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Daniel C McFarland, Megan Johnson Shen, Heather Polizzi, John Mascarenhas, Marina Kremyanskaya, Jimmie Holland, Ronald Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic hematologic malignancies such as myeloproliferative neoplasms suffer from significant physical and psychological symptom burden. This study examined their willingness to accept an antidepressant and their preferences for which provider (mental health professional or hematologist/oncologist) prescribes an antidepressant for the management of anxiety and depression. METHODS: Anxiety and depression treatment preferences were measured with 3 questions assessing: (1) willingness to accept an antidepressant, (2) willingness to have their hematologist/oncologist prescribe the antidepressant, and (3) preference for treatment by a psychiatrist or mental health professional...
August 17, 2016: Psychosomatics
H M Le, G Carbutti, D Ilisei, E Bouccin, X Vandemergel
Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Lone Baandrup, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Poul Jørgen Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness often suffer from disruptions in circadian rest-activity cycles, which might partly be attributed to ongoing psychopharmacological medication. Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for prolonged periods despite recommendations of only short-term usage. Melatonin, a naturally occurring nocturnal hormone, has the potential to stabilize disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Our aim was to investigate how prolonged-release melatonin affects rest-activity patterns in medicated patients with severe mental illness and if benzodiazepine dose reduction is associated with changes in circadian rhythm parameters...
October 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
M Holtmann, B G Schimmelmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Abigail Zuger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that placebo response rates in antidepressant trials have been increasing since the 1970s. However, these studies have been based on outdated or limited datasets and have used inappropriate statistical methods. We did a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials of antidepressants to examine associations between placebo-response rates and study and patient characteristics. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched for published and unpublished double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants for acute treatment of major depression in adults (update: Jan 8, 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Lan Chi Vo, Christopher Snyder, Courtney McCracken, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Michael G Aman, Elaine Tierney, L Eugene Arnold, Daniel Levi, Michael Kelleman, Deirdre Carroll, John Morrissey, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVES: Risperidone is approved for the treatment of serious behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of risperidone on cardiac conduction in children with ASD. METHODS: Data were collected from an 8-week, five-site trial conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. Children (age 5-17 years) were randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52) under double-blind conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
John R Keefe, Jay Amsterdam, Qing S Li, Irene Soeller, Robert DeRubeis, Jun J Mao
OBJECTIVE: Patient expectancies are hypothesized to contribute to the efficacy and side effects of psychiatric treatments, but little research has investigated this hypothesis in the context of psychopharmacological therapies for anxiety. We prospectively investigated whether expectancies predicted efficacy and adverse events in oral therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), controlling for confounding patient characteristics correlating with outcomes. METHODS: Expectancies regarding treatment efficacy and side effects were assessed at baseline of an eight week open-label phase of a trial of chamomile for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Melanie E Bennett, Kristin R Bradshaw, Lauren T Catalano
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. OBJECTIVES: We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials...
August 9, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Ying Jiao Zhao, Liang Lin, Monica Teng, Ai Leng Khoo, Lay Beng Soh, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Ross J Baldessarini, Boon Peng Lim, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: For treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs to reduce relapses when minimising adverse effects is of clinical interest, hence prompting this review. AIMS: To evaluate the comparative long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We systematically searched electronic databases for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic monotherapy aimed at reducing relapse risks in schizophrenia...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
Kuanqing Mi
The multifactorial etiology of major affective disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder, poses a challenge for identification of effective treatments. In a substantial number of patients, psychopharmacologic treatment does not lead to effective continuous symptom relief. The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant patients is an investigational approach that has recently produced promising results. The recent development of safer stereotaxic neurosurgery, and the combination with functional neuroimaging to map the affected brain circuits, have led to the investigation of DBS as a potential strategy to treat major mood disorders...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Xing Chen, Feng Long, Bin Cai, Xiaohong Chen, Lizeng Qin, Gang Chen
Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology, and psychopharmacology implies that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD); for example, any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. A total of 48,753 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 8 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type I), 177 MDD patients, and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci were comprehensively revealed, and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including CSMD1, NRG1, PXDNL, SGCZ, and TMEM66...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jeannie Visootsak, Sharon A Kidd, Tovi Anderson, Julia L Bassell, Stephanie L Sherman, Elizabeth M Berry-Kravis
Advances in human genetics have identified a significant number of genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. As a result, appropriate clinical management of these affected individuals and their family members have become critical in addressing medical needs to improve quality of life. We examine the importance of a Fragile X Clinic for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and their family members by conducting a retrospective chart review of 123 new patients with FXS evaluated at the Fragile X Clinic at Emory University...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yuanjia Zhu, Tiwalola Kolawole, Xavier F Jimenez
Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is structurally similar to amphetamines. Its primary toxic effects include seizure, sinus tachycardia, hypertension, and agitation; however, at higher amounts of ingestion, paradoxical cardiac effects are seen. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who ingested 13.5 g of bupropion, a dose higher than any other previously reported. The patient presented with seizure, sinus tachycardia with prolonged QTc and QRS intervals, dilated pupils, and agitation. Four days after overdose, the patient's sinus tachycardia and prolonged QTc and QRS intervals resolved with symptomatic management, but she soon developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, and mild transaminitis...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Farah S Hussain, Eric T Dobson, Jeffrey R Strawn
The last decade has seen considerable advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents and a considerable expansion of the evidence base for psychopharmacologic in this population. The extant data suggest that, for fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia/social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are well tolerated and offer considerable benefit...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
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