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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#1
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425688/pediatric-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-preliminary-observational-data-from-a-prospective-study
#2
Michela Gatta, Alessia Raffagnato, Stefania Mannarini, Laura Balottin, Irene Toldo, Marilena Vecchi, Clementina Boniver
BACKGROUND: Several studies have confirmed psychiatric comorbidity and a worse quality of life in children with epilepsy, but the clinical assessment and monitoring of these patients often pays insufficient attention to their psychological aspects alongside their neurological issues. The present study aims to describe the distribution of psychopathologies and their clinical evolution over 18 months in a sample of children followed up since the onset of their epilepsy. METHODS: After being diagnosed with epilepsy, 49 subjects (age 4-18y) were followed up with psychiatric and psychological assessments based on the use of dimensional and categorical psychometric tools...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413325/the-psychopharmacological-activities-of-vietnamese-ginseng-in-mice-characterization-of-its-psychomotor-sedative-hypnotic-antistress-anxiolytic-and-cognitive-effects
#3
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Thi Hong Van Le, Minh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Jae Hoon Cheong
BACKGROUND: Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. or Vietnamese ginseng (VG) is a recently discovered ginseng species. Studies on its chemical constituents have shown that VG is remarkably rich in ginseng saponins, particularly ocotillol saponins. However, the psychopharmacological effects of VG have not been characterized. Thus, in the present study we screened the psychopharmacological activities of VG in mice. METHODS: VG extract (VGE) was orally administered to mice at various dosages to evaluate its psychomotor (open-field and rota-rod tests), sedative-hypnotic (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test), antistress (cold swimming test), anxiolytic (elevated plus-maze test), and cognitive (Y-maze and passive-avoidance tests) effects...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412921/synthetic-cannabinoids-psychopharmacology-clinical-aspects-and-psy-chotic-onset
#4
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Duccio Papanti, Yasmine Elgharably, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ornella Corazza
Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC) are the widest and most diffused class of Novel Psychoactive Substances. SC are chemically heterogeneous and structurally dissimilar from delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, being full agonists of the endocannabinoid system receptors CB1 and CB2. Desired effects include euphoria, talkativeness, feelings of joy and laughter, relaxation. With respect to cannabis, SC intake may also be associated with quicker arise of the effects, shorter duration of action, and larger levels of hangover...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405955/cutaneous-adverse-reaction-during-lithium-treatment-a-case-report-and-updated-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#5
Martina Pinna, Mirko Manchia, Sergio Puddu, Giampaolo Minnai, Leonardo Tondo, Piergiorgio Salis
OBJECTIVES: To present a new case of adverse cutaneous reaction during lithium treatment and to update the systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of this adverse reaction. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search (performed in September 2016) for peer-reviewed articles in English indexed in Medline (2011-present). Meta-analytical estimates were obtained using the "Metafor" package. CASE PRESENTATION: Ms. H., a 31-year-old Caucasian woman with BD1, was admitted to the inpatient unit for a full-blown psychotic episode and treated with carbamazepine 400 mg q...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405160/factors-influencing-adherence-to-psychopharmacological-medications-in-psychiatric-patients-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#6
Carlos De Las Cuevas, Jose de Leon, Wenceslao Peñate, Moisés Betancort
PURPOSE: To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. METHOD: A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401576/a-new-nomenclature-for-classifying-psychotropic-drugs
#7
Filippo Caraci, S J Enna, Joseph Zohar, Giorgio Racagni, Gil Zalsman, Wim van den Brink, Siegfried Kasper, George F Koob, Carmine M Pariante, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Kiyofumi Yamada, Michael Spedding, Filippo Drago
The Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) for psychotropic drugs was developed as an alternative to the current Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) indication-based classification in order to provide more precise designations for this drug class. The ATC nomenclature for psychotherapeutics is limited in that it fails to specify neither pharmacological domains nor mechanism of action and also does not describe all the potential uses of a particular agent. The disconnect between the drug classification and its clinical use is not very useful for scientific purposes and is confusing for patients and caregivers, often leading to a misunderstanding of the intended effects of the prescribed medication and, most importantly, to low treatment adherence...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399093/-the-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-depressive-disorders-in-climacteric-transition
#8
N A Tyuvina, V V Balabanova, E O Voronina
AIM: To study clinical symptoms of menopause depression, develop differential diagnostic criteria and consider treatment aspects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty women, aged 41-65 years, with mental disorders developed in different periods of menopause (perimenopause, menopause and post menopause) were studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Four types of depression were diagnosed: climacteric (n=46), psychogenic (n=35), endogenic (n=42) and involutional (n=27)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398566/twelve-month-health-care-use-and-mortality-in-commercially-insured-young-people-with-incident-psychosis-in-the-united-states
#9
Michael Schoenbaum, Jason M Sutherland, Andre Chappel, Susan Azrin, Amy B Goldstein, Agnes Rupp, Robert K Heinssen
OBJECTIVE: To assess 12-month mortality and patterns of outpatient and inpatient treatment among young people experiencing an incident episode of psychosis in the United States. METHOD: Prospective observational analysis of a population-based cohort of commercially insured individuals aged 16-30 receiving a first observed (index) diagnosis of psychosis in 2008-2009. Data come from the US Department of Health and Human Services' Multi-Payer Claims Database Pilot...
April 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386699/dreamlike-effects-of-lsd-on-waking-imagery-in-humans-depend-on-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#10
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Leonie Vollenweider, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence indicates that the mixed serotonin and dopamine receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces an altered state of consciousness that resembles dreaming. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD produces dreamlike waking imagery and that this imagery depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audiorecorded guided mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally)...
April 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378993/serotonin-dysfunction-aggressive-behavior-and-mental-illness-exploring-the-link-using-a-dimensional-approach
#11
Mirko Manchia, Bernardo Carpiniello, Flavia Valtorta, Stefano Comai
Aggressive individuals have higher rates of mental illness compared to non-aggressive individuals. Multiple factors, including psychosocial, genetic, and neurobiological determinants modulate the liability to both aggressive behavior and mental illness. Concerning the latter factors, multiple lines of evidence have shown a dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system occurring in aggressive and in mentally ill individuals. In particular, reduced 5-HT activity has been associated with depression as well as with aggressive behavior, especially with impulsive aggression...
April 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#12
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357192/psychopharmacology-of-tobacco-and-alcohol-comorbidity-a-review-of-current-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Sally Adams
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use is highly prevalent and may exacerbate the health effects of either substance alone. However, the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are not well understood. This review will examine the evidence for shared neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol and nicotine comorbidity and experimental studies of the behavioural consequences of these interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining the shared neurobiology of alcohol and nicotine have identified two main mechanisms of comorbidity: (1) cross-reinforcement via the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and (2) cross-tolerance via shared genetic and nAChR interaction...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344764/atypical-antipsychotics-recent-research-findings-and-applications-to-clinical-practice-proceedings-of-a-symposium-presented-at-the-29th-annual-european-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-congress-19-september-2016-vienna-austria
#14
REVIEW
Robin Murray, Christoph U Correll, Gavin P Reynolds, David Taylor
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334676/manual-motor-speed-dysfunction-as-a-neurocognitive-endophenotype-in-euthymic-bipolar-disorder-patients-and-their-healthy-relatives-evidence-from-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#15
P Correa-Ghisays, V Balanzá-Martínez, G Selva-Vera, J Vila-Francés, E Soria-Olivas, J Vivas-Lalinde, C San Martín, A M Borrás, R Ayesa-Arriola, J Sanchez-Moreno, J Sánchez-Ort, B Crespo-Facorro, E Vieta, R Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined Manual Motor Speed (MMS) in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this longitudinal, family study was to explore whether dysfunctional MMS represents a neurocognitive endophenotype of BD. METHODS: A sample of 291 subjects, including 131 BD patients, 77 healthy first-degree relatives (BD-Rel), and 83 genetically-unrelated healthy controls (HC), was assessed with the Finger-Tapping Test (FTT) on three occasions over a 5-year period...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330544/-behavioural-disturbances-in-dement-patients
#16
Anette Lolk, Kjeld Andersen
Behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia are common. The symptoms include anxiety, depression, and psychosis, thus mimicking delirium. A thorough somatic examination, including current medication, is therefore very important before initiating any treatment. If behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia is established, first-line treatment is non-pharmacological addressing possible needs and psychosocial problems. Only if this treatment is insufficient, pharmacological treatment can be considered...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#17
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327378/gender-related-psychopathology-in-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-a-representative-sample-of-italian-addiction-services
#18
Beniamino Leone, Marco Di Nicola, Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giuseppe Nucara, Lorenzo Zamboni, Antonino Callea, Luigi Janiri, Mauro Cibin, Fabio Lugoboni
AIMS: Gender and psychiatric comorbidity seem to influence patients' inter-individual response to Opioid Substitution Treatments (OST) in Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) management. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathological dimensions in an Italian sample of OUD individuals entering a methadone/buprenorphine maintenance program; secondary, we evaluated the possible gender-specific differences within the psychopathological profiles. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 1052 (792 male; 260 female) OUD subjects receiving OST...
March 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325061/overweight-and-obese-status-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-disruptive-behavior
#19
Kristen K Criado, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Oana De Vinck-Baroody, Liansai Dong, Michael G Aman, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, L Eugene Arnold, Carol Weitzman, John M Leventhal, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324705/more-pain-more-gain-blocking-the-opioid-system-boosts-adaptive-cognitive-control
#20
Henk van Steenbergen, Daniel H Weissman, Dan J Stein, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Jack van Honk
The ability to adaptively increase cognitive control in response to cognitive challenges is crucial for goal-directed behavior. Recent findings suggest that aversive arousal triggers adaptive increases of control, but the neurochemical mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Given the known contributions of the opioid system to hedonic states, we investigated whether blocking this system increases adaptive control modulations. To do so, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled psychopharmacological study (n=52 females) involving a Stroop-like task...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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