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Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Matthijs T W Veltmeijer, Dineke Veeneman, Coen C C W Bongers, Mihai G Netea, Jos W van der Meer, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Maria T E Hopman
PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature setpoint. We aimed to investigate whether the exercise-induced increase in TC is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature setpoint. METHODS: 15 healthy, active male subjects aged 36±14 years were recruited...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan, Jan M Hondzinski
Despite the exercise benefits, disparities among diverse older adults continue to exist where African American women have the lowest percentage of any population group in meeting national recommended activity guidelines. Drawing on the philosophical tradition of phronesis (practical reasoning) introduced by Aristotle, we studied perceptions of the exercise value among 14 older African American women. Three themes included: 1) exercise goals (e.g., effort exerted), 2) exercise reasons (e.g., health benefits, enjoyment and convenience, and activity recommendation), and 3) inactivity reasons (e...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately post-exercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg pre-damage, 36h-post, and 60h-post damage...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jill E Preminger, Ann M Rothpletz
Purpose: Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Fédou Christine, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
Equations of blood viscosity provide a prediction of the 'optimal' hematocrit' (hct) as the hct resulting in the highest value of the bell-shaped curve of hematocrit/viscosity ratio h/η. We investigated if overweight and obesity have an influence on these parameters. We compared 32 normal weight subjects, 40 overweight (BMI 25-30) and 38 obese subjects. There was no difference in the theoretical curve of h/η. The actual h/η is the same in the 3 groups but is always higher than the theoretical h/η in all groups...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
The hemorheological theory of optimal hematocrit suggests that the best value of hematocrit (hct) should be that which results in the highest value of the hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio. Trained athletes compared to sedentary subjects have a lower hct, but a higher h/η, and endurance training reduces the discrepancy between the actual hct and the ⪡ideal⪢ hct that can be predicted with a theoretical curve of h/ηvs hct constructed with Quemada's model. In this study we investigated what becomes this homeostasis of h/η and hct during acute exercise in 19 athletes performing a 25 min exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Ursula Oestreicher, Daniel Samaga, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Ana Catarina Antunes, Ans Baeyens, Leonardo Barrios, Christina Beinke, Philip Beukes, William F Blakely, Alexandra Cucu, Andrea De Amicis, Julie Depuydt, Stefania De Sanctis, Marina Di Giorgio, Katalin Dobos, Inmaculada Dominguez, Pham Ngoc Duy, Marco E Espinoza, Farrah N Flegal, Markus Figel, Omar Garcia, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Eric Gregoire, C Guerrero-Carbajal, İnci Güçlü, Valeria Hadjidekova, Prakash Hande, Ulrike Kulka, Jennifer Lemon, Carita Lindholm, Florigio Lista, Katalin Lumniczky, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Nataliya Maznyk, Roberta Meschini, Radia M'kacher, Alegria Montoro, Jayne Moquet, Mercedes Moreno, Mihaela Noditi, Jelena Pajic, Analía Radl, Michelle Ricoul, Horst Romm, Laurence Roy, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Jacobus Slabbert, Sylwester Sommer, Monica Stuck Oliveira, Uma Subramanian, Yumiko Suto, Tran Que, Antonella Testa, Georgia Terzoudi, Anne Vral, Ruth Wilkins, LusiYanti Yanti, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Two quality controlled inter-laboratory exercises were organized within the EU project 'Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB)' to further optimize the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and to identify needs for training and harmonization activities within the RENEB network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The general study design included blood shipment, sample processing, analysis of chromosome aberrations and radiation dose assessment. After manual scoring of dicentric chromosomes in different cell numbers dose estimations and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were submitted by the participants...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder, Ingrid Harle, Onofre Moran-Mendoza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most common forms of interstitial lung disease, with a median survival time of two to five years. Most patients with IPF experience chronic breathlessness, which is closely linked to poor perceived quality of life and significant restriction of daily activities; therefore, effective management of this distressing symptom is a major goal of patient care. Areas covered: This report summarizes the physiology of IPF during rest and exercise, outlines current concepts of the mechanisms of breathlessness, and provides a physiological rationale for optimal management of individual patient...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Catherine A Martin, Usha Gowda, Ben J Smith, Andre M N Renzaho
A systematic review was undertaken to identify lifestyle intervention studies in South Asian migrant populations to determine the effect on the components of the metabolic syndrome. A total of seven studies were identified, of which six focused on educational advice and the seventh on intensive exercise intervention. Four studies were Randomised Controlled Trials of which two studies reported significant reductions in waist circumference. One of these studies focused on home based education with cooperation of the home cook (adjusted waist reduction of 1...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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