persistence of postoperative pain. AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the analgesic effectiveness of preincisional infiltration of ketamine following elective abdominal hysterectomy as compared to levobupivacaine. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Jingyi Ma, L Stan Leung
RATIONALE: Decreased GABAB receptor function is proposed to mediate some symptoms of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the effect of CGP7930, a GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in behaving rats. METHODS: Electrodes were bilaterally implanted into the hippocampus, and cannulae were placed into the lateral ventricles of Long-Evans rats...
October 2017: Psychopharmacology
Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, is an effective off-label treatment for severe and even treatment-refractory depression; however, despite dozens of studies across nearly 2 decades of research, there is no definitive guidance on matters related to core practice issues. METHODS: This article presents a qualitative review and summary about what is known about ketamine dosing, rate of administration, route of administration, duration of treatment, and frequency of sessions...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Duncan George, Verònica Gálvez, Donel Martin, Divya Kumar, John Leyden, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Simon Harper, Henry Brodaty, Paul Glue, Rohan Taylor, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous ketamine for geriatric treatment-resistant depression. Secondary aims were to examine if repeated treatments were safe and more effective in inducing or prolonging remission than a single treatment. METHODS: In this double-blind, controlled, multiple-crossover study with a 6-month follow-up (randomized controlled trial [RCT] phase), 16 participants (≥60 years) with treatment-resistant depression who relapsed after remission or did not remit in the RCT were administered an open-label phase...
November 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Katarina Savić Vujović, Sonja Vučković, Dolika Vasović, Branislava Medić, Nick Knežević, Milica Prostran
Because ketamine and magnesium block NMDA receptor activation by distinct mechanisms of action, we hypothesized that in a model of inflammatory pain in rats the combination of ketamine and magnesium might be more effective than ketamine alone. Antinociceptive activity was assessed by the formalin test in male Wistar rats (200-250 g). Animals were injected with 100 μL of 2.5% formalin to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Data were recorded as the total time spent in pain-related behavior after the injection of formalin or vehicle (0...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
J L Marcos, D Galleguillos, T Pelissier, A Hernández, L Velásquez, L Villanueva, L Constandil
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal/intracisternal BDNF in rodents produces long-lasting hyperalgesia/allodynia, which implies BDNF plays a role in the establishment and maintenance of central sensitization. Both self-regeneration of endogenous BDNF and neuroplastic modifications of spinal NMDA receptors downstream TrkB signalling could be involved in such enduring hyperalgesia. We investigated to what extent BDNF by itself could participate in the generation and maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia using pharmacological tools...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Rae F Bell, Christopher Eccleston, Eija A Kalso
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and updated in 2012.Ketamine is a commonly used anaesthetic agent, and in subanaesthetic doses is also given as an adjuvant to opioids for the treatment of refractory cancer pain, when opioids alone or in combination with appropriate adjuvant analgesics prove to be ineffective. Ketamine is known to have psychomimetic (including hallucinogenic), urological, and hepatic adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for refractory cancer pain in adults...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jon Tuchscherer, William P McKay, Theogene Twagirumugabe
PURPOSE: Good pain control is not a normal part of surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa due to lack of resources. The primary objective of this study was to determine an efficacious dose of subcutaneous ketamine for postoperative pain for use in a future randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Following research ethics board and local hospital approval for this research, we obtained informed consent from 31 patients undergoing major surgery for a random walk dose-finding study...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Paul Glue, Natalie J Medlicott, Sarah Harland, Shona Neehoff, Bridie Anderson-Fahey, Martin Le Nedelec, Andrew Gray, Neil McNaughton
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid onset activity in treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Due to similarities in brain network activity in depression and anxiety disorders, we hypothesized that ketamine might also be active in other refractory anxiety disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ketamine in 12 patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder who were not currently depressed, using an ascending single dose study design (0...
October 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Lily Parkinson, Christoph Mans
Effective and safe anesthetic protocols are required for a variety of surgical and diagnostic procedures in chinchillas.Alfaxalone, a new anesthetic agent in the United States, can be administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously and is therefore potentially useful as an anesthetic induction agent in chinchillas. This study compared the anesthetic efficacy andpostanesthetic effects on food intake and fecal output of a combination of intramuscular alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and butorphanol(0.5 mg/kg; AB anesthesia) with a combination of dexmedetomidine (0...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Kelly Jonkman, Tine van de Donk, Albert Dahan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we assess the benefit of ketamine in the treatment of terminal cancer pain that is refractory to opioid treatment and/or complicated by neuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: While randomized controlled trials consistently show lack of clinical efficacy of ketamine in treating cancer pain, a large number of open-label studies and case series show benefit. SUMMARY: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that at low-dose has effective analgesic properties...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Joyce Alencar Santos, Ana Claudia Piccinelli, Maira Dante Formagio, Cristhian Santos Oliveira, Elide Pereira Dos Santos, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Ubirajara Lanza Junior, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Mário Mateus Sugizaki, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. METHODS: In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p...
2017: PloS One
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