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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322939/public-health-psychopharmacology-a-new-research-discipline-comes-of-age
#1
C Barbui, G Ostuzzi, B Godman
Research evidence guiding the identification of pragmatic and effective actions aimed at improving the selection, availability, affordability and rational prescribing of medicines for mental disorders is sparse and inconsistent. In order to boost the development of new research, in this commentary we suggest to organise and classify all the activities in this area under a common theoretical framework and nomenclature, adopting the term 'public health psychopharmacology'. Public health psychopharmacology is proposed as a research discipline, based on contributions from the fields of regulatory science, health services research and implementation science...
February 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318515/a-review-of-methods-for-monitoring-adverse-events-in-pediatric-psychopharmacology-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Margaret Coates, Marina Spanos, Pooja Parmar, Tara Chandrasekhar, Linmarie Sikich
Pediatric psychotropic prescription rates are rising, emphasizing the need for careful monitoring of drug safety in this population. Currently, no standardized assessments are used in clinical trials for adverse event (AE) elicitation focused on long-term drug treatment in pediatric patients. Despite a lack of standardized AE elicitation methods in psychiatric clinical trials, it is clear that psychiatric medications have developmentally dependent AEs that differ from those observed in adults. In this review, we discuss the use of general inquiry elicitation, drug-specific checklists, and systematic elicitation scales for AE reporting in pediatric psychopharmacology trials...
January 9, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299728/psychopharmacology-utilization-among-children-with-anxiety-and-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-following-hurricane-katrina
#3
Eric A Storch, Sean Gregory, Alison Salloum, Troy Quast
This study aimed to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina exposure on medication utilization among children with pre-existing anxiety and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs). Medicaid claims data from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Children with pre-existing anxiety/OCRDs were compared as a function of those living in a Louisiana disaster area, Louisiana non-disaster area, or Texas in terms of filled prescriptions and average days medication supply. This was further examined as a function of disorder/medication type...
January 3, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294803/are-polydrug-users-more-physically-and-verbally-aggressive-an-assessment-of-aggression-among-mono-versus-polydrug-users-in-a-university-sample
#4
Jennifer L Steele, Robert L Peralta
Early research has revealed that patterns of aggression and antisocial behavior are present among polydrug users. Often missing from this discourse is the examination of whether polydrug users are quantitatively different from monodrug users in their use of aggression. Theoretical perspectives are often centered on the psychopharmacological effects of substance use on behavior. Consideration of possible poly- versus monodrug use differences and their impact on aggression has not been investigated. Data from this study were derived from a sample of Midwestern university students ( N = 793)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#5
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284823/schizophrenia-with-comorbid-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-a-difficult-clinical-management-scenario
#6
Sandeep Grover, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Manoj Kumar Goyal
Comorbidity of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and schizophrenia is an uncommon and rare scenario, which often poses a difficult and challenging situation for management. Both the disorders have completely opposite pathophysiology and treatment of one disorder with available pharmacological agents can pose a threat to the other disorder. The situation becomes graver and risk of adverse side effects increases when an individual presents at a later age with both these disorders along with compromised physical and mental health...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273820/effects-of-caffeine-on-reaction-time-are-mediated-by-attentional-rather-than-motor-processes
#7
Christopher W N Saville, H M de Morree, Neil M Dundon, S M Marcora, C Klein
BACKGROUND: Caffeine has a well-established effect on reaction times (RTs) but the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this are unclear. METHODS: In the present study, 15 female participants performed an oddball task after ingesting caffeine or a placebo, and electroencephalographic data were obtained. Single-trial P3b latencies locked to the stimulus and to the response were extracted and mediation models were fitted to the data to test whether caffeine's effect on RTs was mediated by its effect on either type of P3b latencies...
December 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259774/advancing-psychosocial-care-in-cancer-patients
#8
REVIEW
Luigi Grassi, David Spiegel, Michelle Riba
Cancer is a devastating disease causing significant psychological problems among patients and their families. In the past few decades, there have been growing implementation and dissemination of screening methods for the psychological consequences of cancer, including distress, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and demoralisation. Also, guidelines for the management of psychological distress have been developed and endorsed by a number of scientific cancer associations. This review examines some of the most significant related issues, also focusing on recent advances in psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions as a part of a mandatory, integrated, and comprehensive approach to cancer care...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256924/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-self-injurious-behaviour-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-recognizing-catatonia-is-key
#9
Lee Elizabeth Wachtel, Edward Shorter, Max Fink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating condition frequently encountered in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that can lead to dangerous tissue injury and profound psychosocial difficulty. An increasing number of reports over the past decade have demonstrated the swift and well tolerated resolution of intractable SIB with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when psychopharmacological and behavioural interventions are ineffective. The current article provides a review of the salient literature, including the conceptualization of repetitive self-injury along the catatonia spectrum, and further clarifies the critical distinction between ECT and contingent electric shock...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247287/-the-role-of-psychopharmacotherapy-in-the-development-of-social-psychiatry-in-germany
#10
REVIEW
H Helmchen
Early experiences and indications are reported that psychopharmacotherapy, particularly as prophylactic long-term medication for prevention of relapses, has led to an increased recognition of social determinants of the course of illness, especially in schizophrenic patients. As a result, institutions combining both social and psychopharmacological treatment have developed, e. g., in Berlin beginning with "Phönix" a transition home ("Übergangsheim") in 1956 to a catamnesis for long-term outpatient treatment of schizophrenic patients in 1957, a social service in 1960, a day and night hospital in 1962 up to a university department of social psychiatry in 1972 with a rich spectrum of facilities for a step by step rehabilitation of mentally ill patients...
December 15, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#11
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227273/-poisoning-by-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-azerbaijan-the-results-of-8-year-prospective-observation
#12
I Afandiyev, V Azizov
Acute poisoning of chemical etiology is a significant global public health problem. The aim of this study was the analysis of the toxicoepidemiological structure of psychopharmacological drugs poisoning in Azerbaijan. We collected and analyzed the data on all cases of acute poisoning by psychopharmacological drugs (codes of categories T42/T43 ICD-10) undergoing inpatient treatment at the Center of Clinical Toxicology in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2009-2016. The total number of patients with acute intoxication by psychopharmacological drugs was 3,413, which was 48...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225554/recent-developments-in-psychopharmaceutical-approaches-to-treating-female-sexual-interest-and-arousal-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Both
Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the recent literature and empirical studies on psychopharmacological approaches to treating female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD). Recent Findings: Several new drugs for FSIAD that are intended to increase sexual responsiveness by influencing central excitatory and inhibitory neuromodulatory processes are under development. Studies on flibanserin resulted in the first approved medication for the treatment of low sexual desire in premenopausal women...
2017: Current Sexual Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215386/improving-the-clinical-pharmacologic-assessment-of-abuse-potential-part-1-regulatory-context-and-risk-management
#14
Edward M Sellers
PURPOSE: This article brings to the attention of drug developers the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential and provides practical suggestions about compliance with the Guidance. PROCEDURES: The Guidance areas are reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk. FINDINGS: The Guidance provides substantial new detail on what needs to be done at all stages of drug development for central nervous system-active drugs...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214483/psychotherapyplus-augmentation-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt-with-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-major-depressive-disorder-study-design-and-methodology-of-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Malek Bajbouj, Sabine Aust, Jan Spies, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sarah V Mayer, Maike Peters, Christian Plewnia, Andreas J Fallgatter, Lukas Frase, Claus Normann, Nora Behler, Linda Wulf, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Frank Padberg
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. About 20-30% of patients do not respond to the standard psychopharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic interventions. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies in MDD patients reveal altered activation patterns in lateral prefrontal brain areas. Successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is associated with a recovery of these neural alterations. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of influencing prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive functions such as working memory and emotion regulation...
December 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209753/-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
R Knorr, J Schöllkopf, E Haen
BACKGROUND: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but severe undesired complication of psychopharmacological treatment. The mortality has shown a significant decrease since its first description. Knowledge of NMS is important for every clinician because of the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVE: This article presents a review and critical appraisal of the current study situation for NMS. Recommendations for diagnostics, differential diagnostics and treatment are presented particularly from a clinical perspective...
December 5, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204126/pharmacokinetic-ambulatory-and-hyperthermic-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxy-n-methylcathinone-methylone-in-rats
#18
Kristýna Štefková, Monika Židková, Rachel R Horsley, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Libor Uttl, Marie Balíková, Hynek Danda, Martin Kuchař, Tomáš Páleníček
Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202662/addressing-mental-health-needs-of-refugees
#19
Cécile Rousseau
Throughout history, refugees have alternatively been seen as entitled victims of adversity or as threats or abusers of host countries scarce resources. Within the present globalized context, ambivalent public perceptions of refugees are shattering the protective nature of the post migratory environment in refugee receiving countries. This raises new challenges for refugees' mental health and calls for systemic responses to address both pre-migratory trauma and losses and post migratory adversities. Recent evidence on the effectiveness of mental health treatment for refugees confirms the utility of trauma-focused psychotherapy and the limits of psychopharmacology for stress related disorders in this group...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197104/the-effect-of-dronabinol-in-a-male-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa-suffering-from-severe-acute-urge-to-be-physically-active
#20
Holmer Graap, Yesim Erim, Georgios Paslakis
OBJECTIVE: A 27-year-old male suffering from chronic anorexia nervosa was admitted for inpatient psychotherapy suffering from severe urge to be physically active. METHODS: An off-label treatment with dronabinol was initiated, to reduce his symptoms related to that urge. Several attempts to reduce symptoms including intensive psychotherapy and several psychopharmacological agents had failed in the past. RESULTS: Following treatment with 7.5 mg dronabinol twice a day, the patient reported a significant reduction in his acute urge to be physically active...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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