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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334676/manual-motor-speed-dysfunction-as-a-neurocognitive-endophenotype-in-euthymic-bipolar-disorder-patients-and-their-healthy-relatives-evidence-from-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#1
P Correa-Ghisays, V Balanzá-Martínez, G Selva-Vera, J Vila-Francés, E Soria-Olivas, J Vivas-Lalinde, C San Martín, A M Borrás, R Ayesa-Arriola, J Sanchez-Moreno, J Sánchez-Ort, B Crespo-Facorro, E Vieta, R Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined Manual Motor Speed (MMS) in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this longitudinal, family study was to explore whether dysfunctional MMS represents a neurocognitive endophenotype of BD. METHODS: A sample of 291 subjects, including 131 BD patients, 77 healthy first-degree relatives (BD-Rel), and 83 genetically-unrelated healthy controls (HC), was assessed with the Finger-Tapping Test (FTT) on three occasions over a 5-year period...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330544/-behavioural-disturbances-in-dement-patients
#2
Anette Lolk, Kjeld Andersen
Behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia are common. The symptoms include anxiety, depression, and psychosis, thus mimicking delirium. A thorough somatic examination, including current medication, is therefore very important before initiating any treatment. If behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia is established, first-line treatment is non-pharmacological addressing possible needs and psychosocial problems. Only if this treatment is insufficient, pharmacological treatment can be considered...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#3
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327378/gender-related-psychopathology-in-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-a-representative-sample-of-italian-addiction-services
#4
Beniamino Leone, Marco Di Nicola, Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giuseppe Nucara, Lorenzo Zamboni, Antonino Callea, Luigi Janiri, Mauro Cibin, Fabio Lugoboni
AIMS: Gender and psychiatric comorbidity seem to influence patients' inter-individual response to Opioid Substitution Treatments (OST) in Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) management. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathological dimensions in an Italian sample of OUD individuals entering a methadone/buprenorphine maintenance program; secondary, we evaluated the possible gender-specific differences within the psychopathological profiles. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 1052 (792 male; 260 female) OUD subjects receiving OST...
March 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325061/overweight-and-obese-status-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-disruptive-behavior
#5
Kristen K Criado, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Oana De Vinck-Baroody, Liansai Dong, Michael G Aman, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, L Eugene Arnold, Carol Weitzman, John M Leventhal, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324705/more-pain-more-gain-blocking-the-opioid-system-boosts-adaptive-cognitive-control
#6
Henk van Steenbergen, Daniel H Weissman, Dan J Stein, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Jack van Honk
The ability to adaptively increase cognitive control in response to cognitive challenges is crucial for goal-directed behavior. Recent findings suggest that aversive arousal triggers adaptive increases of control, but the neurochemical mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Given the known contributions of the opioid system to hedonic states, we investigated whether blocking this system increases adaptive control modulations. To do so, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled psychopharmacological study (n=52 females) involving a Stroop-like task...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321467/-sexual-dysfunction-associated-with-psychotropic-drugs-and-treatment-options
#7
M Berner
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction associated with psychotropic drugs is a threat to patient quality of life and a major reason for non-compliance. Psychotropic agents can impair the sexual response in different ways due to their neurobiological mode of action. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the frequencies of sexual functional disorders for selected psychopharmacological groups and the available treatment modalities. METHODS: Literature search, selection and review of relevant studies...
March 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317138/impact-of-providing-psychiatry-specialty-pharmacist-intervention-on-reducing-drug-related-problems-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-related-to-disruptive-behavioural-symptoms-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-study
#8
R Wongpakaran, T Suansanae, T Tan-Khum, C Kraivichian, R Ongarjsakulman, C Suthisisang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Psychopharmacologic therapy has so far focused on ameliorating disruptive behaviours to improve patient's function and quality of life. Due to the complicated neurobiological aetiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a traditional pharmacist intervention may be insufficient to initiate the optimal care for this vulnerable population. We evaluate the impact of providing specialty psychiatry (PS) pharmacist intervention in identifying and resolving drug-related problems (DRPs) among children with ASD associated with disruptive behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315191/non-suicidal-self-injury-in-adolescence
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca C Brown, Paul L Plener
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common mental health threat among adolescents. This review aims to present the current literature on epidemiology, etiology, and therapeutic approaches with a focus on the period of adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: NSSI is widespread among adolescents both in community as well as in clinical settings with lifetime prevalence rates between 17 and 60% in recent studies. It is influenced by multiple factors including social contagion, interpersonal stressors, neurobiological background, as well as emotional dysregulation and adverse experiences in childhood...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#10
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302034/co-morbid-erectile-dysfunction-ed-and-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-patient-a-management-challenge
#11
Maszaidi Zainol, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Shaiful Ismail, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Najwa Baharudin, Arun Ravindran
Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293473/separating-generalized-anxiety-disorder-from-major-depression-using-clinical-hormonal-and-structural-mri-data-a-multimodal-machine-learning-study
#12
Kevin Hilbert, Ulrike Lueken, Markus Muehlhan, Katja Beesdo-Baum
BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is difficult to recognize and hard to separate from major depression (MD) in clinical settings. Biomarkers might support diagnostic decisions. This study used machine learning on multimodal biobehavioral data from a sample of GAD, MD and healthy subjects to differentiate subjects with a disorder from healthy subjects (case-classification) and to differentiate GAD from MD (disorder-classification). METHODS: Subjects with GAD (n = 19), MD without GAD (n = 14), and healthy comparison subjects (n = 24) were included...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289782/neuro-psychopharmacological-perspective-of-orphan-receptors-of-rhodopsin-class-a-family-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system (CNS), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most fruitful targets for neuropsychopharmacological drug development. Rhodopsin (class A) is the most studied class of GPCR and includes orphan receptors for which the endogenous ligand is not known or is unclear. Characterization of orphan GPCRs has proven to be challenging, and the production pace of GPCR-based drugs has been incredibly slow. OBJECTIVE: Determination of the functions of these receptors may provide unexpected insight into physiological and neuropathological processes...
March 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287671/genetic-testing-for-psychopharmacology-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#14
Laura G Leahy
Genetic testing in psychiatric practice may be a beneficial adjunct to the nursing toolbox of considerations used to improve patient outcomes. Since 2004, the psychiatric community has used genotyping to personalize medication options for their patients. Although not a definitive or exact science, pharmacogenetic testing for psychopharmacological treatment options offers nurses and their patients insights into potential treatments that will reduce the current trial-and-error prescribing practices and more quickly improve patients' quality of life...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282076/-concepts-applied-to-psychiatry-pharmacogenomics
#15
María A Zorrilla Zubilete
Pharmacogenetics studies the action of a drug in order to predict the response based on the genetic makeup of an individual. The objective of pharmacogenetic studies is to minimize the adverse effects and to ensure therapeutic benefit. Since psychotropic drugs have a high rate of variability in patient response, the aim of this paper is to update the pharmacogenetic concepts in psychopharmacology in a review that provides tools for rigorous analysis when prescribing a psychotropic drug. The purpose of clinical pharmacogenetic testing is to be able to distinguish between patients who are more or less responders to certain drugs, or on contrary, who are at increased risk for adverse events...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279698/identification-occurrence-and-activity-of-quinazoline-alkaloids-in-peganum-harmala
#16
Tomás Herraiz, Hugo Guillén, Vicente J Arán, Antonio Salgado
Peganum harmala L. is a medicinal plant from the Mediterranean region and Asia currently used for recreative psychoactive purposes (Ayahuasca analogue), and increasingly involved in toxic cases. Its psychopharmacological and toxicological properties are attributed to quinazoline and β-carboline alkaloids. In this work three major quinazoline alkaloids were isolated from P. harmala extracts and characterized as peganine (vasicine), deoxypeganine (deoxyvasicine) and a novel compound identified by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR as peganine β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (peganine glycoside)...
March 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262260/-suicidal-attempts-in-child-and-adolescent-and-bipolar-disorders
#17
N Dugand, S Thümmler, C Pradier, F Askenazy
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychiatrists are frequently confronted with suicide attempts and comorbid mood disorders. Diagnoses of juvenile bipolar disorders (BD) are rare and controversial and standardized assessment is helpful for a reliable diagnosis. The main objective of this study was to identify the number of juvenile bipolar disorder diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria in a population of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempts. Secondary objectives were the assessment of a patient's characteristics and the comparison of suicide attempt recurrence during 12 months of follow-up...
March 2, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247321/predictors-of-changes-in-health-related-quality-of-life-6-and-12-months-after-a-bariatric-procedure
#18
Carolin Peterhänsel, Michaela Nagl, Birgit Wagner, Arne Dietrich, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective method for treating morbid obesity and improving patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). As research on predictors that contribute to the amelioration of HRQoL is sparse, our prospective study was conducted to examine the predictive value of demographic, psychological and physiological variables on physical and mental HRQoL 6 and 12 months after surgery. METHODS: We surveyed 154 participants who had undergone either a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)...
February 28, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243210/the-obesity-impulsivity-axis-potential-metabolic-interventions-in-chronic-psychiatric-patients
#19
REVIEW
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Acosta Inderias, Victoria Parker, Amy I Price, Michael Cummings
Pathological impulsivity is encountered in a broad range of psychiatric conditions and is thought to be a risk factor for aggression directed against oneself or others. Recently, a strong association was found between impulsivity and obesity which may explain the high prevalence of metabolic disorders in individuals with mental illness even in the absence of exposure to psychotropic drugs. As the overlapping neurobiology of impulsivity and obesity is being unraveled, the question asked louder and louder is whether they should be treated concomitantly...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239360/grand-challenge-in-psychopharmacology-setting-priorities-to-shape-a-bright-future
#20
EDITORIAL
Roberto Ciccocioppo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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