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Gianni Tognoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
Emanuel Severus, Cathrin Sauer, Michael Bauer, Michael Ostacher, Ion-George Anghelescu
INTRODUCTION: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were developed to draw rather unbiased conclusions regarding the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of a major depressive episode (internal validity), mostly with the purpose of formal approval of new compounds in this indication. However, at the same time, data suggest that the very process of randomization and blinded administrations of placebo will have a significant impact on the efficacy of the antidepressant tested and therefore may limit the external validity of results obtained from this type of studies...
July 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Clare S Burke, Leah C Susser, Alison D Hermann
It is well established that a subgroup of women are particularly vulnerable to affective dysregulation during times of hormonal fluctuation. One underrecognized reproductive transition may be late-onset postpartum depression (PPD) in the context of weaning from breastfeeding and the resumption of menstruation. The goal of this review is to propose a biologically plausible mechanism for affective dysregulation during these transitions. The relationship between affective symptoms and neurohormonal changes associated with weaning will be investigated through a hypothesis-driven review of relevant literature...
July 3, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
David B Yaden, Johannes C Eichstaedt, John D Medaglia
Advances in biotechnology and information technology are poised to transform well-being research. This article reviews the technologies that we predict will have the most impact on both measurement and intervention in the field of positive psychology over the next decade. These technologies include: psychopharmacology, non-invasive brain stimulation, virtual reality environments, and big-data methods for large-scale multivariate analysis. Some particularly relevant potential costs and benefits to individual and collective well-being are considered for each technology as well as ethical considerations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lorenzo Servitje
Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange is rarely considered in terms of psychopharmacology. Furthermore, the connection between the novel and the development of neuroscience-including the use of drugs that affect the brain-has yet to be considered. This essay explains the function and representation of drugs in the novel within the context of neuroscience's development during the 1960s. I argue that the novel engages the dynamics among psychopharmacology, neuroscience, and psychiatry, and investigates how these specialties function within Western culture to mediate between dominant and subordinate divisions...
2018: Literature and Medicine
Haden A Geiger, Madeline G Wurst, R Nathan Daniels
Psilocybin is found in a family of mushrooms commonly known as "magic mushrooms" that have been used throughout history to induce hallucinations. In the late 1950s Albert Hofmann, of Sandoz Laboratories, identified and synthesized the psychoactive compounds psilocybin and psilocin which are found in psilocybe mushrooms. Psilocybin was marketed by Sandoz as Indocybin for basic psychopharmacological and therapeutic clinical research. Psilocybin saw a rapid rise in popularity during the 1960s and was classed as a schedule I drug in 1970...
June 29, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Maree Inder, Cameron Lacey, Marie Crowe
Rates of relapse in BD are high with medication nonadherence identified as an important contributor to relapse. Psychopharmacology remains a key component to the treatment of BD; therefore, increased understanding of medication use and ways to promote greater adherence is essential. The aim of the study was to identify how participants with BD experience taking prescribed medication. Participants had BD I or BD II, were users of specialist mental health services, aged 18-64 years, euthymic, mildly hypomanic or depressed, and on any combination of medication...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Filipe Silveira Duarte, Marcelo Duzzioni, Rafael Luiz Prim, Alcíbia Maia Cardozo, Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Maria Goretti da Silva, Maria Beatriz Cacese Shiozawa, Beatriz Garcia Mendes, Tiago Tizziani, Inês Maria Costa Brighente, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Thereza Christina Monteiro de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether mice develop tolerance to the anxiolytic-like and anticonvulsant effects of subchronic treatment with EA (the styryl-2-pyrones and dihydrostyryl-2-pyrones-rich fraction of Polygala sabulosa), as well as any withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation; to compare the effects of EA with those of diazepam (DZP) on withdrawal-induced anxiety; and to evaluate the toxicity of EA according to OECD guidelines. METHODS: Male or female mice were acutely or subchronically treated with EA or DZP, and their tolerance to anxiolytic (evaluated in the elevated plus maze, EPM) and anticonvulsant effects (measured against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions) were investigated...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Katie T B Touma, Daniel C Touma
Introduction: Pimavanserin (Nuplazid™) is an atypical antipsychotic currently indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis. The antipsychotic effects of this new agent are believed to occur via selective inverse agonist activity at serotonin 5-HT2a receptors. Methods: Study authors completed a literature review of 2 published randomized controlled trials of pimavanserin for the treatment of Parkinson disease psychosis...
September 2017: The mental health clinician
Christopher Rohde, Rikke Hilker, Dan Siskind, Jimmi Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Comorbid mental illness is common in patients with intellectual disability. Antipsychotics are widely used for these conditions, but the effect of clozapine remains largely unknown. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of clozapine on naturalistic outcomes in patients with intellectual disability. METHODS: By combining the national health registers, we identified all patients in Denmark with intellectual disability initiating clozapine treatment during the period 1996-2012...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Mohammad Abid, Ashok Kumar Gosh, Najam Ali Khan
Introduction: In our modern era, life style of human being changes and updates every day that may affect their health status. There is an incredible expectation that natural origin drugs lack undesirable effects not like synthetic drugs, though have the same potency and efficacy. No scientific data is available about the antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves. In this regard, the present study was designed to carry out comparative and combined study on antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves...
November 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Tehseen Noorani, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Thomas C Swift, Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Recent pilot trials suggest feasibility and potential efficacy of psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment interventions. Fifteen participants completed a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation pilot study between 2009 and 2015. AIMS: The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to identify perceived mechanisms of change leading to smoking cessation in the pilot study; (2) to identify key themes in participant experiences and long-term outcomes to better understand the therapeutic process...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yael I Nillni, Aydan Mehralizade, Laura Mayer, Snezana Milanovic
Women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period (i.e., perinatal period) are at increased risk for adverse maternal and child outcomes. Effective treatment of psychiatric disorders during the perinatal period is imperative. This review summarizes the outcomes of 78 studies focused on the treatment of depression, anxiety, and trauma-related disorders during the perinatal period. The majority of studies focused on perinatal depression (n = 73). Of the five studies focused on anxiety or trauma-related disorders, only one was a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Julia A Golier, Rachel Yehuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Debra Boyd-Kimball, Katelyn Gonczy, Benjamin Lewis, Thomas Mason, Nicole Siliko, Jacob Wolfe
The discovery of chlorpromazine in the early 1950s revolutionized the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, galvanized the development of psychopharmacology, and standardized protocols used for testing the clinical efficacy of antipsychotics. Furthermore, chlorpromazine expanded our understanding of the role of chemical messaging in neurotransmission and reduced the stigma associated with mental illness facilitating deinstitutionalization in the 1960s and 1970s. In this review, we will discuss the synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, structure-activity relationship, and adverse effects of chlorpromazine...
June 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Simon Manuel Ewers, Malte Christian Claussen
Sport as applied therapy in patients with schizophrenic psychoses Abstract. Schizophrenic psychoses are serious mental illnesses associated with low life expectancy compared with healthy individuals and other psychiatric disorders. Overweight and associated health problems such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and smoking-associated lung disease have been shown to be risk factors related to high mortality. Low physical activity and increased sedentary behavior have been identified as the most important behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in people with schizophrenia...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Linling Li, Erni Ji, Fei Tang, Yunhai Qiu, Xue Han, Shengli Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Haichen Yang
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have been conducted to elucidate emotion processing of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but due to different inclusion criteria used, especially for the history of medication use, the results for euthymic BD patients are inconsistent. For this reason, brain functional effects of psychopharmacological treatments on BD patients have been investigated by numerous fMRI studies, but there is no existing report for brain functional effects of different mood stabilizers...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Werner Felber, Michael Bauer, Ute Lewitzka, Bruno Müller-Oerlinghausen
Although lithium's serendipitous discovery as a medication for depression dates back more than 200 years, the first scientific evidence that it prevents mania and depression arose only in the 1960s. However, at that time there was a lack of knowledge about how to administer and monitor lithium therapy safely and properly. The lithium clinics in Dresden and Berlin were remarkably similar in their beginnings in the late 1960s regarding patient numbers and scientific expertise without being aware of one another due to the Iron Curtain separating Germany into a western and eastern part until 1990...
June 14, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Ashley Ariail, Elizabeth Carpenter, Twyala Smith, Briana Sacco
Eating disorders are prevalent in the pediatric population yet underdiagnosed by pediatric health care professionals. The gold standard of care consists of a multidisciplinary team approach including a therapist, registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), and psychiatrist, combined with family-centered treatment. Although families do not cause eating disorders, they are essential to a child's recovery from an eating disorder. Psychoeducation, supportive limit setting, processing relational dynamics, and externalizing the eating disorder are therapeutic interventions used in the treatment of an eating disorder...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Murad Atmaca, Hanefi Yildirim, Seda Yilmaz, Neslihan Caglar, Sema Baykara, Yasemin Kekilli, Filiz Koseoglu, Hakan Turkcapar
OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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