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Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Shridhar Sharma
The paper is an autobiographical account of growth of Psychiatry in India, during the last six decades. It highlights on the development of treatment modalities in psychiatry especially on psychopharmacological drugs. The establishment of general hospital psychiatry and manpower development in the field of mental health are other areas which are discussed.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Natalia Fantacone, Edgardo Carísimo, Pablo Landi, Eden Del Mar Walsöe, Daniel Fadel
The purpose of this report is to emphasize the necessity to periodically explore internal environment variables, as certain metabolic alterations often go unnoticed during antipsychotic treatment. Early detection of such alterations may prevent catastrophic syndromes. We will also stress the clinical relevance of cognitive perseverations in schizophrenic patients, as these often condition habits of consumption which can alter the internal environment. In this clinical case of a schizophrenic patient, a chain of events led to a catastrophic syndrome: a trivial home accident (fall from own height) developed into a condition characterized by oligoanuria, hypokalemia, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (125,000 IU / L) and acute renal failure with dialysis requirement...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Aaron Pinkhasov, Deepan Singh, Sridivya Chavali, Lori Legrand, Rose Calixte
Constant observation (CO) is a common economic burden on general hospitals. A quality improvement (QI) project focusing on behavioral health (BH) management of this population was piloted using a novel BH protocol for the proactive assessment and management of all patients requiring CO. The impact on CO-cost and length of stay (LOS) was assessed. Data on demographics, diagnoses, psychopharmacologic treatment, complications and clinical setting were collected and analyzed for all CO-patients over a 6-month period...
March 8, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
F Mathy, A Malchair
In line with Evidence-based medicine and more recently with the emergence of Evidence-based practice in psychology, what are the current trends in medical prescriptions in child psychiatry? The use of psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents is constantly increasing, although most pharmacological prescriptions in child psychiatry result in off-label drug use. This article aims at understanding the legal and scientific framework that regulates the prescription of psychopharmacological treatments for children and adolescents...
February 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Aleksandra Kozłowska, Katarzyna M Okręglicka, Anna M Jagielska, Martyna Skibniewska, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
Overweight and obesity, a cluster of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis such as elevated blood pressure, elevated glucose level, and dyslipidemia, increase the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and a proper diet are essential preventive measures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a two-month intervention program consisting of a low-caloric diet (1,500 kcal) and increased physical activity on the anthropometric parameters, body composition, resting metabolic rate, and maximum oxygen uptake...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen
Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Nicola Simola, Giulia Costa
The emission of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is increasingly emerging as a potential behavioral marker of the subjective effects that psychoactive drugs elicit in rats. However, multiple categories of 50-kHz USVs have been identified, which are thought to possess different behavioral significance. Besides, limited information is available on how psychoactive drugs affect the emission of categorized 50-kHz USVs. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the numbers of multiple categories of 50-kHz USVs emitted by rats repeatedly treated with amphetamine (1 or 2 mg/kg, i...
March 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Carlos De Las Cuevas, Mariano Motuca, Trino Baptista, Jose de Leon
Background: Cultural differences in attitudes toward psychiatric medications influence medication adherence but transcultural studies are missing. The objective of this study was to investigate how attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medications influence treatment adherence in psychiatric outpatients in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela. Methods: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural psychopharmacology study was designed to assess psychiatric outpatients' attitudes toward their prescribed medication...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Landon M Klein, Nicholas V Cozzi, Paul F Daley, Simon D Brandt, Adam L Halberstadt
Substantial effort has been devoted toward understanding the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamine hallucinogens, which are thought to be mediated by activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. Recently, several psychoactive tryptamines based on the N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) scaffold have been encountered as recreational drugs. Despite the apparent widespread use of DALT derivatives in humans, little is known about their pharmacological properties. We compared the binding affinities of DALT and its 2-phenyl-, 4-acetoxy-, 4-hydroxy-, 5-methoxy-, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-fluoro-2-methyl-, 5-bromo-, and 7-ethyl-derivatives at 45 receptor and transporter binding sites...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jérôme Brunelin, Marine Mondino, Rémy Bation, Ulrich Palm, Mohamed Saoud, Emmanuel Poulet
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD...
February 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
T W Robbins
This article critically reviews evidence relating temperamental traits and personality factors to the monoamine neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and serotonin. The genetic evidence is not yet considered to be conclusive and it is argued that basic neuroscience research on the neural basis of behaviour in experimental animals should be taken more into account. While questionnaire and lexical methodology including the 'Five Factor' theory has been informative (mostly for the traits relevant to social functioning, i...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Rahel Hoffmann, Julia Große, Michaela Nagl, Dietger Niederwieser, Anja Mehnert, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of the individuals experiencing the death of a loved one develop prolonged grief disorder (PGD) after bereavement. Family members of haematological cancer patients might be particularly burdened since their loss experience is preceded by a very strenuous time of disease and aggressive treatment. However, support needs of relatives of cancer patients often remain unmet, also after the death of the patient. Therapeutic possibilities are enhanced by providing easily available and accessible Internet-based therapies...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Yakov Shapiro
Psychodynamic psychiatry is not limited to psychotherapy practice. It is defined by systematic attention to the "common factors" underlying both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology outcomes, which include the patient's subjective systems of meaning and the complex flow of the patient-provider relationship in addition to the patient's "objective" psychopathology. It allows for a non-reductionist milieu where the meaning of the illness and the full complexity of the treatment process can be explored in order to achieve a qualitative and lasting change in the patient's psychopathology...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
Mikkel Højlund, Lene Høgh, Anders Bo Bojesen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Elsebeth Stenager
BACKGROUND: Decrease in coercive measures can lead to increased exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. This is not desirable as these drugs are associated with harmful side effects and reduced life expectancy. AIM: To quantify and compare the use of antipsychotic and anxiolytic medications in connection with the implementation of a programme to reduce coercion and restraint. METHODS: Observational study in a general psychiatric ward comparing psychopharmacological treatment after implementation of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce coercion and mechanical restraint with a historical reference cohort from the same ward...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Andrew Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Harpreet Singh, Amrita Mishra, Arun Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND: Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. PURPOSE: The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
The role of norepinephrine (NE) in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been studied over the past several decades. However, the NE system has been largely ignored for many years as a potential target for medication development for AUD. More recently, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential value of targeting NE signaling for developing new pharmacological treatments for AUD. This review contributes to a special issue of Psychopharmacology focused on promising targets for alcohol addiction...
February 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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