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Abigail S Friedman, Samantha J L Horn
Introduction: Socioeconomic disparities have been established for conventional cigarette use, but not for electronic cigarettes. This study estimates socioeconomic gradients in exclusive use of conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and dual use (i.e., use of both products) among adults in the United States. Methods: Analyses consider nationally representative data on 25 to 54 year old respondents to the 2014-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (N=50,306)...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Rachel M Nygaard, Frederick W Endorf
Numerous demographic, socioeconomic, and injury factors influence a burn patient's hospital course. Compared to the typical burn patient, frostbite injury frequently impacts those with high rates of mental illness, substance abuse, and those suffering homelessness. Our aim was to examine differences in the hospital course of frostbite patients compared to those with burns limited to the hands and feet. Patients with frostbite injury and those with isolated hand and/or foot burns were identified in the National Burn Repository...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Päivi Jussila, Jarno Knuutila, Sampo Salmela, Ritva Näpänkangas, Jari Päkkilä, Pertti Pirttiniemi, Aune Raustia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between risk factors and pain-related symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1966. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1962 subjects (1050 women, 912 men) attended the follow-up study. The questionnaires included the subjects' background information concerning living conditions and general health, socioeconomic factors, and dental health. The clinical examination was performed using the modified protocol of Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) presented at the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Conference in 2010...
June 19, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Anand Krishnan, Priyamadhaba Behera, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
Background.: Family studies are an integral part of teaching of community medicine to all undergraduate medical and nursing students. It enhances the understanding of students about social determinants and multifactorial causation of disease. However, there is no standard approach towards it and it is seen as a clinical presentation with some elements of family included. We describe a systematic and comprehensive approach to a family study. Methods.: Based on the existing literature and personal experience, we identified 11 domains under the acronym Family ASSESSMENT-Structure, Socioeconomic, Sickness, Nutritional, Educational, Environmental, Affordability, System (health), Mental, Family influence, Threats...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Shankar Prinja, Man Inder Kumar, Jarnail Singh Thakur
Background.: Growing evidence suggests that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) result in considerable economic burden for individuals and households. With the poor facing a greater burden of NCDs than the rich in India, we undertook this study to analyse the horizontal equity in utilization and vertical equity in out-of-pocket expenditure for NCD care. Methods.: We used data of 1 4 large Indian states from the National Sample Survey 60th round to compute hospitalization rates for NCDs...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Giel Michaël Vanschoenbeek, Thor Hautekiet, Simon Calle, Charlotte Cornelis, Heleen François, Arne Hautekiet, Nora Sundahl, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Koen De Graeve, Jorn Damen, Paul Calle
Objective Alcohol abuse remains a major health concern. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of alcohol-related emergency department (ED) admissions in an elderly population. Methods Between 1 September 2013 and 31 August 2014, we retrospectively analyzed patient charts of patients admitted with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of at least 0.5 g/L to the EDs of all five hospitals in two distinct areas. We focused on the population ≥65 years, divided in three subgroups (65-74, 75-84 and ≥85, respectively) and compared them to the 55-64 year group...
June 19, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Jennifer K Burton, Richard Papworth, Caroline Haig, Colin McCowan, Ian Ford, David J Stott, Terence J Quinn
BACKGROUND: Statins have been associated with later life, long-term care admission in observational studies. However, by preventing vascular events, statins may also prevent or delay admission. We wished to determine statin and long-term care admission associations in a randomised controlled trial context, and describe associations between long-term care admission and other clinical and demographic factors. METHODS: We used extended follow-up of two randomised trial populations, using national data to assign the long-term care admission outcome, and included individuals screened or recruited to two large randomised trials of pravastatin 40 mg daily-the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS) and the pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER) study...
June 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Mahendra M Reddy, Srikanta Kanungo, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar
Introduction: Nonsmoking youth form a high-risk group and are at increased risk of ill-effects caused due to secondhand smoke (SHS). The objective is to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure among the nonsmoking youth in India from global adult tobacco survey (GATS), 2009-10. Methods: Secondary data analysis of GATS, 2009-10 was done to find the correlates of SHS at three different settings - house, workplace - indoor, and public place. All the sociodemographic variables were tested for association with SHS exposure using multivariate analysis...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Amel Abdalrhim Sulaiman, Sarra O Bushara, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Sufian K Noor, Mutaz Abdelkarim, Ilham Nasr Aldeen, Meissa M Osman, Ahmed O Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Mohamed H Ahmed
Background: Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children <5 years in River Nile state (RNS) in North Sudan. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was done in four localities in RNS. Using Multistage Cluster sampling, 1635 under 5 years' children had participated. Pretested questionnaire and anthropometric measures were used during data collection...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Shailendra Kumar Mishra, Mona Srivastava, Narendra K Tiwary, Abhinit Kumar
Background: Psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents is a major concern as they become more complex and intense with children's transition into adolescence. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the prevalence of depression and anxiety among children residing in rural and suburban area of eastern Uttar Pradesh and understand the burden of these problems in our society. Materials and Methods: Children, in the age group 11-18 years, were divided into 2 groups: Group I - 100 children from rural area Tikri; Group II - 100 children from suburban area Sunderpur...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Aihong Fu, Weihong Li, Yaning Chen, Yuting Liu
The Yanqi Basin and the Konqi River Basin of the Kaidu-Konqi River Basin were chosen as the study sites in this paper in order to investigate suitable scales of natural and artificial oases with a specified water resource and water quantity planned by the local government. Combined with remote-sensing images from 2013, water resources in 2013, 2025 and 2035, and weather and socioeconomic data, suitable scales of oases were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The total available water quantities in the Yanqi Basin and the Konqi River Basin without river base flow, and the input of water into Bosten Lake and Tarim River, over high-, normal and low-flow periods, in 2025 and 2035, were 19...
2018: PeerJ
Ruo-Han Chen, Ke-Ping Chen, Wei Hua, Jing Xu, Lin Chen, Yang-Gang Su, Xi Su, Jian-Gang Zou, Ji Yan, Jing-Feng Wang, Bao-Peng Tang, Mei-Xiang Xiang, Shu Zhang
Background: Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) greatly improve survival and life quality of patients. However, there are gender differences regarding both the utilization and benefit of these devices. In this prospective CIED registry, we aim to appraise the gender differences in CIED utilization in China. Methods: Twenty centers from 14 provinces in China were included in our registry study. All patients who underwent a CIED implantation in these twenty centers between Jan 2015 and Dec 2016 were included...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Angelo Tremblay
The prevalence of overweight has substantially increased over the last decades despite the intent of health professionals and the general population to prevent this trend. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been attributed to unhealthy dietary macronutrient composition and/or to the decrease in physical activity participation. Beyond the influence of these factors, it is more than likely that other factors have influenced energy balance in a context of modernity. These include inadequate sleep, demanding cognitive effort, chemical pollution, and probably others which also have the potential to promote a positive energy balance but which are also part of the reality of success and productivity in a globalized world...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jeffrey M DeVries, Katharina Rathmann, Markus Gebhardt
Prosocial behavior and peer problems are an important correlate of academic development; however, these effects vary by achievement measures and social behaviors. In this paper, we examined data from the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS), and we use structural equation modeling (SEM) to model the effects of prosocial behavior and peer problems on grades and competencies for both math ( n = 3,310) and reading ( n = 3,308) in grades 5 and 7. Our models account for the moderating effect of both gender and socioeconomic status (SES) as determined by parental education...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Fayssal Bouchemla, Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov, Olga Mikhailovna Popova, Larisa Pavlovna Padilo
Aim: This study focuses on the spatial dynamic associated with the spreading of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease for the past decade (from the year 2007 to 2017), assesses the resulting situation in the world, and has an emphasis on Russian advantages been a PPR host. Materials and Methods: Outbreaks were confirmed and reported officially by the World Organization for Animal Health (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction were used)...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Yi Song, Anette Agardh, Jun Ma, Liubai Li, Yuanting Lei, Randall S Stafford, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine changes in regional and sex disparities in stunting, thinness, and overweight among Chinese school-aged children from 1985 to 2014. METHODS: We analyzed data on 1,489,953 children aged 7-18 years in the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health. Stunting, thinness, and overweight were defined according to WHO anthropomorphic definitions. After adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, and school, logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of stunting, thinness, and overweight by region and sex over 30 years' time...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Noreen Goldman, Dana A Glei, Maxine Weinstein
Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity of studies examining changes in psychological health, especially well-being, since the 1990s. We contribute evidence using two cross-sectional waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study to assess changes in measures of psychological distress and well-being...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joreintje D Mackenbach, Maria G Matias de Pinho, Eline Faber, Nicole den Braver, Rosa de Groot, Helene Charreire, Jean-Michel Oppert, Helga Bardos, Harry Rutter, Sofie Compernolle, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Jeroen Lakerveld
BACKGROUND: The availability of outdoor recreational facilities is associated with increased leisure-time physical activity (PA). We investigated how much of this association is attributable to selection effects, and explored whether usage of recreational facilities was an explanatory mechanism. METHODS: We analysed data from 5199 participants in the SPOTLIGHT survey residing in five European urban regions. Adults completed a survey and a Google Street View-based virtual audit was conducted to objectively measure the availability of outdoor recreational facilities in the residential neighbourhood...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Maartje P Poelman, S Coosje Dijkstra, Hanne Sponselee, Carlijn B M Kamphuis, Marieke C E Battjes-Fries, Marleen Gillebaart, Jacob C Seidell
BACKGROUND: Food literacy refers to the capability to make healthy food choices in different contexts, settings and situations. The aim of this study is to develop and validate the self-perceived food literacy (SPFL) scale, to assess individuals' level of food literacy, including a knowledge, skills and behavior to plan, manage, select, prepare and eat food healthfully. METHODS: An initial set of 50 items for the SPFL scale were generated based on expert insights and literature...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
A Hercus, S Leemaqz, G Dekker
BACKGROUND: The exact cause of preeclampsia remains unknown. The past decade has seen an ongoing debate on the relative importance of primipaternity versus prolonged birth/pregnancy interval. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to analyze these two major potential risk factors in a high risk population in the Northern suburbs of Adelaide; a socioeconomically disadvantaged area characterized by instable relationships and overall poor health and lifestyle. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on all multigravid women birthing at the Lyell McEwin Hospital, Adelaide, from July 2011 to August 2012; 2003 patients were included in this analysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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