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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199430/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptualization-and-psychopharmacological-treatment-update
#1
Leandro N Grendas
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by four symptom complexes: the reexperience/intrusion of the traumatic event, a state of hyperarousal when exposed to traumatic events, emotional block and emotional/affective deregulation with negative cognitive and mood alterations. Its evolution tends to be chronic and its related with a significative morbidity, affecting the functionality of the individual in his interpresonal, social and employment areas. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association includes PTSD in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and thereafter several research studies are developed to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs on its treatment...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194682/psychopharmacology-prescribing-workshops-a-novel-method-for-teaching-psychiatry-residents-how-to-talk-to-patients-about-medications
#2
Eileen P Kavanagh, John Cahill, Melissa R Arbuckle, Alison E Lenet, Kalyani Subramanyam, Ronald M Winchel, Ilana Nossel, Ravi DeSilva, Rachel A Caravella, Marra Ackerman, Henry C Park, David A Ross
OBJECTIVE: Traditional, lecture-based methods of teaching pharmacology may not translate into the skills needed to communicate effectively with patients about medications. In response, the authors developed an interactive course for third-year psychiatry residents to reinforce prescribing skills. METHODS: Residents participate in a facilitated group discussion combined with a role-play exercise where they mock-prescribe medication to their peers. Each session is focused on one medication or class of medications with an emphasis on various aspects of informed consent (such as describing the indication, dosing, expected benefits, potential side effects, and necessary work-up and follow up)...
February 13, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179816/sex-differences-in-the-psychopharmacological-treatment-of-depression
#3
John J Sramek, Michael F Murphy, Neal R Cutler
Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168943/the-following-abstracts-were-presented-as-posters-at-the-2016-nei-psychopharmacology-congress
#4
(no author information available yet)
Congratulations to the scientific poster winners of the 2016 NEI Psychopharmacology Congress! 1 st Place: A Case Report and Literature Review of Clozapine Re-challenge Titration Schedules (page 26) 2 nd Place: Mental Health Statistics and Suicide Prevention at St. Tammany Parish Jail-2015 (page 41) 3 rd Place: Lithium-Induced Neurotoxicity at Therapeutic Range: Illustrative Cases and Literature Review (page 43).
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166081/the-art-of-pharmacotherapy-reflections-on-pharmacophobia
#5
Jose de Leon, Carlos De Las Cuevas
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: This commentary deals with the neglected issue of the art of psychopharmacology by recounting the authors' journeys. METHODS/PROCEDURES: First, a model of medical science situated within the history of medicine is described including (1) a limitation of the mathematical model of science, (2) the distinction between mechanistic science and mathematical science, (3) how this distinction is applied to medicine, and (4) how this distinction is applied to explain pharmacology to psychiatrists...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145024/psychopharmacologic-treatment-and-blood-transfusion-in-fast-track-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Silas Hinsch Gylvin, Christoffer Calov Jørgensen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Pär I Johansson, Henrik Kehlet
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other psychotropics are receiving increasing attention due to reports on inhibition of thrombocyte function and an increased bleeding risk in surgical settings. Studies in total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA, respectively) have shown conflicting results, questioning whether the potential increased bleeding risk is of clinical importance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective consecutive collection of data on preoperative comorbidity in patients undergoing primary unilateral THA or TKA was cross-referenced with regional transfusion databases and The Danish National Database of Reimbursed Prescriptions for information regarding blood transfusions and psychopharmacologic treatment...
January 31, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#7
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141788/-characteristics-of-adolescents-with-gender-dysphoria-referred-to-the-gender-identity-treatment-unit
#8
María Fernández Rodríguez, Patricia Guerra Mora, Eloya Martín Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The demand for treatment among people with gender dys-phoria has increased during the last years. The aim of the present research was to carry out an analysis of the demand of the teenagers that requested consultation at the UTIGPA (Gender Identity Treatment Unit of Principality of Asturias) as they presented complains of gender dysphoria. METHODS: The sample included 20 minors that were treated between March 2007 and December 2015. The clinical history was made to collect informa-tion...
February 1, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#9
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138119/the-normalization-of-brain-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-hypometabolism-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-55-year-old-woman-with-treatment-resistant-late-onset-depression-a-case-report
#10
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129502/likelihood-of-being-helped-or-harmed-as-a-measure-of-clinical-outcomes-in-psychopharmacology
#11
Chittaranjan Andrade
The likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) ratio is an indirect measure of effect size. It tells the reader how much as likely a patient is to benefit from a treatment as to suffer from an adverse outcome with that treatment; larger values for LHH indicate more favorable treatment outcomes. The numerator for LHH is usually a measure of response or remission with a treatment, and the denominator is usually a measure of all-cause discontinuation or discontinuation due to adverse events; so, there can be more than 1 LHH statistic for a study...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127962/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-voltammetry-acute-and-chronic-electrodes-for-in-vivo-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry
#12
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125252/change-in-self-reported-personality-during-major-depressive-disorder-treatment-a-reanalysis-of-treatment-studies-from-a-demoralization-perspective
#13
Arjen Noordhof, Jan H Kamphuis, Martin Sellbom, Annemarie Eigenhuis, R Michael Bagby
Change in self-reported personality trait scores (especially Neuroticism and Extraversion) over the course of treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been robustly demonstrated. We believe that these observed changes on personality trait scales may reflect reduction in demoralization rather than changes in personality per se. Data were combined from 3 archival samples: a randomized clinical trial and 2 naturalistic follow-up studies. All participants (N = 300) received either psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment...
January 26, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124100/-treatment-with-psychotropic-agents-in-patients-with-dementia-and-delirium-gap-between-guideline-recommendations-and-treatment-practice
#14
Walter Hewer, Christine Thomas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116638/-psychiatry-and-psychiatric-patients-a-study-of-the-adherence-after-psychiatric-inpatient-treatment-at-the-department-of-psychiatry-and-psychotherapy-at-the-clinicum-klagenfurt-am-w%C3%A3-rthersee
#15
Herwig Oberlerchner, Kerstin Findenig, Otto Liechtenecker, Bernadette Mörtl-Kessler, Margot Reiter, Ursula Riess, Sabrina Suppan, Iris Walcher, Birgit Senft
BACKGROUND: Based on the data of an analysis of costs of psychopharmacological treatment by the Austrian Rechnungshof in 2011, which also revealed remarkable differences between Salzburg and Carinthia (federal states of Austria), a panel of experts discussed the potential causes. A consequence was the following prospective study, which took place at the department of psychiatry and psychotherapy in Klagenfurt/Carinthia. METHODS: The aim in this mirror design study was to analize the data of psychopharmacologic treatment, epidemiological data of the treated patients (N = 230) and utilization of healthcare ressources such as contacts to psychiatrists or practicioners after discharge...
January 23, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110691/is-insulin-growth-factor-1-the-future-for-treating-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-or-schizophrenia
#16
Rami Bou Khalil
To date, no curative psychopharmacologic treatment exists for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as for schizophrenia. Bumatenide is a specific antagonist of the first isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1). It is usually used as a diuretic but may also promote a decrease in intraneuronal chloride ion concentration leading to hyperpolarization in neuronal membrane and subsequent decrease in neuronal hyperexcitability. This physiologic effect has been considered to be behind the relative efficacy of bumetanide in improving symptoms of ASD and, to a lesser extent, schizophrenia...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#17
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099602/psychotropics-in-different-causes-of-itch-systematic-review-with-controlled-studies
#18
Lízie Emanuelle Eulalio Brasileiro, Dayanna Patrícia de Carvalho Barreto, Emerson Arcoverde Nunes
Among the wide range of symptoms neglected or resistant to conventional treatments in clinical practice, itch is emerging gradually as a theme to be studied. Itch complaints and the negative effects in the quality of life are observed in several medical fields. Although the partially obscure pathophysiology, some researchers decided to check and test the use of psychotropic drugs in resistant itch to conventional topical treatments and antihistamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific evidence in psychotropic use in the treatment of itch of various causes...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098133/-the-need-of-a-new-integral-approach-to-the-care-of-patient-with-severe-mental-disorder-thirty-years-after-the-psychiatric-reform
#19
Agustín Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan Carlos Ballesteros Martín, Mónica Leira Sanmartín, Ernesto García Yagüe
More than thirty years have passed since the beginning of the psychiatric reform, a period of intense and relevant social, scientific and cultural changes which have directly impacted on mental disorders and their management. Improvement in psychopharmacological treatment, a new model of physician-patient relationship, patient´s empowerment as a key issue and the fight against social stigma related to mental health disorders, changes in clinical governance and health policy, the assistential burden derived from the treatment of less severe pathology in mental health community centers, improvements in teamwork and coordination with other resources involved… are some of the relevant changes which determine the scene of community-based mental health assistance...
January 18, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095940/neuroscience-based-nomenclature-improving-clinical-and-scientific-terminology-in-research-and-clinical-psychopharmacology
#20
A B Brühl, B J Sahakian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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